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Jul 21 6 tweets 2 min read
Jul 21 7 tweets 3 min read
WHY in the latest @zalaly study the figures for long COVID (7.8% for the unvaccinated and 3.5% for vaccinated) SEEM SO LOW?

In all the research conducted on long COVID, it is important to consider three key factors:
▶️ 1. The definition of long COVID being used. Image 2) ▶️ 2. The duration of the study period.
▶️ 3. The characteristics of the reference sample.

If we have correctly understood the key points of this study (Ziyad will correct us if necessary), they are as follows.
Jul 21 9 tweets 2 min read
SARS-COV-2, The CELLS KILLER
(apoptosis, necroptosis, pyroptosis, ferroptosis, and NETosis)
🧵 mega-thread

Picture : Apoptotic cell (pink) heavily infected with SARS-COV-2 virus particles (green), isolated from a patient sample. Image 2)
Jul 20 4 tweets 1 min read
KILLING ME SOFTLY WITH
... the SARS-CoV-2 virus
(2nd part/study)

"A confusion of pathways: Discerning cell death mechanisms in SARS-CoV-2 infection"
science.org/doi/10.1126/sc…
Image 2) SARS-CoV-2 infection causes a confusing array of cell death pathways. Infected cells undergo necroptosis, a form of inflammatory cell death. Meanwhile, nearby uninfected cells also die through apoptosis and pyroptosis, other types of cell death.
Jul 20 6 tweets 3 min read
WHAT a STRANGE IDEA to think that immunity against SARS-CoV-2, would solely rely on a single protein, known as the Spike, and only be dependent on the functionality of neutralizing antibodies ! 🤔

Throughout the course of the pandemic, the Spike protein has dominated ... Image 2) ... the spotlight, whether it be in the context of vaccination or its mutations that enable the virus and its variants to evade the effects of antibodies.

Cursed are those who had the audacity to mention the complexity of the immune response against SARS-CoV-2 ... Image
Jul 20 5 tweets 2 min read
WEEKEND FIGURES

The T cell immune response against SARS-CoV-2.

Image
Image
Image
2) Early and strong immune responses, including interferon and adaptive immunity, are crucial for controlling primary SARS-CoV-2 infection. Delayed or weak responses lead to elevated cellular activation, inflammation, and poor clinical outcomes. Image
Jul 19 8 tweets 3 min read
Soon a TREATMENT for LONG COVID ?

One of the most important studies on this subject 💯💥
🙏 @DavidJoffe64

(AI generated image resized) science.org/doi/10.1126/sc…
Image 2) Allow me first of all, to quickly introduce what IFN-γ is.

IFN-γ is a key protein involved in the immune response against SARS-CoV-2. During the initial infection, IFN-γ helps activate immune cells like T cells and macrophages to fight the virus and clear the infection. Image
Jul 19 4 tweets 2 min read
Long-COVID OLFACTORY DYSFUNCTION: ALLELE E4 of apolipoprotein E as a POSSIBLE PROTECTIVE FACTOR

thieme-connect.de/products/ejour…
Image 2) This study looked at the relationship between smell dysfunction and a gene called apolipoprotein E (APOE) in patients with long-term COVID-19 symptoms. They found that patients with persistent smell problems were younger and less likely to have been hospitalized ...
Jul 19 5 tweets 2 min read
LESSON from the COVID-19 pandemic: TODDLERS LEARN EARLIER to READ EMOTIONS with FACE MASKS

frontiersin.org/journals/psych…
Image 2) In this study, researchers found that toddlers aged 3-5 years old showed improved ability to recognize emotions from facial expressions with masks, approaching the performance of adults.
While adults maintained a higher overall accuracy, the impact of masks on ... Image
Jul 19 4 tweets 2 min read
EVERYONE can be AFFECTED by long COVID, even ATHLETES

Of the 32 PASC patients in this study, 10 (31%) reported a complete inability to engage in any cardiovascular endurance exercise at 3 months.

Credit : The Guardian onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pu…
Image 2) This study quantified the impact of post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) on endurance athletes. 32 of 45 recruited athletes met PASC criteria. The PASC group reported more symptoms at 3 months, including fatigue, shortness of breath, and chest pain. Image
Jul 18 4 tweets 2 min read
Exercice-related LONG COVID UNDERESTIMATED !

