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#gitarthavisesha #FirstShadanga #Adhyaya1 #Tamil #SwamiDesikan

உகவை அடைந்த உறவுடையார் பொரலுற்ற அந்நாள்
தகவுடன் அன்பு கரை புரளத் தருமத் தளவில்
மிக உளம் அஞ்சி விழுந்து அடி சேர்ந்த விசயனுக்கோர்
நகையுடன் உண்மை யுரைக்க அமைந்தனன் நாரணனே
உகவை அடைந்த - happy, உறவுடையார் - bandhus, பொரலுற்ற அந்நாள் - that time, when they gathered for battle, தகவுடன் - compassion, அன்பு கரை புரள - overflowing sympathy, தருமத் தளவில் - jnana about dharma, உளம் மிக அஞ்சி - extremely afraid, அடி சேர்ந்த - surrendered to feet
விசயனுக்கு - For Arjuna, ஓர் நகையுடன் - incomparable smile, உண்மை யுரைக்க - explain truth, நாரணன் - Kannan, அமைந்தனன் - stood there
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#gitarthavisesha #FirstShadanga #Adhyaya1 #Mahatmyam

In the olden days, there lived a brahmana by name susharma. Even though he was born in a dvija family, he did not follow any of his kula dharma.

Susharma committed many heinous sins & was bringing shame to the entire clan
Yama-raja decided enough was enough & then made him die a gruesome death..

Susharma was then forced to spend a huge time on naraka. Once his sins were compensated for, he re-incarnated as a bull in earth
The bull (Susharma) was taken in by an exhibitionist. It spent a few years dancing, entertaining & grazing.

One fine day, the bull got a grievous injury. It was so severe that it almost threatened it's life.
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#gitarthavisesha #FirstShadanga #Adhyaya1 #Shloka47

सञ्जय उवाच

एवमुक्त्वाऽर्जुनः संख्ये रथोपस्थ उपाविशत् ।
विसृज्य सशरं चापं शोकसंविग्नमानसः ।।

sa~njaya uvAcha

evamuktvA.arjunaH saMkhye rathopastha upAvishat |
visRRijya sasharaM chApaM shokasaMvignamAnasaH ||
अर्जुन​: - arjuna, संख्ये - in battlefield, एवं - in this fashion, उक्त्वा - spoke,
शोकसंविग्नमानसः - heart filled with sadness, सशरं चापं - bow & arrow,
विसृज्य - left, रथोपस्थ - in chariot, उपाविशत् - sat down
sa~njaya now describes arjuna...

Having spoken at length & justified his action of abdicating from battle, Arjuna whose heart was filled with sadness, put down his bow & arrow & proceeded to seat himself down in the chariot
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#gitarthavisesha #FirstShadanga #Adhyaya1 #Shloka46

यदि मामप्रतीकारमशस्त्रं शस्त्रपाणयः ।
धार्तराष्ट्रा रणे हन्युस्तन्मे क्षेमतरं भवेत् ।।

yadi mAmapratIkAramashastraM shastrapANayaH |
dhArtarAShTrA raNe hanyustanme kShemataraM bhavet ||
शस्त्रपाणयः - weapons wielding, धार्तराष्ट्रा - kauravas, अप्रतीकारम् - non-resistant, अशस्त्रं - without weapons, माम् - me, रणे - in battle, हन्यु: यदि - if they kill, तत् - that, मे - for me, क्षेमतरं - greater good, भवेत् - becomes
(Arjuna concludes his dialogue with Krishna..)

If weapon wielding kauravas kill me who is non-resistant & without weapons in battle, it becomes all the more good for me
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#gitarthavisesha #FirstShadanga #Adhyaya1 #Shloka45

अहो बत महत्पापं कर्तुं व्यवसिता वयम् ।
यद्राज्यसुखलोभेन हन्तुं स्वजनमुद्यताः ।।

aho bata mahatpApaM kartuM vyavasitA vayam |
yadrAjyasukhalobhena hantuM svajanamudyatAH ||
वयम् - We, राज्यसुखलोभेन - Desire arising out of rAjya sukha, स्वजनम् - our own people, हन्तुं - to kill, उद्यता: यत् - tried to, महत्पापं - big sin, कर्तुं - to do, व्यवसिता: - are ready, अहो बत - Alas!
(Arjuna continues...)

