History of Rwanda in its precolonial, during colonialism and the post-colonial period which result in the Genocide against Tutsi in 1994 claiming more than 1,000,000 Tutsis.
To the youth and others who don't know much about our history here is a Thread:
Our nation is not young like many in Africa it's traced back to 1091 AD even older than some European ones. It was around Gasabo that's why it's called u Rwanda rwa Gasabo.
Located in East Central of Africa. It's a landlocked country
Bordered by Tanzania in the East, Uganda in the North, Democratic Republic of Congo DRC in the West and Burundi in its South
It was led by Kings who ruled over the whole country. There was total organization in the country monarch
There was the King [Umwami] ,the Queen-Mother [Umugabekazi], the Queen [Umwamikazi] and Princes(ses) [Ibikomangoma]. After the Royal family there were Abatware[3 Chiefs/ Ministers]:
- Umutware w'ingabo: Army Chief/ Commander
- Umutware w'ubutaka: Land Chief
- Umutware w'ubukenke: Cattle Chief
And it's all was aligned till to the village. And trust me it was all since 1300 AD meaning 700 years ago.
There were high followed and respected procedures for a succession of Kings from generations to generations.
The Kingdom has 26~28 generation of Kings. Today Rwanda is 26 338 sq km but back in 1880s it was twice it's today's size. Covering Ubufumbira to lake Albert in Uganda some west part of DRC especially the two Kivu provinces
As we know there was the Berlin conference in 1884-85 where European countries divided Africa regardless to their sovereignty and borders at the time.
Rwanda lost it's half territory even without knowing it. And this was the precolonial time
But before we go to the colonial times here is the first thing you should know. Like in Europe
Monarchy was for the king and the queen and this system was made up of:
1. Clergy(the First Estate),
2. Nobles (the Second Estate), and
3. Peasants and bourgeoisie (the Third Estate)
In Rwanda we had three social economic classes. [ Tutsi, Hutu, and Twa].
They were all classes you could Change from one to another
As I said they were social economic classes:
1. Tutsi (First class)
2. Hutu (Second class)
3. Twa ( Third class)
If you did something bravery you could move from 3rd to 1st/2nd ever did something shameful you could be moved from 1st/2nd to 3rd
The King Crown came from the 1st class and when he was crowned he became the king of all [of all the three] he had no class anymore. The Queen was from different big houses like in GOT [Stark, Bolton, etc.]
We had 18 Big houses in Rwanda and you could find the 3 classes all included in one big house and they could have intermarriage to have allies like in Europe etc.
Here are the Big houses:
Those 3 social economic classes were nothing to what the colonials brought and turned it into.
Now in 1890s that's when the first white men came to Rwanda. Rwandan Kings weren't known 2 have stopped any Arab to enter in their kingdom but also
They never allowed slave trade in Rwanda. So this made Rwanda an unknown country to those European explorers. They could come and cross in the south/north of it but not through as said Dr. Livingston in his journal.
But there was trade in 1890s
When the first colonials arrived, they found a well established structurally, systematically nation what in French they call "État Nation et État Guerrier" it was like where they were from. It made them really question themselves how they will colonize us!
So we were united I repeat strongly united under one King bravery ready to defend our land. So they brought the Roman agenda of "DIVIDE AND CONQUER" but for them it was "DIVIDE AND RULE" meaning that in order to rule your conquest you
The Germans were first to colonize us, by their system of giving orders to the king but let him look like he is ruling. They colonized from 1895~1916 when they lost the battle against Belgians in Congo.
This happened in the First World War.
In 1900s the church was infiltrated in politics strongly and empowered.
That's what they were in Rwanda.
As in the whole African continent they were known as "White fathers"
They were given lands in all corners of the country. As I told you earlier there was 3 social economic classes[ Tutsi, Hutu and Twa] and you could change from one to the other due to your actions. Then the worst started when the Belgians
Came in Rwanda from Congo. As King Musinga V fought along the Germans, Belgians came with a thought for vengeance. They took a generation and took them in Congo and else where to be no retraced. There is a generation lost and many don't know.
In 1916 that's when the Belgians came to Rwanda under the rule of King Musinga and they changed from king ruling to themselves.
Remember there were three social economic classes:
When white people came they had a mission first to ruin and destroy African culture and then they brought the church ⛪ with "White Fathers" here we have the founders of hatred in our country. In the following tweets we talk about 2 of them the masterminds:
Léon-Paul Classe (28 June 1874 – 31 January 1945) installed on 10 April 1922 in Rwanda he came and started to divide rwandans.
In 1925 they introduced the worst thing the identity card with Tutsi, Hutu and Twa included
But here I am to explain
Paul Classe he firstly introduced schools for only high officials children so that in any case they will use it against Tutsi chiefs against their people. And then they [White Fathers] started to teach people that they are different
Imagine telling brothers that they are different that they ain't from the same place. At the beginning they refused but as we all know a lie that is told often turns into the truth. This ideology was taught for over 70 years
In 1920s there was a disease that killed many cows in Rwanda as Classe wanted to punish Tutsi he decided to make national IDs (Ibuku) so
Everyone who had above 10 cows became Tutsi, 10 to less cows they became Hutu and those who had no cows became Twa.
In 1931 the Rwandan King Musinga who didn't want to be baptized and who didn't want to listen to their agenda was overthrown and exiled to Shangi in Cyangugu. The white found that there were still loyal people
Would come from Nyanza the royal palace and tell Musinga what was going on, so the white fathers decided to exile him in Moba in DRC and that's where he passed away.
They crowned his son King Mutara III Rudahigwa Charles Leon Pierre
The three names originates from three White Fathers of Rwanda-Urundi one from Congo and the other one. So his names or so called christian names were from 3 Priests of the region. He was a christian and in 1946 he dethroned himself to Jesus
U Rwanda arutura umwami Kristu. So the King started to urge the Belgians to give Rwanda Freedom as other African countries after the WWII then here he got troubled with the whitemen.
At first Tutsi only were Chiefs so that in their plans.
They could cause a Hutu up rise telling them that Tutsi manipulated them and that they should remove them from power. Tutsi Chiefs were there to supervise plantations and Hutu were the manpower ordered to work labor force if not they were beaten
By their Chiefs or Chiefs would be beaten ibiboko by white supervisors.
King Mutara removed and ordered chiefs to divide their cattles with population at a certain percentage to avoid any way uprising would escalade and again he removed.
Ubuhake a due labor just to avoid any crisis in our country.

