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Good morning from the Court of Appeal in London.
Today is the start of a two day hearing in the case of Sally Challen.

Sally Challen’s supporters, including her son @David_Challen have gathered outside the court.
Sally Challen is 65 today.

She is currently serving 18 years in prison for murdering her husband in 2010.
Sally Challen was married to Richard Challen for 31 years.

They first met when she was 15. #challen
In 2009 they separated but Sally Challen, said to be emotionally dependent on her husband, asked for a reconciliation.

Richard Challen agreed but with stringent conditions.
One August morning in 2010 Sally Challen went to the former family home in Surrey.

She discovered he’d been cheating on her again.
Sally made her husband breakfast and then hit him more than 20 times over the head with a hammer.

The following year she was convicted of murder.
Today - 7 years since that conviction - Sally is hoping that her murder conviction will be reduced to manslaughter.

This is a landmark domestic abuse case. #challen
Sally Challen’s lawyers will argue that her husband’s controlling and coercive behaviour was provocation.

In other words the extreme psychological abuse that he inflicted on her led her to kill him. #challen
Coercive control wasn’t a criminal offence when Sally Challen’s trial took place in 2011.
It is now (since 2015)
In court 6 in the Appeal Court waiting for the hearing to start at 10.30am.
Sally Challen’s family are in court.
The case will be heard in front of Lady Justice Hallett, Mr Justice Sweeney and Mrs Justice Cheema-Grubb.
Sally Challen has appeared on two screens in the courtroom.

She will be listening to the evidence from a prison.
She is looking visibly upset and is wiping away tears.
The courtroom and public gallery is packed.

The hearing begins.
Sally Challen is asked to raise her hand to identify who she is.
Sally Challen’s barrister Clare Wade QC has stood up to begin their case.
Clare Wade QC says they’ll be calling fresh evidence from a number of witnesses.

Some of that evidence will be around the issue of controlling and coercive behaviour.
Professor Stark has been called to give evidence.

He is in the witness box.

He is a retired forensic social worker.

He’s been assessing domestic violence since the 1980’s.
He is the author of a book about coercive control and has also written other books on domestic violence.
He confirms he was asked by Sally Challen’s solicitor to provide expert opinion on coercive control.
Professor Stark is asked what coercive control is.

He says it’s now known to be the most common form of abuse for which primarily women seek outside assistance.
Professor Stark - coercive control is long lasting.

Barrister - what does it achieve?

Professor - compliance ... making victims afraid.
Professor Stark - Coercive control in its extreme produces a hostage like feeling of entrapment ... similar to being prisoner of war.
Barrister - what are the risks of being a relationship where there is coercive control

Professor Stark - ultimate risk is homicide
Sally Challen is listening from a prison to Professor Stark’s evidence.

She’s served 8 years of her 18 prison sentence.
Barrister ask Professor Stark to explain about gaslighting.

Professor Stark - Over time a partner feels they are losing their mind and their sense of reality.
On gaslighting Professor Stark says the person feels their point of view isn’t good ... that they are constantly looking over their shoulder.

It drives people crazy, he says.
Lady Justice Hallett has been handed a note saying 50 people have travelled to court to hear today’s proceedings but can’t get into court because of space.

They are asking whether a live relay of proceedings would be possible.
The court hears a live relay of proceedings will not be possible for those who can’t get into court.
Prosecuting barrister now asking Professor Stark questions.
Professor is asked if he has ever met Sally Challen or interviewed her in person.

He admits he hasn’t but did send her questions to answer.
Professor Stark also tells the court he isn’t medically qualified.

No further questions.

Professor Stark finishes evidence and steps down from the witness box.
Lady Justice Hallett returns to issue that more people want to get into the courtroom.

One of the barristers has suggested her and her colleagues move forward a bench to create some space.
Lady Justice Hallett tells the court she is asking further about whether a live stream is possible (for those who haven’t been able to get in) and says if that’s not possible they will look into seeing whether a bigger courtroom can be used this afternoon.
Dr Tim Exworthy, a Consultant Forensic Psychiatrist, is now in the witness box in court.