Alas, we have succumbed to the desire arising out of rAjya sukha & are trying commit a big sin by becoming ready to kill our own people
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#gitarthavisesha #FirstShadanga #Adhyaya1 #Shloka44

उत्सन्नकुलधर्माणां मनुष्याणां जनार्दन ।
नरकेऽनियतं वासो भवतीत्यनुशुश्रुम ।।

utsannakuladharmANAM manuShyANAM janArdana |
narake.aniyataM vAso bhavatItyanushushruma ||
जनार्दन - janArdana, उत्सन्नकुलधर्माणां - destroying kula dharma, मनुष्याणां - people, नरके - naraka, नियतं - eternally, वास: to live, भवती - happens,
अनुशुश्रुम - listened to elders speaking
janArdana, I've listened to elders speaking (many times) that people who destroy their kula dharma are bound to live in naraka eternally
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#gitarthavisesha #FirstShadanga #Adhyaya1 #Shloka43

दोषैरेतैः कुलघ्नानां वर्णसङ्करकारकैः ।
उत्साद्यन्ते जातिधर्माः कुलधर्माश्च शाश्वताः ।।

doShairetaiH kulaghnAnAM varNasa~NkarakArakaiH |
utsAdyante jAtidharmAH kuladharmAshcha shAshvatAH ||
वर्णसङ्करकारकैः - doing varNasa~Nkara, कुलघ्नानां - those who destroyed kula, एतै: - these, दोषै: - sins, शाश्वताः - eternal, कुलधर्मा: - kula dharmas,
जातिधर्माः - respective jati dharma, उत्साद्यन्ते - get destroyed
(Arjuna continues..)

varNasa~Nkara results in destruction of kula as well as dharma. It also enables adharma to grow & envelop rapidly.

Once such a situation builds up, varNa dharma & kula dharma which were followed since time immemorial, gets destroyed rapidly
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#gitarthavisesha #FirstShadanga #Adhyaya1 #Shloka42

सङ्करो नरकायैव कुलघ्नानां कुलस्य च ।
पतन्ति पितरो ह्येषां लुप्तपिण्डोदकक्रियाः ।।

sa~Nkaro narakAyaiva kulaghnAnAM kulasya cha |
patanti pitaro hyeShAM luptapiNDodakakriyAH ||
सङ्कर: - varna-mixing, कुलघ्नानां - those who destroyed the kula, कुलस्य - for that kula, नरकायैव - becomes a reason for naraka, एषां - these (above 2), पितर: - pitrs, लुप्तपिण्डोदकक्रियाः - bereft of piNDa-tarpana, पतन्ति हि - are falling (into naraka) no?
(Arjuna continues...)

Due to varna mixing, those who destroyed the kula as well the kula itself falls into naraka. Their glorious Pitrs (ancestors) who hail from the same kula suffer immensely due to absence of piNDa-tarpana & other customary rites meant for them
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#gitarthavisesha #FirstShadanga #Adhyaya1 #Shloka41

अधर्माभिभवात्कृष्ण प्रदुष्यन्ति कुलस्त्रियः ।
स्त्रीषु दुष्टासु वार्ष्णेय जायते वर्णसङ्करः ।।

adharmAbhibhavAtkRRiShNa praduShyanti kulastriyaH |
strIShu duShTAsu vArShNeya jAyate varNasa~NkaraH ||
कृष्ण​ - Krishna, अधर्माभिभवात् - when adharma envelops, कुलस्त्रियः - women of our kula, प्रदुष्यन्ति - become very bad & corrupted, वार्ष्णेय - Oh one born of vriShnI vamsa, स्त्रीषु - women, दुष्टासु - become defiled, वर्णसङ्करः - mixing of varnas, जायते - takes place
(Arjuna continues...)

Krishna, when adharma envelops a kula, it's women become very bad & corrupted. Oh one born of vriShnI vamsa, if such a foul deed happens, then mixing of varnas take place
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#gitarthavisesha #FirstShadanga #Adhyaya1 #Shloka40

कुलक्षये प्रणश्यन्ति कुलधर्माः सनातनाः ।
धर्मे नष्टे कुलं कृत्स्नमधर्मोऽभिभवत्युत ।।

kulakShaye praNashyanti kuladharmAH sanAtanAH |
dharme naShTe kulaM kRRitsnamadharmo.abhibhavatyuta ||
कुलक्षये - when kula is destroyed, सनातनाः - continuance from ancient times, कुलधर्माः - kula dharmas, प्रणश्यन्ति - get destroyed, धर्मे - dharma, नष्टे - if weakened, अधर्म​: - adharma, कुलं कृत्स्नं उत​ - whole of kula, अभिभवति - envelops
(Arjuna continues..)