The second initiator of Genocide ideology and hatred is Archbishop André Perraudin a Swiss Catholic clergyman who lived in Rwanda for nearly 50 years
He was Archbishop of Kabgayi from 1959 to 1989.
So for him he put in action the Belgian plan to overpopulate the eastern part of Rwanda and according to their plan it would have taken 20 years but after the death of King Mutara on
25-July-1959 in Burundi. His sudden death wasn't accidental coz he had plans to go in UN to ask that Belgians should give Rwanda the independence but without a reason someone (a Belgian) lied to him that the Rwanda-Urundi Resident wanted him.
Bujumbura and when he went there found that the man was in Vacation (I don't remember well if it was in Kinshasa or Belgium) but he wasn't there. So his doctor told him to come and have a medical check up as he intend to go to New York for UN
So we are certainly sure that he was murdered because he was really fighting for the independence of Rwanda. So the Belgians were ready to create chaos and as they found that the King was dead they tried their first attempt by
Listing who should replace King Mutara III and elders 'Abiru' sworn that at end of the day Rwanda should have a King and he is not among the provided list by Belgians. ABIRU decided that it should be Kigeli V Ndahindurwa half brother to Mutara.
The Belgians weren't happy. As in 1957~1958 there were a growth of multiparty system in Rwanda like UNAR, MDR-Parmehutu, APROSOMA, etc...
They were here to support the Belgians agenda to divide Rwandans then based on Ethnicity. Most of them were
In the quoted tweet, I talked about one of the Masterminds of the Genocide Against Tutsi here is another one
The second one was Archbishop André Perraudin was a Swiss Catholic clergyman who lived in Rwanda for nearly fifty years. He was Archbishop of Kabgayi from 1959 to 1989. He is the mastermind behind the coup on 28.01.1961
As Rwanda was in times of confusion, different parties which had different agendas but some were based on full hatred and divisionism such as Parmehutu, and Aprosoma.. which we may talk on how they impacted the planning of the Genocide Against Tutsi.
APROSOMA (Association pour la promotion sociale de la masse) from 1957-1965. It was created by Gitera Joseph a seminarist alumni and its HQ was in Save. He owned "ijwi rya rubanda rugufi" where he published "The 10 Hutu Commandements"
There was also UNAR (Union Nationale Rwandaise) was a conservative political party founded on 3/ Sept/ 1959 by Francois Rukeba.
It was mainly by tutsi but welcomed everyone as there were some hutus who joined as they believed in Mwami
The third was PARMEHUTU (Parti du Mouvement de l'Emancipation Hutu) which was also known as Mouvement démocratique republicain (MDR-Parmehutu). Founded by Gregoire Kayibanda who published with 8 others "The BAHUTU MANIFESTO" in 1957 and he became the
president after Mbonyumutwa Dominique. As chaos was in alot of people at the time, belgians were out of saying they had everything under control. So as Kayibanda was their main weapon they weren't sure that UNAR wouldn't try some attempts on him..... and bet on
him (Dominique Mbonyumutwa) in case he is killed their plans would still work out. He was on interim basis as the first President of Rwanda, from 28 January to 26 October 1961, following the abolition of the Rwandan monarchy (King Kigeli V Ndahindurwa).
Late King Kigeli V revealed a convo he had with Belgian colonel Guy Logiest (1912-1991) who served in colonial Rwanda as Belgium's top-ranking colonial official, the special military resident from 1959–1962 and High Representative (1962) under his guidance,
he once told King Kigeli V that he had direct orders to come and overthrown the King's monarch and when told otherwise he would come and share un glass de whisky. and later he was overthrown and Mbonyumutwa was the interim President at that time.
In 1959, there was a Hutu Revolution as so called where 20 thousands of Tutsis were killed and other hundreds of thousands were forced to flee to neighboring countries like Tanzania, Uganda, Burundi, Zaire (RDC) , Kenya and other countries either
Canada, USA, etc in Europe, Asia, Australia, and the American continent. And those who stayed in Rwanda were taken as living hostages as whenever their relatives abroad will try any moves related to coming back in their country, others would die.
MDR-Parmehutu at first was called Hutu social movement and later renamed on 25/09/1959. It dominated the baringa elections of 1960 by winning 2,390 of 3,125 elected communal council seats and 160 of 229 burgomasters.
In 1961, parliamentary elections were held alongside a referendum on the monarchy of Mwami Kigeri V. MDR-Parmehutu won 35 of the 44 seats in the Legislative Assembly, whilst the referendum saw the end of the monarchy. Kayibanda became President and in July 1962 Rwanda got its
independence. In 1965 MDR was the only legal political party in the country and won all the 47 National Assembly seats and Kayibanda then run unopposed to the presidency.
Under the Parmehutu rule Tutsis were severely discriminated against, persecuted and repeatedly massacred, leading to hundreds of thousands of Tutsi fleeing the country. In 1961 there were killings as they killed men and youth spearing women and children.
The reason I said this is because my grand pa was killed in the eyes of my father and after all these years it hurts.

The 1963 Tutsi massacres were described by Bertrand Russell as the worst since the Holocaust in 1967 another 20,000 Tutsi were killed.
By 1969 other tutsis were killed and then at the downfall of Kayibanda's regime in 1973 other tutsis were killed. Here is a thing Kayibanda identified himself as umunyenduga and other ministers while majority of the then army were from Bugoyi as abakiga
This was done by Belgians as a way to protect their ideology by saying (People from the southern part of Rwanda are so much mixed meaning tutsi and hutu are % intermarried so the military should be given to the northern hutus because they have less % so they
were the right candidates to protect the hutu manifesto/ revolution as they didn't intermarry with tutsis). So by this they were many in the army (Bakiga) while in politics (Nduga) were dominants and as tutsis were killed as they used to do it
And this brought some misunderstandings or conflicts between them and Kayibanda in 1973 knew there was a coup against him but didn't know when and he could always talk about it until he was providing a speech in the stadium and power was cut off purposefully
to disrupt him and cause nuisance. On 5th July 1973 in a cabinet meeting, Habyarimana Juvenal wasn't around and Kayibanda called him to come and in that time the coup was done and they arrested all ministers. The Coup was called "11 Camarades du 5 Juillet 1973"
The Coup was done by the following according to their ranks...
1. Maj Gen Habyarimana
2. Lt Col Kanyarengwe Alexis
3. Major Sekarije Aloys
4. Major Benda Sabin
5. Major Ruhashya Epimaque
6. Major Gahimana Fabien
7. Major Munyandekwe
8. Major Serubuga Laurent
9. Major Buregeya Bonaventure
10. Major Ntibitura Bonaventure
11. Major Simba Aloys

