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In Centre, busting both Raita and Lafda wingers coz they both hide truth. Subscribe me https://t.co/gLCMC2P2AB https://t.co/VCnI1km14x
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Jun 30 5 tweets 2 min read
"Wife selling" emerged in late 17th-century England as an alternative to nearly impossible divorces. Husbands would publicly parade their wives with a halter, auctioning them off to the highest bidder.

Until the passing of the Marriage Act of 1753, a formal ceremony of marriage before a clergyman was not a legal requirement in England, and marriages were unregisteredImage Sale of a Wife in Smithfield Market
"Now is your time gemmen; here's my Fat Heifer and ten pounds worth of bad Halfpence, all for half a Guinea, why her Hide's worth more to a Tanner; I'll warrant She's Beef to the Heels, and tho' her Horns ben't Wisible, yet he that buys her will soon feel their Sharpness.--there han't been such a Beast in the Market for Years--Zounds says the Fool in Blue Apron, I think I'll take her of thee, She and the Halfpence, must be worth the Money, I have had two Wives, and wou'd have Sold 'em for half that Sum"
Published 25th July 1797 by Laurie & Whittle, 53 Fleet Street, London

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May 25 12 tweets 10 min read
Discover the fascinating contradictions of the Victorian Era.

From progress to repression, this period left an enduring mark.

Bookmark this🧵

1/12 Image What was Victorian Era ?

The Victorian Era spanned from 1837 to 1901 under Queen Victoria's reign, characterized by a mix of progress and repression. The influence of Victorian Model deployed in Britain is also visible in the countries they colonised.

Key Features of the Victorian Era:

📏 Era focused on strict morality, values for women and the poor. Emphasized family, social etiquette, hard work, thriftiness. Society upheld moral standards, strong religious influence.

👫 Gender Roles: Women focused on domestic duties, motherhood; men were breadwinners, heads of households.

💍 Arranged Marriages

💰 Dowry System

🚫 Stigmatizing Sensuality

🔖 Social Class Division: Victorian society had a rigid class structure: upper class (nobility and wealthy), middle class (professionals, merchants), lower class (unskilled laborers, servants).

#Thread about Victorian era for us to ponder how it seeped into our lives and continues to do so even today.

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May 8 7 tweets 6 min read
Amazon Women : The Amazons were legendary warrior women in Greek mythology hailing from the region near the Black Sea, known for their expertise in battle, horsemanship, and archery.

- As daughters of Ares, the god of war, the Amazons lived within a female-exclusive society that only welcomed men for procreation, with male offspring being deliberately eliminated.

- These powerful women were believed to reside on the outskirts of the Greek world, often linked to the territory surrounding the southern Black Sea coast, notably Themiskyra city-state.

- Another tale linked to Amazon involves the Gargareans, an all-male tribe who engaged in annual copulation with the Amazons. This arrangement aimed to ensure the reproduction of both tribes. The Amazons raised the female offspring as warriors and entrusted the male children to the Gargareans.

#Thread #Bookmark this because this holds an important clue to the Archaeological blackout
* Pic representational

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In a popular legend, the conflict between the Amazons and Heracles revolves around Queen Hippolyta's enchanted girdle. In some versions, Heracles secures the girdle through diplomacy and gifts, while in other retellings, the narrative transforms into a fierce clash between Heracles and the Amazons. Despite the formidable skills of the Amazons, they are eventually defeated by Heracles and his allies.

The recurring motif of conflict between the Amazons and Greek gods is a prevalent theme in mythology. The Amazons often engaged in battles with Greek deities such as Ares, Artemis, and Athena, with no definitive victor emerging.

Another connection to Anatolia is found in Ephesus, where legends suggest that Amazons made offerings to the goddess Artemis at her temple and performed ceremonial war dances, a tradition that was upheld annually. Amazons were credited with laying the foundation of numerous settlements in Asia Minor, including Ephesus, Cyme, Sinope, Priene, Myrina, Smyrna, and Mytilene on Lesbos.