When kula is destroyed, the wise men responsible for propagating kula-dharma won't be available. Aa a result, kula-dharmas are destroyed & severed from their ancient past. When dharma is weakened, adharma envelops the whole of that kula
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#gitarthavisesha #FirstShadanga #Adhyaya1 #Shloka38 #Shloka39

यद्यप्येते न पश्यन्ति लोभोपहतचेतसः ।
कुलक्षयकृतं दोषं मित्रद्रोहे च पातकम् ।।

yadyapyete na pashyanti lobhopahatachetasaH |
kulakShayakRRitaM doShaM mitradrohe cha pAtakam ||
कथं न ज्ञेयमस्माभिः पापादस्मान्निवर्तितुम् ।
कुलक्षयकृतं दोषं प्रपश्यद्भिर्जनार्दन ।।

kathaM na j~neyamasmAbhiH pApAdasmAnnivartitum |
kulakShayakRRitaM doShaM prapashyadbhirjanArdana ||
लोभोपहतचेतसः - possessing durbuddhi arousing out of greed, एते - these kauravas, कुलक्षयकृतं - arising out of destroying kula, दोषं - dosh, मित्रद्रोहे - betraying friends, पातकम् च - big sin, यद्यपि न पश्यन्ति - even if they don’t realize,
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#gitarthavisesha #FirstShadanga #Adhyaya1 #Shloka37

तस्मान्नार्हा वयं हन्तुं धार्तराष्ट्रान्स्वबान्धवान् ।
स्वजनं हि कथं हत्वा सुखिनः स्याम माधव ।।

tasmAnnArhA vayaM hantuM dhArtarAShTrAnsvabAndhavAn |
svajanaM hi kathaM hatvA sukhinaH syAma mAdhava ||
माधव - Oh mAdhava, तस्मात् - hence, वयं - we vivekAs, स्वबान्धवान् - bandhus, धार्तराष्ट्रान् - kauravas, हन्तुं - to kill, नार्हा - not fit, स्वजनं - bandhus, हत्वा - kill, कथं हि - how, सुखिनः स्याम - gain comforts
(Arjuna continues after elaborating his inability to kill kauravas)

Oh mAdhava, hence we are not fit for killing kauravas & bandhus. How do we gain/beget comforts by killing our own bandhus?
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#gitarthavisesha #FirstShadanga #Adhyaya1 #Shloka36

निहत्य धार्तराष्ट्रान्नः का प्रीतिः स्याज्जनार्दन ।
पापमेवाश्रयेदस्मान्हत्वैतानाततायिनः ।।

nihatya dhArtarAShTrAnnaH kA prItiH syAjjanArdana |
pApamevAshrayedasmAnhatvaitAnAtatAyinaH ||
जनार्दन​ - Krishna, धार्तराष्ट्रान्न - kauravas, निहत्य - by killing, नः - for us, का प्रीतिः - what joy स्यात् - be created?, आततायिनः - aatatayi, एतान् - these, हत्वा - by killing, अस्मान् - for us, पापं एव​ - only pApa, आश्रयेत् - beget
(Arjuna continues..)

Oh Janardana, what is the joy that be created for us by killing kauravas. We only beget pApa (sins) by killing these aatatayis (great sinners)
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#gitarthavisesha #FirstShadanga #Adhyaya1 #Shloka35

एतान्न हन्तुमिच्छामि घ्नतोऽपि मधुसूदन ।
अपि त्रैलोक्यराज्यस्य हेतोः किं नु महीकृते ।।

etAnna hantumichChAmi ghnato.api madhusUdana |
api trailokyarAjyasya hetoH kiM nu mahIkRRite ||
मधुसूदन - killer of asura madhu, घ्नतोऽपि - my killer, त्रैलोक्यराज्यस्य - rAjya of 3 worlds, हेतोः अपि - for that reason, एतान् - these bandhus, हन्तुम् - to kill, न​ इच्छामि - don’t like, महीकृते - for this bhumi alone, किं नु - would I?
(Arjuna continues..)

