Florian Krammer Profile picture
Viruses, viruses, viruses and vaccines. V3=vaccinated three times Professor at the Department of Microbiology Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
Domingo Gallardo Profile picture Karen Horton Profile picture Κασσάνδρα Παρί پری Profile picture John Miller Profile picture Mark Wintle Profile picture 82 added to My Authors
May 20 4 tweets 1 min read
Currently 2 hours delayed at the gate at JFK because it seems @Delta can't find a pilot. Interesting. Update: Pilot showed up and we boarded. Now we are sitting in the plane waiting for a decision if luggage from people rebooked on a second flight to the same destination should be unloaded. My connection to Stockholm is now toast.
Mar 31 5 tweets 5 min read
Alright, the SAVE (SARS-CoV-2 Assessment of Viral Evolution program) paper is out!

"Defining the risk of SARS-CoV-2 variants on immune protection"

nature.com/articles/s4158… Many researchers from the US and internationally are contributing to this huge effort to early detect and quickly characterize variants. Juan Manuel Carreño in my lab and my colleagues @VivianaSimonLab, @mschotsaert, Harm van Bakel and Adolfo García-Sastre are major contributors.
Mar 22 5 tweets 1 min read
1) Es gibt mittlerweile Medikamente, die, wenn sie früh genug genommen werden das Risiko eines schweren Verlaufs von COVID-19 drastisch reduzieren. Paxlovid ist eines diese Medikamente und ist in der EU zugelassen. Ziel sollte es sein, dass solche Medikament leicht zugänglich... 2)...sind. Jeder Hausarzt sollte darüber Bescheid wissen und es sollte Risikopatienten auch direkt nach einem positiven Test im frühen Stadium der Erkrankung verschrieben werden. Ich weiss nicht, wie die Versorgungslage in Österreich da grad aussieht, aber...
Feb 11 12 tweets 5 min read
1) We now often hear about 'universal coronavirus vaccines' in the media. I think development of a universal coronavirus vaccine is an important goal that may be achievable in the long run if sufficient funding is available. But I think we should not make any false promises..... 2) ....about short term successes and the media should really make sure to use correct nomenclature. I'll try to explain what I mean with this with the below figure. Its a rough phylogenetic tree based on the spike protein sequences of different coronaviruses. There are four....
Jan 23 13 tweets 3 min read
1) On January 25th 2023 a new data sharing policy from NIH kicks in which basically requires raw data from NIH-funded studies to be shared. Data is defined as: 2) "The recorded factual material commonly accepted in the scientific community as of sufficient quality to validate and replicate research findings, regardless of whether the data are used to support scholarly publications."
Dec 11, 2021 5 tweets 1 min read
1) I am very worried about Omicron and inactivated vaccines. According to early data from the UK, 2x AstraZeneca or 2x Pfizer provides little protection from symptomatic disease. VE with inactivated vaccines is generally lower (as shown e.g. in Brazil: medrxiv.org/content/10.110…) 2) Its also unclear how other vaccines like Sputnik, Soberana-2, Cansino, Zydus Cadila's DNA vaccine etc. will hold up. If updated vaccines are needed (which now seems likely), can this be done quickly for non-vector and non-mRNA vaccines?
Dec 11, 2021 6 tweets 2 min read
1) First data from the UK seems to indicate that there is little protection from Omicron for people vaccinated twice, but the booster dose seems to be 75% effective against symptomatic disease. Early days, wide confidence intervals. This looks likely better for severe disease. Image 2) Here some links to the data: khub.net/documents/1359… and assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/upl….
Dec 8, 2021 14 tweets 2 min read
1) What do I think about Omicron now that some neutralization data is available? My impression hasn't change. We seem to see a drastic reduction in neutralizing activity, far more than with previous variants. Little activity was left in vaccinated individuals and it is likely.... 2)....that very little activity is left in convalescent individuals. However, people who were infected and then vaccinated did have residual neutralizing activity despite a drastic reduction. This certainly also bodes well for vaccinated individuals who received their....
Nov 27, 2021 9 tweets 2 min read
1) My gut feeling from hearing of Omicron cases in Botswana, ex-Malawi, ex-Egypt (2 now it seems) and in South Africa is, that the variant was flying under the radar in undersequenced countries for some time until Botswana and South Africa detected it and sounded the alarm. 2) However, the fact that European countries only detected it in travelers after South Africa and others warned about it, probably means that many cases so far went undetected. It also tells us a lot about genomic surveillance in some high income countries.
Nov 20, 2021 5 tweets 4 min read
@JulyaRabinowich @florianklenk @aufBlende 1) Warum? Weil wir (Wissenschafter, Medien etc.) sie nicht erreichen. Wir kommunizieren nicht gut genug. Wir schliessen sie aus. Deshalb. Aber ich bin Virologe, nicht Kommunikationswissenschafter oder Soziologe, ich weiss nicht wie man das ändern kann. @JulyaRabinowich @florianklenk @aufBlende 2) Meiner eigenen Erfahrung nach funktionieren nur persönliche Gespräche in einer Atmosphäre wo keiner die Leute auslacht oder lächerlich macht und wo sie alles Fragen können was sie wollen. Das funktioniert aber nicht 'large scale'. Das geht nur von Person zu Person.
Nov 11, 2021 6 tweets 3 min read
@yousitonmyspot 1) Nach der 2. Impfung kommt es zu einer starken Stimulation des Immunsystems, Antikoerper Titer sind sehr hoch, es passiert viel in den Lymphknoten, langlebige Plasmazellen werden gebildet und migrieren ins Knochenmark. Mittlerweile wissen wir, das der Prozess etwas dauert. @yousitonmyspot 2) Kollege Ali Ellebedy hat dazu wahnsinnig schoene Daten. Ein längerer Abstand zwischen 2. Impfung und Booster erlaubt dem Immunsystem, den Prozess zu beenden. Und wenn man dann wieder Impft, kriegt man einen maximalen Booster Effekt. 6 Monate sind da ein vernünftiger Interval.