Herodotus (c. 484 – 425/413 BCE), writing in his Histories (Bk. 4, 110-117), gives a lengthy description of a meeting between Amazons and Scythians. Young warriors of the latter group persuaded a number of visiting Amazons to set up a new society together, with the women insisting neither they nor their offspring would change their lifestyles at all. This new race was considered the origins of the Sarmatians in southern Russia, appropriately enough, a people famous for their horses and military aggression.

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Hereon various sculptures depicting "Amazon Woman vs Greek Man" for avid readers and researchers.

**1. Slab from the Amazonomachy frieze depicting five figures, three Greeks and two Amazons, and a horse. From the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, around 350 BCE (British Museum).

**2. An artist's depiction of the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus as it may have appeared when it was completed c. 350 BCE. From the game Old World.

**3 The Ruins of the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus

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May 5 15 tweets 13 min read
Hellenistic Influence on Gandhara Art

The Hellenistic culture emerged following Alexander's conquests in the fourth century B.C.E. This era marked significant advancements in art, architecture, and literature. The Hellenistic world gradually fell to the Romans, with its final demise occurring in 31 B.C.

Key elements of Hellenistic influence include:

• Koine Greek: A widely spoken Attic-based Greek dialect that became the lingua franca of the ancient world.
• Alexandria: A prominent center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization.
• The polis: A type of Greek city-state that expanded to other regions of the Mediterranean.
• Stoicism: A philosophy advocating for living life according to rational order and performing virtuous acts for their inherent value.
• The Acropolis of Pergamon: An eminent example of monumental architecture featuring buildings that offer breathtaking views of the surrounding countryside and create a captivating public space.
• The Theater of Pergamon: A steep theater accommodating up to 10,000 spectators.

#bookmark this thread

Pic AI generated and not real

1/Image Hellenistic architecture influenced Gandhara art, blending with local traditions to create visually stunning and functional spaces in monastic complexes and stupas. This cultural exchange enriched artistic expression, showcasing how diversity can lead to remarkable achievements in art.

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Apr 29 5 tweets 3 min read
T͟h͟e͟ ͟o͟r͟i͟g͟i͟n͟ ͟a͟n͟d͟ ͟A͟g͟e͟ ͟o͟f͟ ͟"͟W͟e͟d͟d͟i͟n͟g͟ ͟R͟i͟n͟g͟s͟"͟
The literary evidence suggests that giving ring to the bride was introduced by Egypt and Greeks around 3rd century bce however, later this concept of wedding rings and marriage was adopted in Rome and Bactrian region through Alexander

M͟a͟r͟r͟i͟a͟g͟e͟ ͟l͟a͟w͟s͟ ͟i͟n͟ ͟R͟o͟m͟e͟
- Romans established clear legal regulations for prenuptial arrangements, weddings, and divorces, referring to their system as Justae Nuptiae, Justum Matrimonium, or Ligitimum Matrimonium.
- Marriage in ancient Rome required legal approval (connubium), with restrictions on who could marry.
- Parental consent was crucial for marriage, with age requirements set at 12 for brides and 14 for grooms.
- Roman wedding contracts were binding, with breaches resulting in serious consequences. The engagement was typically marked by the groom presenting money or an iron ring.

̳I̳n̳f̳l̳u̳e̳n̳c̳e̳ ̳o̳n̳ ̳H̳i̳n̳d̳u̳ ̳S̳e̳c̳t̳-̳B̳u̳d̳d̳h̳i̳s̳m̳
- The adoption of the Ring Ceremony may have been influenced by Buddhism after Alexander's return from Gandhar and Bactria.
- The Lalitavistata describes the Buddha selecting his bride and giving her his ring as a mark of engagement, indicating the custom of engagement rings existed by the 1st or 2nd century CE in Bactrian regionImage Some egyptian quotes from Egypt 1st century ad

O little ring that art going to encircle my fair mistress’s finger, thou that no value hast save the giver’s love that goes with thee, be charming in her sight. May she with delight receive thee and straightway slip thee on her finger. May thou fit her, as well as she fits me; and may thy circle, nor over-tight nor yet too loose, softly gird her finger.
Happy ring, thou wilt be touched by her I love. Ah me, already I begin to envy my own gift’s happy lot…Go forth, little gift, upon thy way, and may my mistress see in thee the symbol of my changeless love.
~Ovid (43 BC–AD 17/18)
Excerpt from Amores, Book II, Elegy XV
(Translated by J. Lewis May, 1930)

It is in pursuance of this custom that even at the present day, an iron ring is sent by way of present to a woman when betrothed.