Those are the ones that signed on a communique announcing the coup. The members of cabinet of Kayibanda were imprisoned& assassinated. Kayibanda
died in 1976 in his imprisonment
So Habyarimana and his men while planning the coup, used to move in schools either secondary, primary and behind tell students to attack tutsis and beat them in order when they do the coup they will show the population that Kayibanda's regime was weak
And Kayibanda would define those acts of aggression against Tutsis as act of the majority who were angry...etc but he didn't know it would be used against him in a soon future. Again there was massive arrests and massacre of Tutsis in 1973. And there was another
flee of Tutsis. Habyarimana seize power promising restoration of peace. He founded in 1975 his political party MRND (Mouvement Républicain National pour la Démocratie et le Développement) on 5th July 1975 after exactly 2 years of the coup... which later
became Mouvement Révolutionaire National pour le Développement, the sole party till 1990s. As earlier in Kayibanda's regime Tutsis were given 10% of seats in schools, universities and jobs as they called it "iringaniza" translated like equalization or
Balancing. By here a tutsi wouldn't study if there is a hutu child who wants to study either at some places the 10% wasn't respected though it shouldn't have happened at the first place and this happened everywhere in schools, universities and jobs.
In those periods there were some types of documents (internal visas) required to bypass from one sector to the other or from one prefecture to the other and tutsis weren't given any most of the times and whenever given they were persecuted in their journeys
In recent testimonies, we heard that local leaders wouldn't give the "good behavior document" as I may call it to any tutsi as by nature they are liars, cruel etc so they don't deserve anything. There are some letters between local leaders to their
superiors such as today's mayors telling them why they didn't approve someone's document just because they are Tutsis and vice-versa as commands not to give any official document to any tutsi, this was in times of Kayibanda and Habyarimana's regimes (1959-94).
During Habyarimana's regime, there was more than ethnic discrimination because it grew to regional discrimination or prefectures such as Byumba, Kibungo, Kigali, Kigali Ngali, Butare, Gikongoro, Cyangugu, Gitarama, Kibuye, Kigali Ville, Gisenyi and Ruhengeri.
So the home of "AKAZU" the close ones to Habyarimana were from Gisenyi, Kibuye and Ruhengeri and as I told you earlier from the quoted tweet they were soldiers to protect the hutu revolution and it grew to such an extent
it brought some conflicts even between hutus due to those political propaganda.

As this violence occurred to tutsis in the country, those out of Rwanda weren't speared. I will show you some examples across the region from 1959 till the time they decided to
come back home. When tutsis fled to neighboring countries, they were later persecuted and some even changed their names to be citizens of the host countries such as those in Zaire (The Democratic Republic of Congo) mostly, in Uganda and other countries.
An example was the persecution of Tutsis by Ugandan Pres Milton Apollo Obote in 1966-1971 and again from 1980-1985. So Obote became hostile to Rwandan refugees in Uganda during the 1980s.
This lead to the foundation of Rwandan Refugees Welfare Association was founded in 1979 in Uganda. Then from 1980 as the Rwandan Alliance for National Unity (RANU). As Obote's regime continued its persecution against Rwandan refugees RANU was forced into
exile in 1981 and relocated in Nairobi/Kenya. In 1982 with Obote authoritarian Ankole districts authorities were issued notices to evict refugees from their homes and camps. Displaced Tutsis tried to cross the border to come back in Rwanda and they were
confined by Habyarimana's regime by closing borders. Some Tutsis then joined Museveni's NRA to fight Obote... and in 1986 Museveni seized Power in Kampala with more than 14 000 soldiers including like 500 Rwandan refugees.
In 1986 RANU resettled in Kampala and After Museveni's inauguration as president he appointed Rwigema and Kagame as senior officers in the new Ugandan army; Kagame was the head of military intelligence.
In 1987 during its convention RANU changed its name to Rwanda Patriotic Front (Front Patriotique Rwandais) and as earlier there were negotiation failures,
RPF-Inkotanyi decided to have an army wing named RPA (Rwanda Patriotic Army) to force the government
into negotiations in case political and diplomatic ways failed. Remember this was in 1987 and Rwandan refugees had a battle experience in Ugandan Bush war and were militarily trained not like those who were defeated by Kayibanda's regime in 1963 and 1967.
In 1990 on 1st October, RPA forces lead by Major General Fred Gisa Rwigema launched an attack against Habyarimana's forces [Forces Armees Rwandaise (FAR)] at Kagitumba border in the north east of Rwanda and advanced 60 km (37 mi) into the country.
Unfortunately Major Gen Fred was killed on the 2nd day on 2nd October 1990 after the launch of the attack which is now known as the Liberation Struggle which lasted for 4 years ending when the RPF-Inkotanyi stopped the Genocide Against Tutsi in 1994(1990-1994)
After Major Gen Rwigema died, the RPA began to retreat as they did not have needed heavy equipment to face government's forces with heavy weaponry, armored cars and helicopters. The conventional war was a disadvantage to the RPA.
On 4/Oct/1990, French president Miterrand sent 300 french troops in Rwanda with a mission to protect french expatriates but with an undercover mission to halt the RPF advancing in what was known as "Operation Noroît" as Colonel JC Thomann was assigned on 19/10
The Elysée in actuality wanted to protect the Rwandan government from the RPF in order to protect
their own economic and foreign business interests within the country and region. Operation Noroît was successful in increasing FAR's efficiency.
During the operation, the French participated militarily by advising the leaders of the FAR and served in their posts. Throughout the early 90s French officers and troops served as Rwandan auxiliaries, directing air traffic control even
participated on front-line combats. Furthermore, they took care of guard the airport and allowing arms to come into the country, and ensured radio communication. There were also several witness accounts of the French checking ethnic ID cards at roadblocks,
something they were certainly not permitted to conduct as even witnessed by members of Doctors Without Borders. After October France supplied Rwanda 60mm, 81mm, and 120mm mortars,
105mm LG1 light artillery guns, Pan hard M3 Armored Personal Carriers,
six Frenchmade Gazelle helicopters, spare parts and technical assistance. In the words of French Ambassador Marlaud, “When you are supposed to advise, you must advise however it is necessary". This shows how french gvt was ready to support Habyarimana's regime
On 4-Oct-1990, RPA/F's 9th Battalion captured Nyagatare town. in the evening of that day to 5th, Habyarimana's gvt bombed in Kigali nearby areas saying that the RPF attacked Kigali leading to more than 10 000 tutsis and some opposition politicians as
accomplices where more than 2000 never returned.
On the same 5th, 535 Belgian paratroopers along with Zaire Special Presidential Division of Pres Mobutu to support Habyarimana's regime. On 8th Oct after a massive crossfire between RPA and FAR at Kagitumba
FAR killed 1000 Bahima tutsis in Umutara. On 11-13th Oct there was massacre of around 400 tutsis in Kibilira.
On 13th Nov Habyarimana accepted the multi-party policy and ethnicity removal in ID Cards though it was not done.
On 6th December in 1990, Kangura an anti-tutsi newspaper spread hatred against tutsi it was owned by Hassan Ngeze but sponsored by MRND the then ruling party published "10 Commandments of bahutu" that ordered/commanded hutus not to have mercy on/at any tutsi.
Back to the RPF side, Major Chris Bunyenyezi& Major Peter Bayingana were killed in late October marking the chaotic period of the RPA. At the time Major Kagame was in the United States attending the Command& General Staff College in Fort Leavenworth in Kansas
As he came back and took command after few weeks of visiting recent and numerous RPA positions ordered a retreat to the Virunga mountains for restructuring and reorganizing the recovery of the army as the place was a military strategic position against attacks
This is when he introduced the war from a conventional war to guerrilla war where small scale raids were organized with different purposes and this could lower the FAR's morale as the RPA operated raids and retreat in a second and we are still in 1990.
January 3rd 1991, RPA changed its warfare methods and attacked different regions Gatuna and Kaniga to cut the FAR supply passage. And all of this happened as RPF was reorganizing its political structures, raising its fundraising in Diaspora and locally, doing military training.
On 7-Jan-1991, many were given a death penalty being accused of being RPF's accomplices as they weren't given a chance to defend themselves, and many of them were killed and there was no trace of them.
After three months of reorganization, then there was an
attack on 23rd Jan 1991, on Ruhengeri town and aimed its prison which lead to the release of many prisoners including Col Lizinde and others were they were given the choice to join the RPF or the government side. Those who chose to go back to Kigali at the time
many were executed. From late Jan to mid March 1991, around 500-1000 Tutsi from Bigogwe were massacred and there were no international community's reaction.
In March 1992, there is creation of a hutu extremist party known as Coalition for the Defense of the Republic (CDR) and there were Tutsi massacre in Bugesera by interahamwe and impuzamugambi killing 300 tutsi and 15 000 displaced to schools and churches
August 1992, many tutsis in Kibuye Prefecture are massacred. And in the same year Leon Mugesera who was MRND Vice-Chairman for Gisenyi prefecture.
In a speech given on November 22, 1992 in Rwanda, Mugesera allegedly told 1000 party members that
"we the people are obliged to take responsibility ourselves and wipe out this scum" and that they should kill Tutsis and dump their bodies into Nyabarongo river directly becoming a shortcut for them to reach Abyssinia their origin, an inflammatory speech.
Back to the RPF side, by July 1992, all RPA forces had settled in their respective zones. Some mobile forces had settled in the current Burera District, others in the present day Gicumbi District and others in today’s Nyagatare District stretching the
sectors of Tabagwe, Karama, Kiyombe, Mukarange, Kivuye and Butaro. The ceasefire, which was agreed on by both parties to give peace talks between the RPF Inkotanyi and the Government of Rwanda a chance, started sometime in September 1992.
A military observer group (GOM) was deployed by Organisation of African Unity (OAU) as a neutral Observer Group to man a buffer zone between the RPA and Ex-Far that stretched from Tabagwe (Nyagatare) to Butaro (Burera) as part of ceasefire agreement and
as a precondition for the peace talks to start, a 20km width zone also known as Zone Tempo in french. GOM was meant to minimize any cross exchange of fire between the two forces, thus breaking ceasefire rules and regulations.
in July 1992 that the Chairman of the High Command decided to form bigger but stronger eight mobile forces positioned in selected areas of the captured territory. Formation of larger, oversized and highly mobile battalions and affording them seasoned, battle
hardened Commanding Officers (COs) who would re-organize them into a formidable army that would engage the Ex-FAR conventionally and if needed to break up into smaller units and revert to mobile guerilla tactics. The RPA had by now acquired enough weaponry
captured from the government forces to arm all the oversized battalions in the making.

