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Fan of #Biotech, #Tech and #Crypto. Love #AI/#ML, #CRISPR, #CellEnginnering, #SynBio and #iPSC in Biotech. Love #Fintech, #Automation and #EV in tech.
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Dec 6 9 tweets 2 min read
🧵PASTE Editing

Here is a look at the PASTE system for gene editing. 1/ PASTE stands for Programmable Addition via Site-specific Targeting Elements. This is being developed by MIT and there is not a ton of information on it at this point. I will go over the basics.
Dec 6 13 tweets 3 min read
🧵Prime Editing

Here we will look at prime and twin prime editing. 1/ Prime Editing is a 2nd generation editor as it takes the CAS9 system and tethers to it a Reverse Transcriptase that can take a RNA template and copy it into the DNA. This is a concept has been used by Retroviruses for millions of years.
Dec 5 4 tweets 1 min read
Here a good story on how you should always be shopping around to save money. A few months ago, I was on with my car insurance company. They asked me if I wanted to save at least 10% with this safe driving app, but it could go as high as 30%. Well 10% would be helpful. After a few months, I am getting the full 30% discount on my car insurance. Then I called them today to see if I could add roadside for towing and rentals if anything goes wrong since I am now saving 30%. I got that for just $20 per year. What a cheap deal.
Dec 5 16 tweets 4 min read
🧵Base Editing

Here we will look Base Editing. 1/ Base Editing takes the CAS9 system and takes it to the next level for targeted DNA editing. This takes the enzyme deaminase and tethers it to the CAS9 system. This CAS9 uses a Nickase which has one of the nuclease deactivated.
Dec 5 10 tweets 2 min read

Here we will look at mostly CAS14 since CAS-Phi doesn't have as much published data. 1/ Both of these CAS enzymes are being developed by Mammoth Bioscience. I will focus mainly on CAS14 as I have some published data on this enzyme. I can also add Phi later if I find some good papers on it. I call these the CAS mini enzymes.
Dec 5 11 tweets 3 min read

Here we will look at the CAS13 enzyme. 1/ This was developed by the Zhang Lab. Most of my information on this CAS13 enzyme comes from the papers published from the Lab. This system looks and operates much like CAS9, but it works on single stranded RNA. Image
Dec 4 8 tweets 2 min read

Here we will look at the CASX enzyme. 1/ The CASX enzyme was discovered by Berkeley like many of the CAS enzymes we covered in the past. They do a ton of research into this space. What I know about CASX comes from papers I read from them and Scribe Biosciences which is deploying this CASX enzyme.
Dec 4 9 tweets 2 min read

Here we will look at the CRISPR MAD7 enzyme. 1/ The MAD7 enzyme is a variant of the CAS12 which was found in bacteria from the Island of Madagascar. It share a large amount of homology to the original CAS12 from which it was mostly like derived.
Dec 4 4 tweets 2 min read
Taking a look at the Error rates of Reverse Transcriptase vs a DNA polymerase. It only takes about 10 minutes on Google to find a dozen NCBI or NIH articles on these statistics. The DNA polymerase makes about 10 to power of 9 or 1 in about 1 billion bases. The DNA polymerase comes with proofreading abilities. That means 99% of those errors are caught and fixed by the DNA polymerase and never end through. ImageImage
Dec 4 17 tweets 4 min read

Here we will look at the CRISPR CAS12 enzyme. 1/ The CAS12 system comes with 2 components. The first is the guide RNA and the second is the CAS12 enzyme itself. The CAS12 is made up of one key domain with a single cutting nuclease with RuvC.
Dec 4 10 tweets 2 min read
🧵This will be my master thread for all my CRISPR threads. 1/ Intro to CRISPR
Dec 4 17 tweets 5 min read

Here we will look at the CAS9 enzyme. 1/ The CAS9 system comes with 2 components. The first is the guide RNA and the second is the CAS9 enzyme itself. The CAS9 is made up of a few key domains with the two nucleases that are the HNH and RuvC domains.
Dec 3 22 tweets 6 min read

Here we will look at the concept of hashing in cryptocurrencies. 1/ The Hash is actually a function. Its not encryption. Its more like data compression as it takes information of any length and outputs a 256 bit (64 character) output. I refer to this as digital fingerprinting. Here is how it works.
Dec 3 17 tweets 4 min read
🧵Types of CRISPR

Here we will look at the discovery of CAS9 and the many types of CAS enzymes. 1/ The CRISPR system was discovered in 2012 by two scientists by the names of Jennifer Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier. While studying the CRISPR immune systems of the bacteria Streptococcus Pyogenes, they discovered a system that could be adapted for human genome editing. Image
Dec 3 13 tweets 4 min read
🧵Intro to CRISPR

Here we will look at the discovery of CRISPR. 1/ What does CRISPR stand for? It stands for Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats. This was discovered by scientists studying bacteria. Bacteria get infected by viruses called Bacteriophages. They attach to the bacteria and inject their viral DNA.
Dec 2 12 tweets 3 min read

This will look at the process of Meiosis and Gamete formation. 1/ Meiosis is a 2 stage process for the formation of gametes which are used to pass on the genetic information for reproduction. The first cell cycle is called Meiosis I and it is the duplication of the chromosomes into homologous chromatids.
Dec 2 6 tweets 2 min read
If you are looking for cheap biotech ideas, I suggest looking to these key themes. I call them my technology of the future themes. I will even throw in some names. Just be sure to do your own DD as this is spec biotech which is risky. #TechBio
Dec 2 10 tweets 2 min read

Using a pedigree to track a genetic trait. 1/ The pedigree is a diagram that is used to track a trait across a family tree. It might be cool to track the trait of red hair in your family, the pedigree is critical for tracking a genetic disease through a family to determine the risk of inheritance.
Dec 1 13 tweets 3 min read
Linked Genes

Here we will look at gene linkages. 1/ The rules of Mendelian Genetics treats every gene as if it were on a separate chromosome. Every gene has a 50% chance of making it into any gamete.
Dec 1 21 tweets 6 min read
🧵Private/Public key pairs.

My first ever thread on #crypto with #Private and #Public keys and how they work. 1/ I am going to do a general overview skipping all the complex math so that its easy to understand. A private and public key pair control access to a wallet. This can be a custodial wallet on an exchange, a hot wallet or even a cold wallet.
Dec 1 25 tweets 5 min read

Here we will look at how genetic information is passed from generation to generation. 1/ We will start with a grandparent generation and see how those chromosomes get passed to parents then children. This will help demonstrate the way chromosome gets passed from generation to generation.