~Pliny the Elder (AD 23 – 79)
Naturalis Historia

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Apr 20 14 tweets 6 min read
Turkmenistan's ancient architects left behind a legacy of awe-inspiring structures, demonstrating unparalleled craftsmanship and ingenuity.

This thread explores the parallels created by invaders in India during the same era. I could identify two such parallels with Turkmenistan; please share your thoughts as well.

1/Image Big and Little Kyz-Kalas forts, built between 600-900 AD, are popular tourist attractions in Merv.

The grandiose Mausoleum of Sultan Sanjar showcases Seljuk’s power in Merv.

Great Kyz Kala is an awe-inspiring mud-brick structure in Merv, believed to be built between the 6th and 8th centuries CE.

No parallel I could found in India

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Apr 14 15 tweets 15 min read
A recently published research paper delves into the likely interpolations in Valmiki Ramayan, with a specific focus on two sections:

1. 'Bala Kanda's Original Ramayan'
2. 'Uttara Kanda'

Valmiki Ramayan, often hailed as the national epic of India, was penned by the pioneering poet of the literary world, the 'Adi Kavi' Guru Valmiki.

The paper underscores the unique characteristics of the 'Uttara Kanda,' highlighting its distinct content, texture, and poetic quality. It delves deeper into an exploration of this section, outlining disparities between the 'Uttara Kanda' and the other six Kandas by analyzing nuances of its poetic style including language, style, emotion, and expressions.

Moreover, the research scrutinizes various incidents such as the Phalashruti at the end of 'Yuddha Kanda,' Sita's banishment, Shambuk's termination, the narrative of Valmiki Ramayan sung by Lava-Kusa, and Sita's Agni Pariksha to investigate potential interpolations.

In essence, this research paper offers a comprehensive analysis of these interpolations in Valmiki Ramayan, particularly spotlighting the 'Uttara Kanda.'

Presenting findings of the paper without adding or compressing it. If you are in a hurry this thread is not for you, but since you are reading this line you must go further and comment as a peer reviewer on the research paper link in last tweet...

1/Image The Valmiki Ramayan comprises around 24,000 shlokas, with each shloka being a verse. These verses are categorized into seven kandas:

1. Bala Kanda
2. Ayodhya Kanda
3. Aranya Kanda
4. Kishkindha Kanda
5. Sundara Kanda
6. Yuddha Kanda
7. Uttara Kanda

The text notes that the Valmiki Ramayan is made up of 500 sargas, but it actually contains over 600 chapters. (xi-xvi)

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Apr 11 15 tweets 11 min read
Closed, endogamous communities have a rich history in Southern Asia. Throughout the past millennium, they have been referred to as 'jati' in Sanskrit, 'qaum' in Arabic, 'zat' in Persian, among other terms.

Interestingly, there is no direct equivalent for "caste" in any Indian or Asian language, despite its pervasive use today in Indian public and policy discussions.

The term was originally introduced as 'casta' by Iberians – Portuguese and Spanish – first in the Iberian peninsula and later in Asia and the Americas. However, the precise ways in which this term was utilized – descriptively, administratively, and sociologically – remain less explored.

There have been classification in most parts of the world based on their status, color, hierarchy etc.

