(1/9) I love this question because there’s so many layers and it seems simple, then complicated but then simple again once you boil it down to engineering first principles.
Here’s a thread that fleshes out Kyle’s answer.
(2/9) The first thing to realize is that how fast the rock is moving when it leaves your hand is what matters the most here. The faster you throw the the same rock the farther it will go. FULL STOP. Seems obvious but it's a critical observation.