The following mobile battalions were created out of so many smaller ones:

1. Alpha Mobile Force occupied Miyove, Kivuye, Bungwe, Manyagiro, Gishambashayo, Rubaya,
Gatuna and deployed up to Ngondore linking up with the 17th Battalion.

2. 59th Mobile force deployed beyond Kivuye in Kirambo and across the Urugezi swamp to Rwerere in the now Burera District and linked up with Charlie Mobile Force
3. Charlie Mobile Force that deployed in Butaro – Kidaho and Kinyababa areas with foot patrols up to Musanze- Cyanika Road.

4. 101 Mobile Force stationed at Mukarange linked up with 17th Battalion on the right flank at the Ngondore road block
5. 21 Mobile Force was stationed on the left flank of the 101 Mobile Force and deployed in part of Bwisige and Kinyami

6. Bravo Mobile Force was on the left of 21st Mobile Force and deployed in Kiyombe area, Muhambo, Nyagahita& the surrounding hills of Bwisige.
7. The 7th Mobile Force was stationed in Karama and controlled Shabana, Nyarurema, Mimuli and Ngarama areas

8. 157 Mobile Force was stationed at Tabagwe - Gishuro areas controlled the whole area along the areas of Mabare, Kangoma, Nyabitekeri, Nshuli, Rurenge along the Umuvumba
river up to Rukomo.

It should be noted that the Chairman of the High Command through the entire liberation struggle kept re-structuring the RPA units to strategically meet the objectives of whichever missions in the offing.
After 6 months of cessation of fire from July 1992 to February 1993, the RPA was a well-organized, trained& politicized army. It had been organized into a new structure of fewer 8 & stronger self-reliant combined MF. Each unit comprised of 8 companies (coy)
It was during the Peace Talks negotiation, while at Arusha that Col Theoneste Bagosora, on 20th January 1993 declared an apocalypse, literally meaning to massacre Tutsis. After this infamous declaration, indeed the Tutsis in Kibilira (Western Rwanda) started
being killed. Bagosora is the architect of the Genocide Against Tutsi. As stated by late Captain (Retired) Ndahiro Logan, The ceasefire was by and large observed although some exchange of fire here and there was not so uncommon between RPA and Ex-Far
the massacre of Tutsis in Kibilira (Western Rwanda) caused an attack on 8th Feb 1993 which gave a military lesson to Habyarimana's forces and brought them to the negotiating table they didn't care about.
The lesson was in form of a sudden, lightening attack.
on the unsuspecting Ex-Far by crossing the Demilitarized Zone (buffer zone) and attacking them far behind their defenses, this order was for all mobile forces to swing into action and give the Ex-Far a damn lesson.
RPA troops movements started on 6-7th Feb 1993
The attack was acted to all the Northern part of the country halting and cutting supply routes for Far and the stop was at Shyorongi around 50km from the Capital. Where by the Chief of High Command ordered a full retreat to previous positions before the attack
Some cutting Musanze-Rubavu roads for example Charlie Mobile Force (MF) while like 59th MF cut Cyanika-Musanze road and been given to 157th as 59th marched to support Alpha Mobile Forces and set up a road block to Musanze-Kigali road.
Other MFs were in confrontation with Ex-Far in Demilitarized zone and other areas. On 17th March 1993 all RPA forces "withdrew en mass". All the forces went back to their original defenses before the attack. Late Savimbi, on hearing this news of our withdraw;
wondered over BBC how a guerrilla force can surrender its captured territory just like that? Some of us shared his argument although we had to pull back anyway (Said by late retired Cpt Ndahiro Logan). The Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) was enlarged about 15km-20km in width
On 8th March 1993 there was a International report release showing the implication and the role of the then presidential bureau in the massacre of tutsis of bagogwe in Gisenyi and Ruhengeri prefectures.