Lets delve

#Bookmark this #thread on Caste system in the ancient world

1/Closed, endogamous communities have a rich history in Southern Asia. Throughout the past millennium, they have been referred to as 'jati' in Sanskrit, 'qaum' in Arabic, 'zat' in Persian, among other terms.   Interestingly, there is no direct equivalent for "caste" in any Indian or Asian language, despite its pervasive use today in Indian public and policy discussions.   The term was originally introduced as 'casta' by Iberians – Portuguese and Spanish – first in the Iberian peninsula and later in Asia and the Americas. However, the precise ways in which this term was utilized – de... The term "caste" has a rich history. Originally derived from Spanish and Portuguese, it referred to lineage or tribe. The word took on its modern sense when Portuguese colonizers encountered the Indian social groups in 1498, where it described endogamous social divisions.

The term "caste" was first used in English in 1613 in the context of India. In Latin America, "caste" is also used to refer to a racial classification system based on ancestry. Despite the linguistic link between the Latin American and South Asian systems, the comparability of the two remains a subject of debate.

Historically, European societies were stratified into closed social systems like nobility, clergy, bourgeoisie, and peasants. Each group had distinct privileges and rights that were inherited and not based on wealth or citizenship. Inter-caste marriage often led to loss of privileges. Some countries gave titles to these groups with their own codes of behavior and dress. These closed social classes were sometimes referred to as estates in parts of Europe.

In European society, below the recognized estates, a large group of serfs served those with status. Serfs endured into the mid-19th century, with limited rights and restricted mobility. Marriage and living arrangements were controlled by State, Church, landowners, and local custom.

2/The term "caste" has a rich history. Originally derived from Spanish and Portuguese, it referred to lineage or tribe. The word took on its modern sense when Portuguese colonizers encountered the Indian social groups in 1498, where it described endogamous social divisions.  The term "caste" was first used in English in 1613 in the context of India. In Latin America, "caste" is also used to refer to a racial classification system based on ancestry. Despite the linguistic link between the Latin American and South Asian systems, the comparability of the two remains...
Mar 24 13 tweets 8 min read
Unraveling the Mystique of the Indian Holi Festival 🎨
From All-Women to Coed,
From Music & Fire to Water,
From feast to Bhang

Called by various names throughout the ages and regions : "Dol-Jatra", "Dulhendi", "Dhola", "Odad", "Holikotsav", "Holi", "Rangwali Holi", "Dol Purnima", "Dhuleti", "Dhulandi", "Ukuli", "Manjal Kuli", "Yaosang", "Shigmo", "Phagwah", or "Jajiri"

-Archaeo evidences suggest that Full moon of Falguna was celebrated by woman with music followed by a full night Jagran on following day dedicating to Shiva untill ~1000 years ago
-Evidence of pichkaries and Water are seen from 10th century some participation by man is also visible in this era
-Around 1500, The men participation increased
-Around 1750, Radha Krishna paintings also became popular.
-By 1970, Holi association with Bhang is seen

Let’s explore the Journey of #Holi as we know today #Thread DM #होलिका_दहन Happy Holi

1/13Image 3rd century bce

The earliest mention of the Holi festival dates back to the Sitabenga Cave Inscription from the 2nd or 3rd century BCE. - “adipayariiti hadayarti 1 sabhava-garu kavayo e ratayarh .... dule vasarhtiya hasavanubhute I kudasphataiii evarii alarh g”
-It describes how during the swing-festival of the vernal full moon, people used to tie garlands thick with jasmine flowers around their necks as they enjoyed frolics and music.

-In a second picture from Chandraketugarh, Bengal, woman can be seen playing music with garlands around her neck. (Similar to the inscription found in Sitabenga) This suggests that around 2200 years ago, Holi may have been primarily a women's festival.

-Approximately 2200 years ago, during the time of Holi, the weather would have been as hot as it is on April 23rd today due to the earth's precession.

2/13https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.207529/page/n221/mode/2up
Feb 8 21 tweets 14 min read
"African Eve: Hoax or Hypothesis?"

- A critical analysis of the replacement hypothesis suggesting modern humans evolved only in sub-Saharan Africa.
- The hypothesis is refuted using genetic, anthropological, and archaeological perspectives.

#Archaeology

1/Image The field of Pleistocene archaeology and paleoanthropology has been compromised by sectarian preoccupations and struggles for authority.

