Discover and read the best of Twitter Threads about #abbasid

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Something special today. I found some old notes on the different theological schools existent within Sunni #Islam. Since there's a lot of confusion on this matter, I'll share them with you guys. It's a very brief and very simplified description, so nothing complex really.
There are three main ways to approach the Islamic creed (ʿaqīda):
1) Through literalist textualism
2) Through the bāṭin (inner esoteric meanings)
3) Through speculative rationalism

It's important to note that these three ways mostly coexisted within the Islamic world.
The 1st is used by the school of al-athariyya (from #Arabic أثر - tradition/transmission). They approach the #Islamic creed through a literary reading of the relevatory texts, focusing on its ẓāhir (apparent) meaning. The texts are the sole authorities in matters of belief/law.
Read 11 tweets
A short [THREAD] on the symbolism of some of the #IS media, most notably Dābiq and al-Aʿmāq. Might be a bit late, but this is indispensable for an account like mine, and offers a great view on the use of eschatological imagery by such groups.
All throughout #history, #Muslim groups on the rise tried to intertwine their cause with the prophetic eschatological narrations on the ultimate victory of the righteous group (al-ṭāʾifa al-manṣūra) who precede the coming of the Mehdī and the Messias.
A most notable example is the recurring interpretation of the black banners from the East as a sign of the victorious army, more specifically by the #Abbasid revolutionaries and modern-day armed Muslim groups. Dābiq and al-Aʿmāq belong in that same line of thought.
Read 10 tweets
Like announced, I'll start a thread on the symbolism of the (in)famous black & white banner in #Islam. This comprehensive thread will explore its historical origins and cover a list of its contemporary users from a neutral #academic point of view. Not for the faint of heart. 😄
As a political leader & head of a growing religious community, the #prophet Muḥammad used to fly a banner (liwāʾ) and a flag (rāya). The difference? According to the #dictionary, a banner is "a long piece of cloth" while a flag is "a piece of cloth that represents a group."
The Companion Ibn al-ʿArabī was quoted in Fatḥ al-Bārī (6/147) as saying: "A banner is what is tied to the side of a spear to rally around, while a flag is that which is planted and left to be waved by the wind."
Read 37 tweets
Alright, so the esteemed @ArmoryBazaar posted some pictures of coins found in Idlib - Syria. I would like to make a thread out of this, for future coins. I will post my take on these coins, but I'm very much interested in other opinions.
The two small copper coins (picture 2 & 3) are in my opinion #Umayyad copper fals. The inscription features Islamic texts, most definitely the Islamic shahada. That indicates they're from the later Umayyad period. I would say 8th century.
It's really possible that the last coin is much older that the other coins. It still features a cross and human imagery, indicating Byzantine influences. This kind of coins were used in early Umayyad times, when the caliphs still imitated #Byzantine en #Persian coinage.
Read 70 tweets
There exists some debate among Islamic scholars and historians about the engraved signet ring of the #prophet Muḥammad. The most common reading of the engraving is "Allāh Rasūl Muḥammad", while others argue that "Muḥammad Rasūl Allāh" is historically correct.
The oldest sources do indicate that the opposite of popular belief could be correct. In a ḥadīth reported by #Muslim and al-Bukhārī the Prophet says: “I have acquired a ring of silver and engraved on it Muḥammad Rasūl Allāh, and no one should have an engraving like this.”
In another ḥadīth reported by al-Bukhārī, Anas ibn Mālik says: "The engraved signet ring of the Prophet is three lines: Muḥammad on one line, Rasūl on one line and Allāh on one line."
Read 26 tweets
These Moroccan coins feature the so-called Seal of Solomon, often depicted as a hexagram, similar to the Star of David. The coins are dated respectively 1271 A.H. (1855) and 1290 A.H. (1873/4), minted by king 'Abd al-Raḥmān and his successor, Muḥammad IV of #Morocco.
The Seal of Solomon is the signet ring attributed to the Abrahamic king/prophet Solomon. It is said that Solomon used this ring to control the spirits and animals. The design as a hexagram is often depicted on medieval #Islamic banners, coins, drinking-cups or in mosques.
According to the Catalan Atlas (1375), the two Anatolian beyliks of respectively Karaman and Candar featured a Seal of Solomon on their flags. The symbol was popular among the Turkish beyliks, and was later used by the #Ottomans in their mosque decorations.
Read 70 tweets

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