I will be writing next about a Byzantine princess who bridged the East West divide and helped setting in motion a religious shift in an Asian nation that has significant geopolitical ramifications even now.
Princess Theodora was the daughter of Emperor Alexios Ioannes IV of Trebizond and his Georgian wife, one of the rump states formed out of the former Byzantine Empire, when it collapsed after the sack of Constantinople in 1204 by the Latin Crusaders. 1/10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wi...
Though the Greeks recovered Constantinople in 1261, the Komneni of Trebizond were left largely to fend for themselves, becoming vassals of Georgia and the Horde and with marital alliances with their neighbours. 2/10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wi...
With the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, the Emperor in Trebizond attempted to forge an alliance with the neighbouring Aq Qoyunlu by marrying Theodora off to Uzun Hasan, their mightiest ruler. Trebizond had maintained marital alliances with the Aq Qoyunlu earlier as well. 3/10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wi...
The Aq Qoyunlu had reached its pinnacle under Uzun Hasan, which rivalled the Ottomans in its zenith, albeit temporarily. But the alliance was to no avail, for Trebizond would fall in 1463. Theodora would assist Aq Qoyunlu in signing a treaty with the Republic of Venice 4/10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wi...
A battle in 1473 between the Aq Qoyunlu and the Ottomans would end decisively in favour of the latter, thanks to the usage of Ottoman firearms against Turkomen Cavalry, crushing any hopes of a return for the last Christian dominion in Anatolia 5/10 https://www.youtube.com/wat...
While Uzun Hasan would survive the defeat, his death in 1478 and the civil war that followed would hasten the collapse of the vast empire he had created. In place of the Aq Qoyunlu, another would rise up; one led by a grandson of the Greek princess 6/10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wi...
Despina Khatun (Princess Theodora) had a daughter named Halima with Uzun Hasan, who married her cousin, Sheikh Haydar bin Junaid, the leader of the Safavid Order, the main proponent of the Twelver Shia movement. 7/10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wi...
Though Sheikh Haydar's attempts to glory would fail, his son Ismail would be more successful. In 1501, at the age of 14, he would be crowned Shahanshah of Iran. He would find support from his grandmother's nephews, Constantine II of Kartli & Alexander I of Kakheti, as well. 8/10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wi...
Ismail would go on to displace Aq Qoyunlu from the map, and would enlarge his dominion till he ran into the Ottomans at Chaldiran in 1514. The Ottomans would also gain from the collapse of the Aq Qoyunlu. 9/10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wi...
Finally, it was Ismail who made Twelver Shia the official religion of his dominion, paving way for the Shia population in present day Iran, Iraq and Azerbaijan. 10/10 https://ichef.bbci.co.uk/ne...

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More from @Arby_K

15 Oct
Next up another Queen who brought a semblance of unity to few countries; a unity which did not last in terms of geography, but has lasted in many societal development aspects.
Princess Margrethe was born in 1353 as the sixth child (and the third to reach adulthood) of King Valdemar of Denmark and his wife Euphemia of Pomerania. When she died in 1412 she would unite all the Scandinavian countries under one crown. 1/10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_I_of_Denmark#/media/F
In 1363, ten year old Margrethe married 23 year King Haakon of Norway, whose father Magnus was the King of Sweden. When Magnus died in 1364, Albrecht of Mecklenburg usurped the throne with the help of rebellious nobles. 2/10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haakon_VI_of_Norway#/media/Fil
Read 11 tweets
14 Oct
Next up is a Queen who was deemed mad by her father, husband and son, but was the first to rule another major European nation as we see in the maps today. She would spend most of her regnal years confined, while her sons ruled nations that you can't count with your hands.
When Princess Juana was born in 1479 as the third child (and second daughter) of her parents, she was never expected to rule. Though she became the Queen of two nations, she would never really rule either. 1/10 Image - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joanna_of_Castile#/med
Her mother, Isabella, was the regnant Queen of Castile, while her father, Ferdinand, ruled Aragon. With the conquest of Granada in 1491, her parents had completed the 700 year war to reclaim the Iberian peninsula in the name of the Church (Reconquista). 2/10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crown_of_Castile#/media/File:C
Read 11 tweets
13 Oct
Next, I will be writing about a Roman Emperor whose bickering with his brothers led to the formation of two present day European nations while a region that takes his name has changed nationality multiple times, over the last 1,000 years.
In 843, Holy Roman Emperor Lothair I converged on Verdun to meet his brothers Louis and Charles to close their 3 year Civil War.

The Treaty they signed would also form the core for two present day European nations - France and Germany. 1/10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wi...
Proclaimed as Co Emperor by Louis I in 817, civil war was not new for Lothair. The 817 proclamation led to his first civil war; one by his illegitimate cousin Bernard, King of Italy.

Louis cruelly got rid of his nephew, an event which left a lifelong regret & a penance. 2/10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wi...
Read 11 tweets
12 Oct
So, planning to write a multi threaded thread on people from years gone by, that still have an impact on the world today.

First up is a king who I credit with creating the @Pontifex and the religion with the largest followers in the world.

And no, it is not Jesus 🤦 .
Numa Pompilius was supposed to have been born in 1 ab urbe condita (AUC) , aka 753 BC, the year the city of Rome was founded. He would become its king in 715 BC though he was a Sabine unlike his predecessor, Romulus.

So who are the Sabines? - Read en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Rape_… 1/10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wi...
As they say Rome was not built in a day, King Numa Pompilius has been credited with creating many of the institutions of Rome which formed the base around which the city would grow into an empire over the next 900 years.
Some like the Pontifex, even survive today. 2/10 https://cdn.britannica.com/...
Read 11 tweets

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