On 7th April same year, the government denied everything
included in the released Report on 8th March. In August there was the beginning of hatred speeches being broadcasted on RTLM (Radio Télévision Libre des Mille Collines).
On 4th August in Arusha, Tanzania, peace and power-sharing agreements are signed with
the supposition they will end the war. In Oct., the UN Security Council Resolution 872 creates UNAMIR (United Nations Assistance Mission in Rwanda), composed of 2,500 peacekeepers and military observers. Two months later, the French troops of Operation
Noroit leave Rwanda, giving way to UNAMIR. And tho they had signed the Arusha accord in August, the Gvt kept training interahamwe, impuzamugambi and other milicia groups to carry the planned genocide against tutsi.
28th Dec 1993, The 3rd Battalion of 600 RPA Soldiers also known as RUKAGA went in CND accompanied RPF Politicians to participate in the Broad-Based Transitional Government (BBTG) and the five political parties that had in anticipation of general elections.
In the next tweets we are about to see how the Genocide Against Tutsi was planned in years between 1990-1994 as released by CNLG (National Commission for the Fight Against Genocide) according to months Jan to Feb or from March to April. These are few from the many evidences
Some key activities that marked the date of 6-12th Jan 1990-1994 in preparation of the Genocide Against Tutsi
- 30th Oct 1991
- 8th Jan 1992
- 9th Jan 1993 later creation of AMASASU in FAR
- 8th Jan 1994
- 12th Jan 1994
Key events that constitute preparation of the Genocide Against Tutsi on the dates 26th-31st Jan 1991-1994
- 28th Jan-3rd Feb 1991
- 31st Jan 1993
- 27th Jan 1994
Planning of the Genocide Against Tutsi actions carried out from February 1-8, 1991-1994

- 4th Feb 1991
- 8th Feb 1993
- Feb 22-28th 1993
- 2nd Feb 1994

Role played by France as Op Noroit had 688 while DAMI det had 100 soldiers and they trained 20 000 men
Planning of the Genocide Against Tutsi Actions between February 9-15th 1991-1994

Genocide Planning
Highlights from 8-15 March, 1991-1994

from page 1-4

Genocide Planning
Highlights from 8-15 March, 1991-1994

from page 5-6

Preparation of the Genocide against tutsi
Highlights from 29th March- 4th April, 1991-1994

1 of 2
Preparation of the Genocide against tutsi
Highlights from 29th March- 4th April, 1991-1994

2 of 2

The complicity role of French Ambassadors to Rwanda Btn October 1990-April 1994

1. Martres Georges(1990-1993)

2. Marlaud Jean Michel(1993-1994)

And the other one will be Paul Dijoud Director of African Affairs in France government of Mitterrand

The complicity role of french Ambassadors to Rwanda Btn October 1990-April 1994

1. Martres Georges(1990-1993)

2. Marlaud Jean Michel(1993-1994)

And the other one will be Paul Dijoud Director of African Affairs in France government of Mitterrand


The complicity role of french Ambassadors to Rwanda Btn October 1990-April 1994

1. Martres Georges (1990-1993)

2. Marlaud Jean Michel (1993-1994)

And the other one will be Paul Dijoud Director of African Affairs in France government of Mitterrand

In 1992 Paul Dijoud, Director of African Affairs in the Mitterrand gvt, is meeting in France, a delegation of the RPF from Mulindi to discuss a cease-fire with then Habyarimana Gvt. Maj Gen Kagame, the then head of the RPA, is part of the delegation.
Dijoud turns to him& warns: ‘if you continue advancing your troops, you won't find any single one of your people left in Rwanda’
As Pres Kayibanda said in 1964 "assuming the impossible that you'd capture Kigali. That'd be the total and precipitated end of the Tutsi"
1 April 1994: RTLM broadcasts a report that PM Agathe Uwilingiyimana is planning a coup, and warns that if the President is removed from office, Tutsis will be exterminated. These messages were repeated throughout the day.
3rd APR 1994: Genocidal regime sponsored radio RTLM, announces that something is happening in Kigali around 7 April &that the noise of bullets will be heard. On d said date, d Genocide Against Tutsi, prepared for a very long time, began!!

4th APRIL 1994: Colonel Théoneste Bagosora meets Colonel Luc Marchal, Commander of UNAMIR's Belgian forces, and tells him that “the only probable solution for Rwanda would be the elimination of the Tutsi.”
So before we go on the Genocide Against Tutsi here is a thread you need to read by
@IntwaliBruce showing Gregory Stanton's stages of Genocide
Genocide is a process that develops in ten stages that are predictable but not inexorable. At each stage, preventive measures can stop it. The process is not linear. Stages may occur simultaneously. Logically, later stages must be preceded by earlier stages.
But all stages continue to operate throughout the process.
Here are the Stages or steps of a Genocide

1. CLASSIFICATION: All cultures have categories to distinguish people into “us& them” by ethnicity, race, religion, or nationality genocidewatch.net/genocide-2/8-s…
The main preventive measure at this early stage is to develop universalistic institutions that transcend ethnic or racial divisions, that actively promote tolerance and understanding, and that promote classifications that transcend the divisions.
The Roman Catholic Church could have played this role in Rwanda, had it not been riven by the same ethnic cleavages as Rwandan society. Promotion of a common language in countries like Tanzania has also promoted transcendent national identity.
This search for common ground is vital to early prevention of genocide.

