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Scott Santens @scottsantens
, 21 tweets, 16 min read Read on Twitter
I've been researching the idea of Unconditional Basic Income since 2013. Here's a list of findings I've compiled from various UBI experiments, unconditional cash transfer studies, and cash dividend research.

The data speaks for itself.

Data: reddit.com/r/BasicIncome/… #basicincome
1) "The design and framing of Mincome led participants to view payments through a pragmatic lens, rather than the moralistic lens through which welfare is viewed… this paper finds that Mincome participation did not produce social stigma."

onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ca… #BasicIncome
Although there was a slight decrease in hours worked per year when primary earners were provided a basic income guarantee in the 1970s, that emerged as a result of spending more time between jobs, reasonably looking for a *good* job instead of *any* job.

academia.edu/1159217/A_fail…
When a basic income guarantee was tested in Canada in the 1970s, teen males decided to quit their jobs and go back to finish school. Young women made the same decision and as a result more women under 25 chose education instead of motherhood.

livableincome.org/rMM-EForget08.… #BasicIncome
Not only did fertility rates decrease for women under 25 when provided basic income guarantees, but those of all ages who did become moms were better able to focus on being new parents by using their payments to extend their maternity leaves.

livableincome.org/rMM-EForget08.… #BasicIncome
In UBI experiment after UBI experiment and cash program after cash program, a practically universal result of unconditionally providing money to pregnant women is that their nutrition improves, and as a result their babies are born healthier.

#BasicIncome
Babies born healthier may be the most transformative of all effects of basic income. Epigenetics show that healthier babies will be healthier adults who in turn have healthier babies and low birth weight is correlated to less healthy adults who earn less.

science20.com/news/correlati…
One of the closest examples of a true UBI experiment in the US occurred accidentally and started in 1997 in North Carolina when the Cherokee nation began providing dividends to families years into a study of child poverty. The results?

TRANSFORMED LIVES.

thecorrespondent.com/4664/why-do-th…
Another effect of the UBI in North Carolina was decreased alcohol consumption, most likely due to reduced stress. This isn't an outlier. Overall, looking at study after study, cash transfers result in a slight decrease in alcohol consumption.

davidevans.blog/2016/11/29/the… #basicincome
A review of 53 studies across 14 countries found that cash transfers can be effective in tackling structural determinants of health such as poverty, education, household resilience, child labor, social cohesion, and civic participation.

academic.oup.com/heapol/article… #BasicIncome #SDOH
Basic income recognizes the social determinants of health. What we treat in hospitals is largely the result of people having insufficient incomes and too much economic stress. This is how the Dauphin experiment reduced hospitalization rates by 8.5%.

cmajnews.com/2018/08/07/can… #SDOH
The "Social Security notch" provides further causal evidence of the effect on health of cash transfers. Seniors whose incomes were increased saw "clinically meaningful" improvements in cognitive function that reduce Medicare/Medicaid costs.

nber.org/papers/w21484 #BasicIncome
Aside from health costs, basic income also reduces the costs of crime. In Namibia's UBI experiment, overall crime rates were reduced by >40%.

How much does crime cost the US? It's been estimated as exceeding $1 trillion per year (6% of GDP).

bignam.org/Publications/B… #BasicIncome
Not only was overall crime cut near in half as a result of the UBI experiment in Namibia, but poaching (aka illegal hunting) was reduced by 95%. Some crimes are done far more out of desperation than others. This seems to indicate that among those is hunting animals to extinction.
A commonly expressed concern about UBI is how it would affect rents, and yet aside from enabling greater geographic mobility from high CoL areas to lower CoL areas, one of the findings from the '70s AIMEs was a surprising increase in home ownership rates. This would reduce rents.
It's the simple choices people make in UBI experiments like eating more fruits & veggies that reveal how a great deal of our existing problems stem from a lack of choices.

Poverty is a poverty of choices created by an imposed lack of access to resources.

books.google.com/books?id=XDtOB…
Another one of the most common observed effects of unconditional cash is people using it to get out of debt, increase their savings, and to avoid debt in the first place. Because of this, one of the only groups to hate #BasicIncome pilots is moneylenders.

medium.com/basic-income/p…
One of the observed effects of UBI is even increased voter turnouts. Kids raised in below median income households whose incomes were increased by around $7k now vote at higher rates (8-20 percentage points) as adults.

brookings.edu/blog/up-front/… #BasicIncome #GoVote #ElectionDay
Perhaps the most economically profound effect of unconditional basic income is its effect on the entrepreneurial spirit. New businesses sprout up like never before. There appears to be an innate desire to employ oneself, to create something of one's own.

evonomics.com/universal-basi…
After 1000+ homes were destroyed by fire, basic income resulted in a faster recovery. Recipients even ended up with more savings than most Americans have and were thus better prepared for future disasters. Cash was over 2x more helpful than donated items.
csw.utk.edu/research/econo…
Climate change disasters also lead to lowered aspirations among the victims which lead to declines in future-oriented investments & behaviors. On a grand scale this hurts all of us, but basic income has also been shown to vaccinate against such declines.

sciencedirect.com/science/articl…
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