- The concept of "anatomically modern humans" is nonsensical.
- The belief upheld for a long time is that the "Upper Paleolithic" was introduced from Africa to Europe.
- The case of false datings by Professor Reiner Protsch "von Zieten", exposed in 2003.
- The "Afro-European sapiens" model and the "African Eve" complete replacement scenario have gained traction but face methodological problems.
- The mitochondrial Eve model, which assumed constancy of mutation rates, has been debunked.
- Various genetic hypotheses about the origins of "Moderns" have placed the hypothetical split between them and other humans at different periods.

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Jan 29 28 tweets 26 min read
Step into a world of mystery and enchantment.

Unveil the secrets of the ancient Minoans in Crete and their fascinating link to the Indus Valley.

Prepare to be awestruck by the astonishing remnants they left behind.

🧵 Join me on this incredible journey.

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Interestingly enough, there are significant similarities between the Minoan civilization and the Indus Saraswati Valley Civilization #IVSC

- Marvel at their advanced cities and magnificent palaces.
- Explore their bustling trade routes and sophisticated writing system.
- Admire their intricate artistry – from seals to pottery.
- Immerse yourself in vibrant frescoes that depict both sacred and everyday scenes.
- Witness their unique matriarchal religion with its striking snake and bull motifs, along with thrilling rituals like bull-leaping.
- Take note of how, during the Bronze Age, the Minoans left an indelible mark on Mycenaean culture, centered around the awe-inspiring Knossos.
- Around 1600 BC, they reached the zenith of their civilization, boasting paved streets, piped water systems, and symbolic motifs.
- both civilization developed a writing system yet to be deciphered
- the vastu complying burial practices show starking similarities
- Both revered nature and had deities associated with fertility and animals such as snakes and bulls.

Lets check out the similarities listed above

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Jan 17 7 tweets 7 min read
#Thread The star 'Canopus' has an intriguing connection with 'Agastya'.

Throughout millennia, their cosmic dance unfolds.

From Kanyakumari to Vindya, a celestial tale unfolds.

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#archaeohistories #Archaeology
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Due to Earth's precession, the visibility of the star 'Agastya' or Canoplus has been changing:

- Initially, it was observed from Kanyakumari around 10,000 BCE
- Later, from Vindhya around 5200 BCE
- Jammu 1400 BCE

Looking forward, the predictions are as follows:

- Visible from Jammu upto 3400 CE
- Visible from Vindhya until approximately 7400 CE
- Visible from Kanyakumari until around 11,000 CE

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Jan 11 16 tweets 10 min read
Get ready to be captivated as we unveil the incredible story of Draupadi Cheerharan and Krishna's intervention, dating back to the 12th and 13th centuries. 📚🔍

This will be a long #Thread, so make sure to bookmark it and retweet!

1/16 Image In the epic Mahabharata, specifically in the Sabhāparvan (61.35-38), there is a dramatic scene:

1. Draupadi is forcefully brought into the gaming hall.
2. Karṇa instructs Duḥśāsana to strip both the Pānḍavas and Draupadī of their garments (61.38).
3. The Pāṇḍavas respond by removing their upper garments.
4. Subsequently, Duḥśāsana attempts to remove Draupadī's single cloth in front of everyone present.

Interestingly, this attempted stripping is rarely mentioned thereafter. In this analysis, we will explore this contradiction in greater detail.

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Jan 8 9 tweets 4 min read
Some #Archaeological remains in #Maldives

In 1959, an image of Buddha was discovered on Thoddu Island. It is believed to date back to the 8th-9th century CE.

Unfortunately, in 2012, some radicals broke the sculptures.

#Archaeology

1/9 https://www.bridgemanimages.com/en-US/noartistknown/maldives-buddha-image-discovered-on-thoddu-island-1959-possibly-8th-9th-century-ce/nomedium/asset/3085430 The sage identified as Akaththiyar (Agastya), based on an engraving found on a Tantric stone cube at the museum. The cube also had engravings of Lakshmi, Kubera, and a Tantric deity. An inscription in Eveylaa Akuru was found at the bottom.