2. SYMBOLIZATION: We give names or other symbols to the classifications. We name people “Jews” or “Gypsies,” or distinguish them by colors or dress; and apply the symbols to members of
groups. Classification and symbolization are universally human and do not necessarily result in genocide unless they lead to dehumanization. When combined with hatred, symbols may be forced upon unwilling members of pariah groups:
the yellow star for Jews under Nazi rule, the blue scarf for people from the Eastern Zone in Khmer Rouge Cambodia.

To combat symbolization, hate symbols can be legally forbidden (swastikas in Germany) as can hate speech. Group marking like gang clothing
or tribal scarring can be outlawed, as well. The problem is that legal limitations will fail if unsupported by popular cultural enforcement. Though Hutu and Tutsi were forbidden words in Burundi until the 1980’s, code words replaced them.
If widely supported, however, denial of symbolization can be powerful, as it was in Bulgaria, where the government refused to supply enough yellow badges and at least eighty percent of Jews did not wear them, depriving the yellow star of its significance
as a Nazi symbol for Jews.

3. DISCRIMINATION: A dominant group uses law, custom, and political power to deny the rights of other groups. The powerless group may not be accorded full civil rights, voting rights, or even citizenship.
The dominant group is driven by an exclusionary ideology that would deprive less powerful groups of their rights. The ideology advocates monopolization or expansion of power by the dominant group. It legitimizes the victimization of weaker groups.
Advocates of exclusionary ideologies are often charismatic, expressing resentments of their followers, attracting support from the masses. Examples include the Nuremberg Laws of 1935 in Nazi Germany, which stripped Jews of their German citizenship, and
prohibited their employment by the gvt and by universities. Denial of citizenship to the Rohingya Muslim minority in Burma is a current example.

Prevention Vs discrimination means full political empowerment& citizenship rights for all groups in a society.
Discrimination on the basis of nationality, ethnicity, race or religion should be outlawed. Individuals should have the right to sue the state, corporations, and other individuals if their rights are violated.

4. DEHUMANIZATION: One group denies the humanity
of the other group. Members of it are equated with animals, vermin, insects or diseases. Dehumanization overcomes the normal human revulsion against murder. At this stage, hate propaganda in print and on hate radios is used to vilify the victim group.
The majority group is taught to regard the other group as less than human, and even alien to their society. They are indoctrinated to believe that “We are better off without them.” The powerless group can become so depersonalized that they are
actually given numbers rather than names, as Jews were in the death camps. They are equated with filth, impurity, and immorality. Hate speech fills the propaganda of official radio, newspapers, and speeches.

To combat dehumanization, incitement to
Genocide should not be confused with protected speech. Genocidal societies lack constitutional protection for countervailing speech, and should be treated differently than democracies. Local and international leaders should condemn the use of hate speech and
make it culturally unacceptable. Leaders who incite genocide should be banned from international travel and have their foreign finances frozen. Hate radio stations should be jammed or shut down, and hate propaganda banned. Hate crimes and atrocities should be
promptly punished.

5. ORGANIZATION: Genocide is always organized, usually by the state, often using militias to provide deniability of state responsibility. Sometimes organization is informal or decentralized. Special army units or militias are often
trained and armed. Arms are purchased by states and militias, often in violation of UN Arms Embargos, to facilitate acts of genocide. States organize secret police to spy on, arrest, torture, and murder people suspected of opposition to political leaders.
Special training is given to murderous militias and special army killing units.

To combat this stage, membership in genocidal militias should be outlawed. Their leaders should be denied visas for foreign travel and their foreign assets frozen.
The UN should impose arms embargoes on governments and citizens of countries involved in genocidal massacres, and create commissions to investigate violations

6. POLARIZATION: Extremists drive the groups apart. Hate groups broadcast polarizing propaganda.
Motivations for targeting a group are indoctrinated through mass media. Laws may forbid intermarriage or social interaction. Extremist terrorism targets moderates, intimidating& silencing the center. Moderates from the perpetrators’ own group are most able to
stop genocide, so are the first to be arrested and killed. Leaders in targeted groups are the next to be arrested and murdered. The dominant group passes emergency laws or decrees that grants them total power over the targeted group. The laws erode
fundamental civil rights and liberties. Targeted groups are disarmed to make them incapable of self-defense, and to ensure that the dominant group has total control. Prevention may mean security protection for moderate leaders or assistance to human rights
groups. Assets of extremists may be seized, and visas for international travel denied to them. Coups d’état by extremists should be opposed by international sanctions. Vigorous objections should be raised to disarmament of opposition groups. If necessary they
should be armed to defend themselves.

7. PREPARATION: Plans are made for genocidal killings. National or perpetrator group leaders plan the “Final Solution” to the Jewish, Armenian, Tutsi or other targeted group “question.”
They often
use euphemisms to cloak their intentions, such as referring to their goals as “ethnic cleansing,” “purification,” / “counter-terrorism.” They build armies, buy weapons& train their troops& militias. They indoctrinate the populace with fear of the victim group.
Leaders often claim that “if we don’t kill them, they'll kill us,” disguising Genocide as self-defense. Acts of genocide are disguised as counter-insurgency if there is an ongoing armed conflict or civil war. There is a sudden increase in inflammatory rhetoric
and hate propaganda with the objective of creating fear of the other group. Political processes such as peace accords that threaten the total dominance of the genocidal group or upcoming elections that may cost them their grip on total power may actually
trigger Genocide.
Prevention of preparation may include arms embargos& commissions to enforce them. It should include prosecution of incitement and conspiracy to commit genocide, both crimes under Article 3 of the Genocide Convention.
These were speeches and statements made by Leaders such as Ngirumpatse Mathieu the president of MRND, Karamira Froduald V/P of CDR and Col Bagosora the architect of the Genocide Against Tutsi were they encouraged and implemented it
The purpose of the Genocide is to exterminate totally the race/group of people and this is shown as there families that are wiped out completely as there is no one survived in a given family while perpetrators erase memories of them
8. PERSECUTION: Victims are identified and separated out because of their ethnic/religious identity. Death lists are drawn up. In state sponsored genocide, members of victim groups may be forced to wear identifying symbols. Their property is often expropriated.
Sometimes they are even segregated into ghettoes, deported into concentration camps, or confined to a famine-struck region and starved. They are deliberately deprived of resources such as water or food in order to slowly destroy them. Programs are implemented
to prevent procreation through forced sterilization or abortions. Children are forcibly taken from their parents. The victim group’s basic human rights become systematically abused through extrajudicial killings, torture and forced displacement.
Genocidal massacres begin. They are acts of genocide because they intentionally destroy part of a group. The perpetrators watch for whether such massacres meet any international reaction. If not, they realize that that the international community will again be
bystanders and permit another Genocide.

