Shashank Mattoo šŸ‡®šŸ‡³ Profile picture
Sep 9 ā€¢ 12 tweets ā€¢ 3 min read Twitter logo Read on Twitter
The G20 Summit is over

The bottom line?

India got pretty much everything it wanted

Here's everything India achieved in 10 tweets šŸ§µ Image
1āƒ£. Consensus on Ukraine

This was THE issue that was going define how the world saw India's stewardship of the G20

That's because the grouping was divided on the Ukraine war

While Russia and China wanted to avoid discussion on Ukraine, Western nations wanted to condemn Russia
This issue has blocked consensus throughout šŸ‡®šŸ‡³'s G20 Presidency

Had Delhi failed to achieve consensus and release a joint declaration, the G20 summit may have been described as a failure

Eventually, a compromise was brokered that significantly toned down criticism of Russia
It was widely accepted (including by me) that India would be unable to forge a consensus on Ukraine

We were wrong

Delhi managed to get a joint declaration which will go down as THE big takeaway from this summit

It will prove beneficial to India's diplomatic reputation
2āƒ£. African Union becomes G20 member

The 55-nation AU became a member of the G20 today

This was a significant move for India, which has try to project itself as a Voice of the Global South

New Delhi can now concretely point to its record of pushing developing country concerns
3āƒ£. Economics

Two major things stand out: debt relief and reform of international institutions

On debt, poor countries have been struggling since the COVID-19 pandemic with high debt levels

Efforts to work together & bail them out (including by the G20) have been slow
India managed to speed up this process by getting consensus to help new countries like Ghana, Zambia and Ethiopia

The major story was also reform of institutions like World Bank & IMF

Experts have called for them to lend more money for climate change & to help poor nations
At this G20 Summit, countries agreed to consider major recommendations to reform these global institutions

This will allow them to spend billions on global priorities over the next decade

Besides this, progress on highly complex global tax reforms also took place
4āƒ£. Technology

First, countries agreed to consider regulations on cryptocurrencies given the threat they pose to the stability of the financial system

Second, India successfully pushed Digital Public Infrastructure (basically Aadhar, UPI) as a means of financial inclusion
This is expected to help India to export its homemade tech solutions across the developing world

This further boosts its international reputation as a provider of global solutions
5āƒ£. Climate Change

The India-led Global Biofuel Alliance was also launched today

The goal: To "take an initiative at a global-level to take ethanol blending in petrol up to 20%"

This is part of India's larger clean energy push & will help boost šŸ‡®šŸ‡³'s image abroad
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More from @MattooShashank

Sep 7
Youā€™re probably heard way too much about India and the G20

Most of it is just noise

Hereā€™s all you really need to know inĀ 10Ā tweetsšŸ§µ Image
So, what is the G20?

It's a grouping of 19 countries and the European Union

G20 members account for 85% of global GDP & 2/3rd of world population

One word defines the G20: crisis

It was created after the 2008 financial crisis to stabilise the global economy & meets every year Image
Over the last few years, the G20 has been criticised for being ineffective

Critics say the group is too large & has no real focus

Whichever country holds the Presidency of the G20 for the year changes the agenda according to what it wants to do

BUT, the G20 matters this year Image
Read 12 tweets
Sep 4
It's official: President Xi of China will skip the G20 Summit in Delhi

That's a terrible decision

Here's whyšŸ§µ Image
After weeks of speculation, China's Foreign Ministry confirmed that President Xi Jinping will skip the G20 Leaders' summit in New Delhi

Instead, China's Premier Li Qiang (No. 2 in the Chinese govt) will attend the meeting

Let's dive into why that's a really bad decision
1āƒ£. Hurts China's balancing strategy

Since the Ukraine War began in 2022,šŸ‡ØšŸ‡³ has tried to walk a tightrope

It has expressed its sympathy for Russia's war

It has provided diplomatic & economic support as the West has turned on RUS

BUT, it still wants normal ties with the West
Read 16 tweets
Sep 3
Islamabad is facing political and economic chaos

But that may not be a bad thing for its foreign policy

That's because PAK has a unique strategy

It has perfected the art of using weakness to get what it wants

PAK has used these tactics for decades against India

Here's how... Image
Two US Ambassadors, Howard and Teresita Schaffer, spent years in Pakistan

They saw Pakistan's negotiating tactics up close

Their book lays out exactly how the country's diplomats and military use "the lower hand" to get what they want

Here's how Image
Essentially, PAK puts a "gun to its own head" and threatens to pull the trigger

A good example of this is terrorism

PAK refuses to take action on terror groups citing how cracking down on these outfits would destabilise an already weak country
Read 12 tweets
Aug 28
It's been a busy week for Indian diplomacy

- Modi-Xi push for resolution to border crisis

- Who won the India-China battle at BRICS Summit?

- How Chandrayaan fits into the new space race

šŸ§µon the top 5 stories from šŸ‡®šŸ‡³ this week Image
1āƒ£. Modi-Xi meeting

PM Modi and China's President Xi Jinping met on the sidelines of the BRICS Summit

This was their second in-person meeting since the India-China border crisis began in 2020

Both leaders agreed to push their officials to speed up disengagement on the LAC Image
Since 2020, numerous rounds of military & diplomatic talks have taken place to restore normalcy

Troops have been pulled back from Galwan, Gogra, Hot Springs & other points in the border

But standoff remains at Depsang and Demchok in the western sector of the LAC Image
Read 20 tweets
Aug 27
Dr. S Jaishankar is one of the world's finest diplomats

His goal: to make India a great power

BUT, how does he intend to make that happen?

In 2020, he laid out how he sees the world and his plans for India

Here's a look into Dr. J's strategy to transform šŸ‡®šŸ‡³ Image
In 2020, Dr. Jaishankar released his book, "The India Way"

The book lays out how India's Foreign Minister sees the world

It also argues that India's foreign policy needs to change if it want to be a global power

To understand that, let's first start with Dr. J's worldview Image
Dr. J thinks the world is changing

He talks about the rise of a new "Bazaar World Order"

Two things are happening at the same time

1. Rise of nationalism
2. Death of old globalisation (free movement of people, goods) Image
Read 20 tweets
Aug 26
China's strategy on India has failed

That's because China has tried to dominate India by:

- Launching the 1962 India-China war
- Building an alliance with Pak1stan
- Undermining India in South Asia

But what is China's strategy on India?

šŸ§µon China's 5 tactics to deal with šŸ‡®šŸ‡³ Image
Tactic 1: Win negotiations before they've even begun

How?

1. Do your homework: know everything abt. your opponent, what their position is, what they've said in the past

2. Psychological tricks help. For example, negotiating on home ground works for you
Example: China outplayed India in 1949 when diplomatic ties were established

India was keen to recognise China early and earn some goodwill from its massive neighbour

China did its homework on šŸ‡®šŸ‡³ leaders like Nehru & figured that Beijing had the upper hand over India
Read 15 tweets

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