Thanks to everyone who shared my article. Seems like it was read widely. Here is a thread on some of the resources/materials I referred to and which provide more context esp. on tree planting/afforestation in India. Plus a few comments I received... thread... 1/n
A good place to start is this paper on the Pitfalls of Tree Planting by @ForrestFleisch1 @this_is_divya and others. Well argued and worth reading... 2/n…
Much research + scientists have pointed out why planting trees in non-forest ecosystems such as grasslands and savannas is a bad idea. Here's a great paper
Savannahs of Asia: antiquity, biogeography, and an uncertain future by Jayashree Ratnam et al… 3/n Image
Read that with this one:
When is a ‘forest’ a savanna, and why does it matter?…
Savanna-grasslands in southern India have grasses and >270 herb species, but people plant trees often at unsuitably high densities
As for planting trees in grasslands--it can have terrible consequences on the ecosystem as we have witnessed with so-called scientific forestry in the Upper Nilgiris in the colonial period and later…
Similarly in the Palani Hills: where >90% of the original montane grasslands (shola grasslands) have been lost to invasive wattle plantations, posing huge challenges today for grassland restoration as @JanakiLenin wrote @thewire_in 6/n…
Over 66% of the grasslands and 31% of the forests were lost in the last 4 decades as this research by Arasumani @vvrobin @IanLockwood9 and others have shown…
Before planting trees there are many aspects to consider--here are some voices from the global South articulating some key concerns and nuances 8/n…
India's program of compensatory afforestation (CAMPA), suffers from many of the problems plaguing badly-planned tree planting. I wrote about this in June... posted now on my blog 9/n…
Read the analysis of afforestation and CAMPA in this CFR-LA report (referred in my @TheHinduMag article):

Impact of Compensatory Afforestation on Land & Forest Rights: Interim Report 10/n…
Explore this StoryMap that shows 17 compensatory afforestation sites across India 11/n…
A lot of the afforestation is being carried out violating forest rights and conservation laws 12/n…
More about that in articles by Chitrangad Choudhury here:… and here:…
An extremely timely and valuable resource is this mapping of India's Open Natural Ecosystems (ONEs) done by @mdmadhusudan @abi_vanak and others @atree_org and how 51% of those areas are threatened by tree planting , besides other development threats… 14/n
Pretty appalling that compensatory afforestation plantations were being carried out affecting local people and violating their rights even right through the pandemic in some states 15/n…
Another important aspect to consider is the effects of tree planting on hydrology and water. Trees can have positive effects in some ecosystems, but not all. See this article and linked paper by @JagdishKrishna8 and others to understand more 16/n…
Comments on my article pointing out aspects I had not touched on, include, from @AparajitaDatta4:
1) Need to plant trees at the right time/season (not just when convenient, politicians birthdays etc!)
2) One-time planting (without long-term care/maintenance) often useless
Even where tree planting is appropriate, trees are planted in inappropriate (too high) densities (Pradip Krishen pointed out). This often happens in the so-called #Miyawaki forests and #afforestation, as this article points out: 18/n…
How one arrives at the "right species in the right place in the right mix and right manner" needs to be articulated: historical sources, floras, benchmark sites, indigenous people. Could be subjective (thanks @suprabhaseshan) and needs careful thought and consideration. 19/n
Anyhow, hope that's given enough food for thought about tree planting, #ecologicalrestoration, #afforestation, #Miyawaki forests, Open Natural Ecosystems and more. Do read and feel free to share widely... n/n…

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