At this stage, a Genocide Emergency must be declared. If the political will of the great powers, regional alliances, or U.N. Security Council/ the U.N. General Assembly can be mobilized, armed international intervention
should be prepared, or heavy assistance provided to the victim group to prepare for its self-defense. Humanitarian assistance should be organized by the U.N. and private relief groups for the inevitable tide of refugees to come.
9. EXTERMINATION begins, and quickly becomes the mass killing legally called “genocide.” It is “extermination” to the killers because they do not believe their victims to be fully human. When it is sponsored by the state, the armed forces often work with
militias to do the killing. Acts of genocide demonstrate how dehumanized the victims have become. Already dead bodies are dismembered; rape is used as a tool of war to genetically alter& eradicate the other group. Destruction of cultural& religious property is
employed to annihilate the group’s existence from history. Mass rapes of women and girls have become a characteristic of all modern genocides. All men of fighting age are murdered in some genocides. In total genocides all the members of the targeted group are exterminated.
At this stage, only rapid& overwhelming armed intervention can stop genocide. Real safe areas/ refugee escape corridors should be established with heavily armed international protection. (An unsafe “safe” area is worse than none at all.) The U.N.
Standing High Readiness Brigade, EU Rapid Response Force, or regional forces — should be authorized to act by the U.N. Security Council if the Genocide is small. For larger interventions, a multilateral force authorized by the U.N. should intervene.
If the U.N. Security Council is paralyzed, regional alliances must act anyway under Chapter VIII of the U.N. Charter or the UN General Assembly should authorize action under the Uniting for Peace Resolution GARes. 330 (1950), which has been used 13 times for
such armed intervention. Since 2005, the international responsibility to protect transcends the narrow interests of individual nation states. If strong nations won't provide troops to intervene directly, they should provide the airlift, equipment,& financial
means necessary for regional states to intervene.

10. DENIAL is the final stage that lasts throughout and always follows genocide. It is among the surest indicators of further genocidal massacres. The perpetrators of genocide dig up the mass graves, burn the
bodies, try to cover up the evidence and intimidate the witnesses. They deny that they committed any crimes, and often blame what happened on the victims. They block investigations of the crimes, and continue to govern until driven from power by force,
when they flee into exile. There they remain with impunity, like Pol Pot or Idi Amin, unless they are captured and a tribunal is established to try them.
The best response to denial is punishment by an international tribunal or national courts.
There the evidence can be heard, and the perpetrators punished. Tribunals like the Yugoslav, Rwanda or Sierra Leone Tribunals, the tribunal to try the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia, or the International Criminal Court may not deter the worst genocidal killers.
But with the political will to arrest and prosecute them, some may be brought to justice. When possible, local proceedings should provide forums for hearings of the evidence against perpetrators who were not the main leaders and planners of a genocide,
with opportunities for restitution and reconciliation. The Rwandan Gacaca trials are one example. Justice should be accompanied by education in schools and the media about the facts of a genocide, the suffering it caused its victims, the motivations of its perpetrators,
and the need for restoration of the rights of its victims.
So those are the stages of the Genocide according
to Gregory H. Stanton, President, Genocide Watch genocidewatch.net/genocide-2/8-s…
"Some of us had been refugees since 1959...So we mainly focused on d very fact that there was a need for change in the country and that these stateless people, ourselves... in the neighboring countries and beyond needed 2 come back home"
~Major Gen Kagame
We are on 4th April 1994....Radio RTLM announced that there is something that's gonna happen around on 7th, 8th April that everyone should be ready and prepared the journalist Noël Hitimana on RTLM, announced in its editorial the very close arrival of
"a little unexpected event (akantu) "which was to end with a fatal attack in Kigali in dates of April 3-8. Noël Hitimana assigned responsibility for this event to the RPF and clarified that it will provoke an immediate and violent reaction from the FAR:
"By the way, the RPF had better calm down. There are our agents who send us information. They tell us like this: on the date of 3, 4,& 5, there must be a
unexpected event here in Kigali, Kigali-city. And even on the date of 7 and 8. You hear the sound of bullets or hear grenades
thunder. But I hope the Rwandan armed forces are on the alert. […] Otherwise, hold Kigali, we know it, we know it. On the date of 3, 4, and 5, it is expected that a
unusual event is going to happen here in Kigali, and even they're going to continue and get rest on the date of 6.
Then, on the date of 7 and 8, they will trigger an event
unusual using these bullets and grenades. But in reality, there is the final attack (Simusiga) that they are planning. And they say, "When we have accomplished this event to disrupt the city, we're going to get on with
the final attack. As for the date itself, my agent didn't tell me yet, he didn't tell me again said. […] This will provoke the fact that the armed forces of this country are to get angry and they can do like this: OU POUH ’! All these are stories of Tutsi,
they are the ones who cause us all this headache ”
The assassination was announced earlier in 1992 and in 1993 as when Kangura published an article illustrating how Habyarimana would be killed. The beginnings of President Habyarimana's assassination plot appeared in 1992 after he ordered Defense Minister
James Gasana to retire of the tenors of the army and the gendarmerie, the two chiefs of staff, colonel Laurent Serubuga and colonel Pierre-Célestin Rwagafirita, as well as colonel Bonaventure Buregeya, head of national security& cousin of the President’s wife.
In reaction against this measure, senior officers concerned organized themselves into a predecessor association that of AMASASU, called BARUHARANIYE, whose direction was entrusted to Colonel Serubuga; this association launched into a fierce opposition campaign
against the merger of the two armies and the retirement of the FAR soldiers. The Minister of defense, James Gasana, threatened with death had to flee. From the beginning of 1994, publicly expressed remarks, relayed by the writings of extremists of
the Coalition for the Defense of the Republic (CDR), whose hérault was Hassan Ngeze, editor of Kangura, predicted that the death of the president Habyarimana would appear in March 1994, specifying that the author of the assassination will be a Hutu acting for
the benefit of Tutsi. The Kangura newspaper in its special issue published in December 1993 headlined on its cover: "Habyarimana will die in March 1994" and
explained that this death will be carried out as part of an assassination carried out on the sidelines
of a religious ceremony or major international conference:
"Over the past three months, we have reported on malicious plans hidden in the heads of a few people. Some of them are written on paper, others 've been prepared, without their authors being able to put
them at execution. Last month we received perfectly convincing evidence illustrating how President Habyarimana is going to be killed. He will not be assassinated by a Tutsi, but by a Hutu who will have been bribed by the Tutsi. We have verified this information
with great care, analyzed these indices, and have
found that the plan had been prepared and matured for a long time, but that its implementation
execution would not be easy because their authors fear its consequences. (…) The President Habyarimana will be
killed as follows:
1. be shot during mass;
2. be shot in an important meeting attended by others
leaders of his time.
President Habyarimana will be shot by a person who has been demobilized from FAR in accordance with the Arusha Accords. This person
will be a Hutu paid by the Inyenzi. The reason that will be advanced to explain the causes of this drama will relate to the discontent of the soldiers who will consider themselves to be bad rewarded for their efforts for the country during the war. There will
not have much protest about this assassination because our intelligence is infiltrated by Inyenzi, including within the gendarmerie. As for our armed forces, they will not be so angry at this act. A
part of them will say that he is [President Habyarimana]
behind his own death because of allegiances he gave to Inyenzi and improper promises that he did to them. We keep this information from very knowledgeable sources.
(…) No one likes Habyarimana's life more than himself, the main thing for us being to reveal
to him, the manner in which he will be killed. "