Exercise testing is vital for full assessment. A MEGA REVIEW (40 studies)
sciencedirect.com/science/articl…
Image 2) This review found that COVID-19 survivors have reduced exercise capacity compared to non-COVID-19 people, even months after infection. COVID-19 survivors had lower performance on tests measuring aerobic and anaerobic fitness, like walking distance and maximum oxygen intake. Image
Jul 18 5 tweets 2 min read
ISCHEMIC STROKE following SARS-COV-2 INFECTION

Large Danish national cohort study examining the short/long term risks of ischemic stroke stratified by disease severity, (3.9 million SARS-CoV-2 tested individuals, with 356,421 testing positive)
bmjopen.bmj.com/content/14/7/e…
Image 2) The main findings are:
- SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with a significantly increased risk of acute ischemic stroke, with the highest risk among those admitted to the ICU (36.4-fold increase).
- In the post-infection period, the stroke risk remained elevated ... Image
Jul 18 7 tweets 3 min read
How SARS-CoV-2 CHANGED and EVOLVED OVER TIME in 16 HEALTHY people who were INFECTED ?

genomemedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.11…
Image 2) The study investigated SARS-CoV-2 genomic diversity in a closed transmission chain of 16 immunocompetent individuals. Longitudinal nasopharyngeal samples were sequenced to track viral evolution during acute infection. Image
Jul 17 5 tweets 2 min read
AMAZING SARS-COV-2 !

The virus can ENTER and FUSE (leading to the creation of syncytia), using both RAFT-DEPENDENT (LIPID RAFT as CHOLESTEROL) and RAFT-INDEPENDENT pathways.

Let me explain in simple terms... 2) ACE2 lipid raft refers to the location of the ACE2 protein within the cell's membrane.
Lipid rafts are specialized regions enriched in certain lipids like cholesterol. These lipid rafts can act as platforms that help viruses enter the cell. Image
Jul 17 8 tweets 3 min read
How many UNRECOGNISED COVID-19 DEATHS ? 😨

A very interesting study 💯 journals.plos.org/plosone/articl…
Image 2) The study examines COVID-19 mortality in Central Europe, focusing on the importance of cause-of-death certification in assessing the full burden of the pandemic. It uses detailed death certificate data from Austria, Bavaria, Czechia, Lithuania, and Poland to identify cases ... Image
Jul 17 4 tweets 2 min read
H5N1 : LET'S NOT FORGET the POULTRY MARKETS !

"Markets as drivers of selection for highly virulent poultry pathogens"
nature.com/articles/s4146…
Image 2) Live bird markets may drive the evolution of highly virulent poultry pathogens like H5N1. Faster turnover rates and higher environmental persistence of viral particles in markets compared to farms could select for increased virulence ... Image
Jul 17 9 tweets 3 min read
KEY DRIVERS of the WAVES :
HUMAN BEHAVIOR and WANING IMMUNITY
(A study+ an interesting article)

Thanks to @DavidJoffe64
sciencedirect.com/science/articl…
Image 2) The study looks at mathematical models of disease outbreaks that take into account how people's behavior changes in response to the disease. Two main models are examined:
- A model where people become permanently immune after recovering from the disease. Image
Jul 17 4 tweets 2 min read
H5N1. CLOSER and CLOSER !
The new mutation in avian influenza viruses PB2-627V allowing the virus to efficiently infect both birds and humans,
biorxiv.org/content/10.110…
Image 2) Key points of the study :

- PB2-627V has become widespread globally since 2016, detected across many AIV subtypes in birds, humans, and other mammals.
- This mutation lets the virus use proteins from both avian and human cells to replicate well. Image
Jul 16 6 tweets 3 min read
CAN H5N1 SPREAD THROUGH COW SNEEZES?
Experiment offers clues

nature.com/articles/d4158…
Image 2) In a recent study they found that cows can become infected with the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 by breathing in virus-laden aerosols. However, this mode of transmission is not believed to be the main driver of the current outbreak among cattle in the United States. Image
Jul 16 6 tweets 2 min read
The COMPLEXITY of ZOONOTIC TRANSMISSION CHAINS

A great study 👍
H/t @AmelieDesvars
nature.com/articles/s4146…
Image 2) Researchers from the Complexity Science Hub and the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna have developed a "zoonotic web" to understand the complex interactions involved in zoonoses. Image
Jul 16 6 tweets 2 min read
MICROBES (bacteria, fungi, ...) were ALREADY on EARTH 4.2 BILLION YEARS AGO, long before us, and they will certainly be here after us.
WHAT ABOUT VIRUSES?
(1st part) Image 2) For those who do not think that we refer to the past when the future does not make us dream, but that the past is the moment where we learn the lesson, and the future is where we apply the lesson, a little return on the history of bacteria and viruses.