He confirms he was asked to give evidence at Sally Challen’s trial in 2011 on behalf of the defence.
Dr Exworthy is being asked questions by Sally Challen’s barrister.
He confirms he assessed Sally Challen after visiting her on three occasions in 2010.

He says it’s unusual for him to have to make three visits to a defendant. He usually makes two visits.
Sally Challen’s barrister asks why three visits were needed.

Dr Exworthy says it was difficult to follow Sally Challen’s chronology and it was tricky to get the background history of her relationship with her husband.
Dr Exworthy says Sally Challen had told him their marriage was “generally fine”.
Sally Challen mentioned to Dr Exworthy that in 1987 she had been concerned about her husband’s infidelity.

Dr Exworthy said Sally Challen said when she approached her husband about it he said he was “not prepared to discuss it”
Dr Exworthy says Sally Challen told him her husband wasn’t an attentive father to their two sons and had “opted out”.
Barrister asks Dr Exworthy what his conclusion was regarding Sally Challen’s mental health.

He tells the court she suffered from a depressive disorder.
Dr Exworthy says he didn’t include coercive control in his assessment conclusions after speaking to Sally Challen in 2010 because he wasn’t aware of the concept.
Dr Exworthy says he thinks it would have been of assistance to him had he known about the concept coercive control at the time of his initial assessment of Sally Challen.
Dr Exworthy has finished giving evidence after answering some further questions.
A larger court will be used this afternoon (court 4) so more people can fit in.
Break until 13.50.
Back in a bigger court allowing more people to sit in this afternoon.
Those in court can see Sally Challen who is appearing via video link from a prison.
The prosecution has called Dr. Paul Gilluley who is a Consultant Forensic Psychiatrist to give evidence.
Dr Gilleley assessed Sally Challen in 2011 and he tells the court it was his conclusion that she wasn’t suffering from any mental disorder at the the time of the offence.
Prosecuting barrister asks how he came to that conclusion.

Dr Gilleley says he based it on her account and how she was functioning.
On reviewing the case Dr Gilleley says he found no evidence of Sally Challen suffering from personality disorder.
Apologies. I spelt Dr. Paul Gilluley’s surname incorrectly in all but one of the previous tweets relating to him.
Dr. Paul Gilluley says he completed a second report and has seen prison records.

He says it is his conclusion that at the time of the offence Sally Challen was not suffering from any mental disorder.
Dr. Paul Gilluley is now being cross examined by Sally Challen’s barrister.
Dr. Paul Gilluley says he accepted Sally Challen was in an abusive relationship.

He says Mrs Challen was very open with him about that when he spoke to her.
Dr. Paul Gilluley says he has no doubt that any abuse has an effect on someone’s mental state but he says he found no mental disorder at the time Sally Challen killed her husband.
Asked if he was aware of the term coercive control at the time, Dr. Paul Gilluley says he was aware abuse could happen within a relationship (not just physical but also mental) but he didn’t know about the term coercive control at the time he assessed Sally Challen.
Dr. Paul Gilluley who is in the witness box interviewed Sally Challen twice after she killed her husband.
Dr. Paul Gilluley says when he first interviewed Sally Challen for the first time she rambled on but says he didn’t find that unusual.
Dr Gwen Adshead is now in the witness box.

She has been called by the defence.
Dr Gwen Adshead is a Professor of Psychiatry.
Dr Gwen Adshead is being questioned by Sally Challen’s barrister.
Dr Gwen Adshead says she came to the view that Sally Challen suffered from a boardline personality disorder and had symptoms of a clinical mood disorder in the years running up to the offence.
Dr Gwen Adshead says its very common for people with boardline personality disorder to be victims of domestic violence.
Dr Gwen Adshead says people with borderline personality disorder can have highly disrupted home lives but are still able to maintain relationships outside of the home with friends and at work.
Dr Adshead is asked what her view is of Sally Challen at the time of the offence.