The idea of ​​attacking President Habyarimana's life fits into this framework and the decision to assassinate him was taken after the meeting of April 02, 1994 which brought together in Gisenyi by
President Habyarimana, the United Nations special representative in Rwanda, Jack Roger Booh-Booh, as well as other dignitaries of the MRND and the army, including its secretary general Joseph Nzirorera. At the end of this meeting, President Habyarimana had
indeed committed to removing all obstacles to the establishment of transitional institutions, contrary to the desire to oppose it expressed by Bagosora and Nzirorera.
The situation escalated further on April 4, 1994 when President Habyarimana instructed
his chief of staff, Enoch Ruhigira, to draft a press release announcing the swearing-in of members of the government and the transitional parliament for the day of April 8, 1994, the day after his return from the summit of Dar-ès-Salaam. But the tension was seen
As the assassination of Habyarimana was in process and the implementation of the Genocide Against Tutsi to be immediately set into motion by the mastermind col Theonest Bagosora alias "Mike Tango". Another journal named La Médaille Nyiramacibiri in
February 1994 published an article its number 5, mentioned the imminence of a total war to which nobody would survive: "Who will survive the March War? (...) The masses will rise with the help
of the army and blood will flow freely. "
the genocide was being planned but then
here are the evidence in the army (FAR) that there was a plot as seen from 4th April to 6th April in Kigali and its vicinity and that they were ready especially the "Garde Presidencielle", Escadron and Para-commando
Witness Nduruhutse Elias, FAR chief warrant officer who lived at Camp Kanombe in the para-commando battalion, reports that on April 4, 1994, he was sent with other soldiers from his battalion to strengthen the protection of the presidential guard, and that
he had noted that the soldiers of the presidential guard were very few in the camp, which means that they had been sent in operations in town, in particular in Kanombe, proof that something was preparing for the level of the presidential guard and the para-commando battalion:
“On April 4, 1994, we had a meeting with our superiors at the Para commando battalion in Kanombe, led by Major Ntabakuze. We were informed that the situation was not good, that the RPF was in danger of attacking the presidential guard
camp, that it was therefore necessary to go in for reinforcement. The company I lived in was appointed on April 05 to do this work and I was one of them. When I got to the presidential guard camp, I realized that the camp was almost empty, there were no
more than fifty soldiers; everyone else had been sent out to different places. We were placed around the camp to provide security. We spent the whole day there from April 06 until the evening and we saw that there was something wrong. That day, we were put on
alert for the fighting, claiming that the presidential guard camp was going to be attacked. The whole question is why our leaders considered these two days to be a danger, which had not been the case before. Why this particular attention on these two days? ”.
Sgt Muhutu Corneille says, "This news concerning the coup were circulated in the Kanombe military camp. It was said that the Major Ntabakuze prepared the coup with the support of the para-commando battalion.
It was before the plane was shot down, around
the month of February." Nkeshumpatse Callixte, corporal in the paracommando battalion adds: "Rumors have circulated in the army about Bagosora’s desire to have a coup to overthrow the president. I have them heard ”. His comrade Sengendo Vénuste heard
similar things: "I'll tell you another little thing. Three months before the attack, some soldiers whispered that Habyarimana was going to be shut down, that there was a conspiracy against his plane, which is why he was discreetly left the country.
They said it was Habyarimana who prevented us from
massacre the Tutsi, exterminate the Inyenzi. They refused to mix the two armies and said it would be after his death. They said that Bagosora and the French had a plan to kill Habyarimana. It has been said that
if he dies, they will be able to kill the Tutsi, execute the genocide ”. More clearly, Colonel Bagosora unveiled April 4, 1994 during a reception at the Méridien Hotel in Kigali that it did not accept the Arusha Accords and that it disapproved of the President
Habyarimana's trip to Dar-es-Salam where he was going to make the commitment solemn of their implementation. Colonel Bagosora added that the president Habyarimana would be killed in an attack on his plane and that death will be followed by
the extermination of Tutsi.
This information was given by General Major Laurent
Munyakazi during his trial and is reported in his judgment in the manner next :
"On September 11, 2006, the trial opened on the request for clarification addressed to Major General Munyakazi to
explain what he had said, describing the behavior of Colonel Bagosora and Lt Colonel Renzaho as similar to that of the Interahamwe. General Major Munyakazi explained that the 04/04/1994 Colonel Bagosora then director of cabinet at the Ministry of Defense,
during a reception at the Méridien hotel, said words extremely which showed that he was preparing for the extermination of the Tutsi. On this occasion,
Bagosora said he contested the merits of the Arusha Accords despite the fact that they had been signed by the
President of the Republic and the RPF. He stated
that he was opposed to the removal of the President of the Republic to Tanzania, and that the plane in which he will travel will be shot down.
Before April 07, 1994, Mugenzi Richard explained that Lt-Col. Anatole Nsengiyumva him had brought another message, April 05, 1994, and also asked him to copy it
as if it were an authentically intercepted message, on which it was written that something was

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More from @Nyac_juru_jesse

5 May 20
Le Roi NDOBA a laissé de nombreux enfants qui ont fait souche et ont laissé trace
dans l'histoire, tels que :
1) Cyenge qui fut. nommé par RUGANZU ? BWIMBA, régent du royaume
une quinzaine d'années pendant la minorité de Cyilima Rugwe.

Cyenge eut à lutter contre Mw.;ndo, frère du roi défunt, qui voulait s'emparer du
tambour, au détriment de son neveu en bas-âge.
Ce fut là l'origine du rôle prépondérant que la famille des Bakobga a joué à la
cour de tout temps,

parmi les équipes des gardiens des coutumes: «Abiru». Jusqu'à
nos jours, ils étaient gardiens du «musezero» (bois sacré) de Byimana près de la mission
de ce nom, qui servait de cimatière aux-Reines-mères.

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