A nation takes a new path.

A new foreign dynasty, but at its last leg.

An uncertain future for one of the richest countries in the world.

Story in the evening ...
Wilhelm Alexander von Nassau was born in 1852 to Adolf, Duke of Nassau, and Princess Adelheid-Marie of Anhalt-Dessau. Formed during the Napoleonic Wars, the Duchy of Nassau was a constituent of the German Confederation formed after the Congress of Vienna in 1815. 1/10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_IV,_Grand_Duke_of_Luxe
But after the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, the Confederation was disbanded. Nassau, having sided with the defeated Empire of Austria, was annexed by Prussia, bringing to an end over seven centuries of rule by Wilhelm's family in Nassau. 2/10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austro-Prussian_War#/media/Fil
Founded in 1125, County of Nassau was initially divided in 1255 into two by brothers, Walram and Otto. There were many more subsequent divisions over the centuries, but in 1783 the House of Nassau made a pact to formalize succession in case a branch dies out. 3/10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/County_of_Nassau#/media/File:Nhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duchy_of_Nassau#/media/File:Ma
Wilhelm and his cousin, Georg Nikolaus von Merenberg, were the last legitimate male descendants of Count Walram. Count Otto's line also had reached its end with Willem III, King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg. 4/10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_III_of_the_Netherlands
Both of King Willem's sons had died by 1884, leaving his daughter, Wilhelmina, to inherit Netherlands. The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, however, did not allow succession in the female line and so, the former Duke of Nassau was slated to inherit it. 5/10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolphe,_Grand_Duke_of_Luxembo
Duke Adolf became Grand Duke in 1890, leaving the administration of Luxembourg to Prime Minister Paul Eyschen. It was during this time that Luxembourg developed a stronger identity as an independent nation, with the adoption of a National Anthem. 6/10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Eyschen#/media/File:Paul_
Wilhelm became the Grand Duke in 1905 after his father's death. However, the question of heir was still an issue since the Grand Duke had no sons. His cousin could not succeed either, because his parents' marriage was morganatic. 7/10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie-Ad%C3%A9la%C3%AFde,_Gran
In 1907, the law was amended to allow the succession in the female line. Marie-Adélaïde, the eldest daughter of Grand Duke Wilhelm, became the heir presumptive. She became Grand Duchess in 1912, aged 17, under the regency of her mother, Maria Ana de Braganza. 8/10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infanta_Marie_Anne_of_Portugal
The Great War saw Luxembourg occupied by Germany. The death of Prime Minister Eyschen in 1915 also made things worse for Luxembourg. The historic German connection of Nassau did not help matters. Their neighbours, France and Belgium, also had designs on the Grand Duchy. 9/10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_occupation_of_Luxembour
The Grand Duchess abdicated in 1919 in her sister's favour. Grand Duchess Charlotte married Italian / Spanish / French Prince Felix of Bourbon Parma and her grandson is the current monarch of Luxembourg. 10/10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlotte,_Grand_Duchess_of_Luhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henri,_Grand_Duke_of_Luxembour

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More from @Arby_K

9 Oct
Feedback Time - A year back, I started writing 11 tweet long twitter threads on historic personalities (Mostly European, as it turned out) who have an impact on present day world. I have done 135 threads so far and now wondering if I should continue? 1/5
The thread in question, started on 12th October 2020 2/5

Collated into two blog posts with added context on their impact in present day world 3/5

Read 5 tweets
8 Oct
A treaty to divide the world.

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Pedro Álvares Cabral was born around 1467 to Fernão Cabral and Isabel de Gouveia. Born in Belmonte, his family was among the Portuguese nobility connected with generations of service to the King. But unlike his predecessors', his was an age of exploration. 1/10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pedro_%C3%81lvares_Cabral#/med
The last decades of the 15th century saw a revival of Portuguese exploration, with the ascension of King João to the throne in 1481. The King had India in his sights and his ships set sail in search of the end of the African continent and a route to India beyond Africa. 2/10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_II_of_Portugal#/media/Fil
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5 Oct
It always begins with the first step.

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Henrique de Portugal was born in 1394 to King João of Portugal & Philippa of Lancaster. Born illegitimate to King Pedro of Portugal, João had fought Kingdom of Castile to establish his control over Portugal, after Castile claimed the crown and arrested João's half brothers. 1/10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prince_Henry_the_Navigator#/me
Henrique was the third oldest son among the five legitimate sons of his father. Unlikely to succeed as King, Henrique's future changed when his father led an expedition to Marinid Cueta in 1415. It would be the first step for Henrique's navigation into charted waters. 2/10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conquest_of_Ceuta#/media/File:
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1 Oct
An imperial dynasty disappears into the ashes, but a new one awakens.

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Otto was born in 912 to Heinrich and Mathilde.

In 911, King Ludwig of East Francia had died bringing to end the Carolingian line of East Francia. Otto's grandfather was among the contenders for the throne, but his age had caught up with him and a rival was elected. 1/10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_I,_Holy_Roman_Emperor#/me
Soon after his birth, Otto's grandfather died. His father, Heinrich, became the Duke of Saxony and when King of East Francia died in 919, Heinrich was elected as the new King. But Heinrich had his work cut out for him. Many Dukes rebelled and the Magyars were on the attack. 2/10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_I,_Holy_Roman_Emperor#/me
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28 Sep
A Prince born illegitimate.

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Story in the evening ...
Arnulf was born around 850 to Karloman and Liutswindis. Karloman was the son of Louis the German, King of East Francia, but was not married to Liutswindis. In 843, the Carolingian Empire had been divided into three among Louis and his brothers, Lothaire and Charles. 1/10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arnulf_of_Carinthia#/media/Fil
In 855, the middle part of the Empire was divided. Karloman revolted against his father in 861 and 864, finally obtaining rule of Bavaria. Karloman's younger brother, Ludwig, was in charge of Franconia and Saxony while the youngest, Charles, received Alemannia. 2/10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Verdun#/media/File:Vhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Pr%C3%BCm#/media/Fil
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24 Sep
A King who gave up his faith (and his wife) for the crown.

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Story in the evening ...
Friedrich August von Sachsen was born in 1670 to Johann Georg von Sachsen and Princess Anna Sophia of Denmark-Norway. In 1680, Johann Georg succeeded as the Elector of Saxony and in 1691, he was succeeded by Friedrich August's elder brother, Johann Georg von Sachsen. 1/10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augustus_II_the_Strong#/media/
In 1693, Friedrich August married Christiane Eberhardine von Brandenburg. The next year, he became Elector on his brother's death. His son, Friedrich August, was born in 1696. The same year Jan Sobieski died and this meant an election in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. 2/10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augustus_III_of_Poland#/media/
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