She says she found the statements Sally Challen gave to the police after the offence “unusual” in that they were long.

It “suggested some disorganisation of mind” Dr Adshead tells the court.
Dr Gwen Adshead has finished her evidence.
Now the court is sorting out the timetable of what happens next.
Defence and prosecution will put submissions forward to the court tomorrow.

The hearing will resume at 10.30am in court 4.
Back at the Court of Appeal in London today for the second day of the Sally Challen appeal hearing #challen
Hearing due to start at 10.30am.
Reminder of the case/appeal:

Sally Challen, 65, killed her husband by hitting him with a hammer more than 20 times in 2010.

A jury convicted her the following year of murder.
Sally Challen is in prison having served 8 years of her 18 year sentence.

She, through her legal team, are trying to get her murder conviction reduced to manslaughter.
Her lawyers are arguing that Sally Challen suffered decades of ‘coercive control’ during her marriage to Richard Challen.
They argue that ‘coercive control’ wasn’t recognised as a concept at her trial in 2011 and it should now be taken into consideration in her case.
‘Coercive control’ became a criminal offence in 2015.

Coercive control is extreme psychological abuse.
Sally Challen is appearing from a prison via video link.

She can see and hear what’s going on in court 4 at the Appeal Court where the hearing is taking place.
The courtroom is packed.
Hearing begins.
Clare Wade QC - defence barrister - is putting forward submissions to the court.
Clare Wade QC says our understanding of coercive control has developed since her (Sally Challen’s) trial and it wasn’t known about and not fully appreciated at the time.
Claire Wade QC tells the court it’s important to look at the cumulative pattern and history of what happened to Sally Challen.
Clare Wade QC tells the court that coercive control isn’t completely new but what hasn’t been there is an understanding of it and it’s role hadn’t been appreciated.
Clare Wade QC is continuing the defence’s final submissions to the court.
Clare Wade QC says immediately prior to committing the offence Sally Challen went out to buy food for her husband’s breakfast.

In no way was the offence premeditated, Clare Wade QC tells the court.
Sally Challen, who is watching and listening via video link from a prison, is looking emotional and has been wiping away tears.
In discussion with Clare Wade QC Lady Justice Hallett says this appeal is firstly about undiagnosed disorders that were undiagnosed in Sally Challen at the time of the killing and whether or not they were consequences of coercive control.
Clare Wade QC has finished submissions for Sally Challen’s defence.
Caroline Carberry QC is now on her feet making final submissions for the prosecution.
Caroline Carberry QC: Sally Challen wasn’t suffering from any mental disorder (at the time of offence)
Caroline Carberry QC: There is no evidence clinical or otherwise which points to a mental disorder
Caroline Carberry QC: There is a body of other evidence which indicates that Sally Challen was functioning to a high standard at the time of the killing.
Caroline Carberry QC: There is ample evidence that demonstrates that prior to and at the time of the killing and in the hours and days that followed Sally Challen was acting in a logical and coherent way.
Caroline Carberry QC finishes her submissions.
Judges will return at 2.30 when they hope they will be in a position to give their judgement in the case.

They may also give their reasons if there is time.
#Sallychallen case: Judgment expected at 2.30pm.
Court 4 at the Appeal Court is packed this afternoon once again.

Judgment expected shortly in the Sally Challen appeal.
Sally Challen is on a video link from a prison where she will be able to hear the judgment and see what’s going on in the courtroom.
There are three senior judges on the panel.
Judges have come into court.
Lady Justice Hallett will be delivering the judgement.
Lady Justice Hallett is going through the background to the case.
Lady Justice Hallett is going over what each side’s case is.
Sally Challen is wiping tears away as Lady Justice Hallett is taking the court through what happened before and after the killing.
Lady Justice Hallett is now going through evidence submitted to the court during this two day appeal.
About 100 people in the courtroom.
Lady Justice Hallett now onto conclusions.
Sally Challen - murder conviction quashed.

A retrial has been ordered.
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