[National Museum, Maldives]

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Dec 29, 2023 9 tweets 5 min read
Discover the power of "See no evil, Hear no evil, Speak no evil" - a timeless message by Shri Mahatma Gandhi.

Did you know this iconic symbol of peace and tolerance actually originated in 17th century Japan? It's a powerful global symbol that still resonates today.

1/9 Image The Kōshin Stone Tablet in Kamakura, Japan is a significant artifact dating back to 1677 AD. It depicts the origins of the three monkey motif, famous for its symbolic meaning. The intricately carved stone tablet showcases monkeys in poses avoiding harm and negativity.

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Dec 25, 2023 11 tweets 6 min read
"Po Nagar is a Cham temple tower founded sometime before 781 ce. Located in Nha Trang, #Vietnam, it was originally a #Shiva temple.

The Po Nagar is situated on Cù Lao Mountain. It consists of 3levels. The main tower standing about 25 m high."

#Archaeology

1/10 Image In 781, Cham King Satyavarman regained power at "Ha-Ra Bridge" and took important actions:

- Restored a damaged temple.
- Updated inscriptions about a mukhalinga with angelic jewelry.

However, foreign robbers, Java, arrived by ship and Stole the jewelry & Broke the linga.

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Dec 21, 2023 13 tweets 4 min read
The emergence of the Rakshas (demon) and abduction scenes in Indian storytelling during the 2nd century CE indeed signaled a significant shift in the social fabric of Bharat, as India was known at that time?
#Bharat

1/13 Image These narrative elements reflected deeper changes occurring within society. Incorporation of these themes into tales served as an artistic expression capturing evolving cultural norms and belief.
Could this be an advise for woman to stay alert ? Or seek support from male

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Dec 20, 2023 16 tweets 6 min read
#Thread Oldest man marks in #Bharat

1. Ostritch Eggshell found in Patne, Maharashtra
- Engraved #Ostrich eggshell pieces revealing an artist's struggle with controlled strokes, resulting in captivating cross-hatchings.

- Dated back to 25,000±200 BP

#Archaeology

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1/15 Image Another Engraved Ostrich Eggshell Discovery in Ravishankar Nagar, Bhopal - An intricately engraved piece of ostrich eggshell with 7 distinct scars artistically arranged to form a captivating pseudo-oval shape.
Ostritches migrated to Africa from India

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Dec 17, 2023 4 tweets 2 min read
Horse Rockart in Pandavahara Gumpha, Khurda, Odisha is a powerful testament against the fake Aryan Invasion Theory. Its survival now hinges on combating rampant mining activities.
#Archaeology

1/4 https://www.bradshawfoundation.com/news/index.php?id=Preservation-of-rock-art-in-India @ASIGoI @MinOfCultureGoI @sambitswaraj @narendramodi @PMOIndia @INTACHIndia This sign reinforces the historical significance of Horse Rockart in Pandavahara gumpha. Preserving our cultural heritage is crucial to dispel misconceptions and challenge controversial theories. Protecting this site from mining activities is essential . #PreserveOurHistory

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Dec 16, 2023 7 tweets 4 min read
Choose a mistry over an enthusiast to repair, and this is what you get: the astounding Kichakesvari Temple, Khiching, Odisha 7th c. ce

Largest temple in town dedicated to Goddess Kichakeswari, the family goddess of the ruling chiefs of Mayurbhanj & State deity

#Archaeology

1/7 Image Khiching - Kichakesvari Temple - Lingapuja and Goddess with sword,

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Nov 26, 2023 6 tweets 3 min read
1/ Unearthed from the depths of #Uzbekistan's past, a silver bowl reveals a captivating #archaeological mystery

Emblazoned upon enigmatic "4-Arm Goddess," the forgotten realms of ancient civilizations from 6th century ce

Let's embark on a journey to unravel its secrets 🧵 Image 2/ Kushan seal with Nana on lion-throne (second century AD; after Callieri 1997). Image