Oct 25, 2021 5 tweets 4 min read
1) We have a new paper out in Nature Communications. "Functionality of the putative surface glycoproteins of the Wuhan spiny eel influenza virus". The WSEIV is an influenza B like virus that seems to infect fish, spiny eels. nature.com/articles/s4146… 2) The virus sequence was discovered by @edwardcholmes and colleagues among many other RNA virus sequences from fish and amphibians (nature.com/articles/s4158…). We then characterized the HA and NA of the virus. Turns out, the NA is a bona fide neuraminidase that can be inhibited...
Oct 6, 2021 4 tweets 1 min read
1) For people worried about H5N6: Zoonotic infections with influenza viruses happen all the time. They may lead to severe disease and death in exposed individuals but as long as there is no human to human transmission.... 2)....there is little to worry from a global perspective. Of course we need to keep an eye on them and prepare prototype vaccines (which is something that has been done for many of these viruses). Here is a slide that shows how often these zoonotic infections are found. It is....
Sep 15, 2021 8 tweets 5 min read
@MRoscus @EricTopol 1) So, here is the issue: Changing the vaccine strain is technically easy. From a regulatory and from a roll-out perspective not so much. Now, it will take time. And this was attempted for B.1.351. @MRoscus @EricTopol 2) Moderna did a booster study with an updated version of the vaccine that expressed the B.1.351 and compared that to the original version of the vaccine as a booster dose. Now here are the results: medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
May 14, 2021 4 tweets 1 min read
1) @Guha_Arunkumar is defending today! I am so excited! Will he tell us about the weird fish viruses that look like influenza B? Or his work on influenza B antigenicity and mAbs? Thanks @jbloom_lab for being the outside examiner. 2) Also, Guha is interested in getting an industry job somewhere on the East Coast. If you are looking for a competent infectious disease researcher/virologist/biotechnologist better contact him quickly!
Apr 1, 2021 7 tweets 3 min read
@MarcusFahn A) Virale Glykoproteine sind oft kleine Maschinen, die die Fusion der viralen Membran und der Zellmembran ermoeglichen. Erst dann kann das virale Genom in unsere Zellen rein und anfangen die Kontrolle zu uebernehmen. Diese Protein binden and unsere zellulaeren Rezeptoren.... @MarcusFahn B).....in der 'Praefusionskonformation'. Dann aendert sich diese Konformation schlagartig in die 'Postfusionskonformation' und dabei werden die virale und die Zellmembran verbunden. Stellen sie sich einfach eine Stahlfeder vor, die zusammengedrueckt ist und von einer Klammer....
Apr 1, 2021 10 tweets 2 min read
1) Ein paar Infos zu Sputnik V, weils grad alle interessiert. Der Impfstoff ist eine Kombination aus zwei Adenovirus Vektoren, und zwar Adenvirus Typ 5 und Adenovirus Typ 26. Adenovirus Typ 26 is selten, da gibts wenig Vektorimmunitaet die Probleme bereiten kann.... 2).....Wenn wir von Vektorimmunitaet sprechen, geht es um neutralisierende Antikoerper gegen das Vektorvirus selbst. Wenn man viele davon hat, wird der Vektor neutralisiert bevor er in unsere Zellen eindringen kann und das wirkt sich negativ auf die Immunantwort....
Mar 15, 2021 4 tweets 2 min read
1) The NDV-S vaccine that Peter Palese's lab (with some help from Adolfo García-Sastre's and my lab) developed was injected into first volunteers today in Vietnam (Phase I). @McLellan_Lab contributed his HexaPro construct.
vtv.vn/video/ban-tin-… (starts at minute 2:16) 2) The vaccine is based on an NDV vector that has SARS-CoV-2 spike on its surface. This version of the vaccine is inactivated (a life, intranasal version is in development as well) and can be produced at low cost in existing influenza vaccine production capacity.
Feb 27, 2021 15 tweets 3 min read
1) There are a lot of questions about how fully vaccinated individuals should behave. I don't have good solutions either, but I have some thoughts. First of all, we are seeing more and more data about how well vaccination works in a real live setting. There are recent studies... 2) ...from Israel (nejm.org/doi/full/10.10…; thelancet.com/journals/lance…) and Scotland (papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cf…) showing high vaccine effectiveness in the population. That is just awesome and a reason to celebrate for all of us. On the other side you need to keep in mind....
Feb 14, 2021 11 tweets 2 min read
1) Ich hab einen Vorschlag. Der AstraZeneca Impfstoff wirkt gegen alle in Europa zirkulierenden SARS-CoV-2 Viren ausser B.1.351. Aber B.1.351 ist bisher selten, auch in Gegenden wo man es in Europa detektiert hat (z.B. Tirol). Jetzt gibts viel Widerstand gegen den Impfstoff.... 2)....und alle wollen die RNA Impfstoffe. Von denen gibts aber nicht genug im Moment. Eine der Hauptsorgen ist, dass es nicht klar ist ob man mit einem an Varianten angepassten RNA Impfstoff auf AstraZeneca 'draufimpfen' kann wenns notwendig wird bzw....
Feb 10, 2021 4 tweets 1 min read
1) Dr. Paunic's excellent Tweet started a lot of discussions about how much we know about immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in immunosuppressed patients. Of course, trials in some patient populations are under way. But, getting the results will take some time..... 2)...and there are so many different types and degrees of immunosuppression. Also, a lot of affected people are getting themselves tested for antibodies after vaccination. A systematic approach to collect and analyze all that data globally would be great.....