Oh Madhusudhana, even if I get rAjya of 3 worlds, I won't kill my bandhus. Would I like to do this merely for getting bhumi rAjya alone?
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#gitarthavisesha #FirstShadanga #Adhyaya1 #Shloka33 #Shloka34

येषामर्थे काङ्क्षितं नो राज्यं भोगाः सुखानि च ।
त इमेऽवस्थिता युद्धे प्राणांस्त्यक्त्वा धनानि च ।।

yeShAmarthe kA~NkShitaM no rAjyaM bhogAH sukhAni cha |
ta ime.avasthitA yuddhe prANAMstyaktvA dhanAni cha ||
आचार्याः पितरः पुत्रास्तथैव च पितामहाः ।
मातुलाः श्चशुराः पौत्राः श्यालाः सम्बन्धिनस्तथा ।।

AchAryAH pitaraH putrAstathaiva cha pitAmahAH |
mAtulAH shchashurAH pautrAH shyAlAH sambandhinastathA ||
येषामर्थे - for whom, न: - for us, राज्यं - rAjya, भोगाः सुखानि च - comforts, काङ्क्षितं - desired, त इमे - (those) this, आचार्याः - Acharyas, पितरः - fathers, पुत्रा: - sons, त​थैव - likewise, पितामहाः - grandfathers, मातुलाः - uncles, श्चशुराः - Father-in-Laws,
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#gitarthavisesha #FirstShadanga #Adhyaya1 #Shloka32

न काङ्क्षे विजयं कृष्ण न च राज्यं सुखानि च ।
किं नो राज्येन गोविन्द किं भोगैर्जीवितेन वा ।।

na kA~NkShe vijayaM kRRiShNa na cha rAjyaM sukhAni cha |
kiM no rAjyena govinda kiM bhogairjIvitena vA ||
विजयं - victory, न काङ्क्षे - don’t desire, राज्यं च - kingdom, सुखानि च - comforts, गोविन्द - Govinda, न: - for us, राज्येन - of kingdom, किं - what is the use, भोगै: - comforts, जीवितेन वा - living, न: किं - what is the use for us?
(Arjuna continues)

Hey Govinda, I don't desire victory, comforts or the Kingdom. What is the use of this Kingdom? What is the use of comfortable living for us?
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#gitarthavisesha #FirstShadanga #Adhyaya1 #Shloka31

निमित्तानि च पश्यामि विपरीतानि केशव ।
न च श्रेयोऽनुपश्यामि हत्वा स्वजनमाहवे ।।

nimittAni cha pashyAmi viparItAni keshava |
na cha shreyo.anupashyAmi hatvA svajanamAhave ||
केशव - Krishna, विपरीतानि - really dangerous, निमित्तानि - omens, pashyAmi - seeing, आहवे - in battle, स्वजनं - bandhus, हत्वा - killing, श्रेय: - good fortune, न अनुपश्यामि च - not able to see even after deep thinking
(Arjuna continues..)

Krishna, I seeing lot of really dangerous & bad omens. Even after deep thinking, I am unable to see any kind of good fortune arising out of the horrendous act of killing bandhus in battle
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#gitarthavisesha #FirstShadanga #Adhyaya1 #Shloka28 #Shloka29 #Shloka30

अर्जुन उवाच

दृष्ट्वेमं स्वजनं कृष्ण युयुत्सुं समुपस्थितम् ।।

dRRiShTvemaM svajanaM kRRiShNa yuyutsuM samupasthitam ||
सीदन्ति मम गात्राणि मुखं च परिशुष्यति ।
वेपथुश्च शरीरे मे रोमहर्षश्च जायते ।।

sIdanti mama gAtrANi mukhaM cha parishuShyati |
vepathushcha sharIre me romaharShashcha jAyate ||
गाण्डीवं स्रंसते हस्तात्त्वक्चैव परिदह्यते ।
न च शक्नोम्यवस्थातुं भ्रमतीव च मे मनः ।।

gANDIvaM sraMsate hastAttvakchaiva paridahyate |
na cha shaknomyavasthAtuM bhramatIva cha me manaH ||
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#gitarthavisesha #FirstShadanga #Adhyaya1 #Shloka27

तान्समीक्ष्य स कौन्तेयः सर्वान्बन्धूनवस्थितान् ।
कृपया परयाऽऽविष्टो विषीदन्निदमब्रवीत् ।।

tAnsamIkShya sa kaunteyaH sarvAnbandhUnavasthitAn |
kRRipayA parayA.a.aviShTo viShIdannidamabravIt| ||
स​: - that, कौन्तेय - kuntiputra Arjuna, अवस्थितान् - standing there, तान् - that, बन्धून् - bandhus, सर्वान् - all, अवेक्ष्य​ - saw, परया कृपा - excessive sympathy, आविष्ट - gainer, विषीदन् - sorrowfully, इदं - these words, अब्रवीत् - spoke
kunti-putra Arjuna saw all bandhus standing in the opposite side, ready for battle. He was overcome with excessive sympathy & sorrowfully spoke the following..
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#gitarthavisesha #FirstShadanga #Adhyaya1 #Shloka26

तत्रापश्यत् स्थितान् पार्थः पितॄनथ पितामहान् ।
आचार्यान्मातुलान्भ्रातॄन्पुत्रान्पौत्रान्सखींस्तथा ॥

tatrApashyat sthitAn pArthaH pitRRInatha pitAmahAn |
AchAryAnmAtulAnbhrAtRRInputrAnpautrAnsakhIMstathA ||
श्वशुरान् सुहृदश्चैव सेनयोरुभयोरपि ।

shvashurAn suhRRidashchaiva senayorubhayorapi |
अथ​ - then, पार्थ - pruthaH’s son Arjuna, तत्र - in that battlefield, अभयो: सेनयोरपि - in both armies, स्थितान् - present, पितॄन् - fathers, पितामहान् - grandfathers, आचार्यान् - AchAryAs, मातुलान् - uncles, भ्रातॄन् - brothers, पुत्रान् - sons, पौत्रान् - grandsons,
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#gitarthavisesha #FirstShadanga #Adhyaya1 #Shloka24 #Shloka25

एवमुक्तो हृषीकेशो गुडाकेशेन भारत।
सेनयोरुभयोर्मध्ये स्थापयित्वा रथोत्तमम्।।

evamukto hRRiShIkesho guDAkeshena bhArata |
senayorubhayormadhye sthApayitvA rathottamam ||
भीष्मद्रोणप्रमुखतः सर्वेषां च महीक्षिताम् ।
उवाच पार्थ पश्यैतान्समवेतान्कुरूनिति ।।

bhIShmadroNapramukhataH sarveShAM cha mahIkShitAm |
uvAcha pArtha pashyaitAnsamavetAnkurUniti ||
भारत - Oh rAja dritarashtra, गुडाकेशेन - curly haired Arjuna, एवम् - as before, उक्त: - told, हृषीकेश: - Sri Krishna, उभयो:सेनयो:मध्ये - in the middle of both armies, भीष्मद्रोणप्रमुखतः - led by bhIShma & droNa, महीक्षिताम् च - as well as in front of other kings,
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#gitarthavisesha #FirstShadanga #Adhyaya1 #Shloka20

अथ व्यवस्थितान् दृष्ट्वा धार्तराष्ट्रान कपिध्वजः।
प्रव्रत्ते शस्त्र संपाते धनुर उद्यम्य पाण्डवः ।।

atha vyavasthitAn dRRiShTvA dhArtarAShTrAna kapidhvajaH |
pravratte shastra saMpAte dhanura udyamya pANDavaH ||
हृषीकेशं तदा वाक्यं इदमाह महीपते ||
hRRiShIkeshaM tadA vAkyaM idamAha mahIpate ||
महीपते - mahAraja, अथ - Even after their hearts cleaved by pANDava conches, व्यवस्थितान् - standing firm for battle, धार्तराष्ट्रान - your sons, कपिध्वजः - Hanuman embossed flag holder Arjuna, दृष्ट्वा - saw, धनुर - bow, उद्यम्य - lifted up high, शस्त्र संपाते - battle of weapons
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#gitarthavisesha #FirstShadanga #Adhyaya1 #Shloka19

स घोषो धार्तराष्ट्राणां हृदयानि व्यदारयत् ।
नभश्च पृथिवीं चैव तुमुलोऽप्यनुनादयन् ॥

sa ghoSho dhArtarAShTrANAM hRRidayAni vyadArayat |
nabhashcha pRRithivIM chaiva tumulo.apyanunAdayan ||
स - each of those घोष: - sound, तुमुल: - nearest, नभश्च - heaven, पृथिवीं - earth, अनुनादयन् अपि - echoing, धार्तराष्ट्राणां - kauravas, हृदयानि - hearts, व्यदारयत् - cleaved
Sanjaya described the battle sound of pANDavas, their conches etc..

He concludes by saying

'Each of those sounds appeared very near to the kaurava ears. It looked to echo in heaven & earth, cleaving the hearts of your sons, Oh Raja Dritarashtra'
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