Gabor Erdosi 🧩📄📊🧭 Profile picture
Study reader ǁ Molecular biologist ǁ Industrial biotech ǁ Metabolic profiling. Interests: mucosal immunity, immunometabolism. V. Omega Pro Max
Κασσάνδρα Παρί پری Profile picture The Real Dr. Steven Horvitz Profile picture Investor Follows Profile picture Kim Profile picture Jc James Profile picture 12 added to My Authors
22 Jun
Once again, old science (image to the left) predicts new findings (image to the right). One thing remains common: negligence

Accumulation of nanocarriers in the ovary: A neglected toxicity risk? sciencedirect.com/science/articl…
Reviewed here:
Potential adverse effects of nanoparticles on the reproductive system
dovepress.com/potential-adve…
The literature is full of papers that describe lipid nanoparticles as specific delivery machines of (e.g. anti-cancer) drugs to the ovaries.
Read 4 tweets
11 May
1/ I have a thread about natural immunity to SARS-CoV-2, but I was asked to do a comparison with vaccine induced immunization. Interestingly, deep analysis of the two is largely missing. A recent study will do the job,
science.sciencemag.org/content/early/…
2/ but we need to focus on results, not conclusions, because even though the study was designed to compare the two types of immunization, plus added the effect of a booster jab on top of infection, the interpretation is a bit twisted to mostly compare the 2 jab scenarios.
3/ Quote:
"Three individuals who previously showed a response, despite lack of laboratory evidence for infection (therefore presumably a cross-reactive response to an endemic human coronavirus) showed an unchanged or decreased [T cell] response to spike after vaccination."
Read 32 tweets
28 Apr
There’s a curious correlation between countries/regions of high prior SARS2 exposure and a resurgence upon the start of mass V immunization programs. I’ve been thinking a lot about this lately, and the only explanation that could fit observations is… 1/
bmj.com/content/372/bm…
reactivation of dormant viruses in the population. (Seasonal) respiratory viral dormancy has been debated a lot for decades, but there’s still no consensus on where exactly these virions could lay dormant in the body, nor on the trigger(s) & mechanism(s) responsible for… 2/
reactivation. In light of recent research, my (educated?) guess is that the small intestine, and associated immune structures, is more likely place for this to occur than the respiratory tract. Admittedly, this is speculative, but neither implausible nor could I come up with… 3/
Read 22 tweets
20 Jan
The autoimmunity problem raised by below article requires rethinking of pathophysiology and treatment of severe COVID-19. The level of mimicry between spike and human peptides is very high (see attached figure from a researcher featured in the article).
nature.com/articles/d4158… Image
Unfortunately, this seems more than theoretical matches.
“SARS-CoV-2 antibodies had reactions with 28 out of 55 tissue antigens, representing a diversity of tissue groups that included barrier proteins, gastrointestinal, thyroid and neural tissues” & more.
frontiersin.org/articles/10.33…
An excellent bird’s view of the same topic.
cell.com/cell-systems/f…
Read 12 tweets
28 Dec 20
New mRNA vaccine technologies may offer 94-95 % efficacy. What an achievement of 21st century science!
On the other hand, good old natural immunity provides 100 % protection from symptomatic COVID-19, as shown in the study of 12.5k healthcare workers below.
Another large study finds precisely the same thing: 100 % natural immune protection from symptomatic COVID-19 within 6 months of first infection. journalofinfection.com/article/S0163-…
What could provide lasting protection? Repeated exposure.
Tissue resident memory T cell presence “required airway vaccination and antigen persistence in the lung, as non-respiratory routes of vaccination failed to support long-term lung TRM maintenance.”
nature.com/articles/s4138…
Read 11 tweets
13 Dec 20
What a coincidence
“The binding epitope on S harbors a sequence motif unique to SARS-CoV-2 (not present in other SARS-related coronaviruses), which is highly similar in both sequence and structure to the bacterial superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B”
pnas.org/content/117/41… Image
Now, this story keeps unfolding.
“the trimeric spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 could bind to TLR4 directly and robustly activate downstream signaling in monocytes and neutrophils.” Via MyD88 and NFκB
See how MyD88 activation is THE problematic pathway, especially when amplified by elevated LPS exposure. I.e. by metabolic diseases.
How the two pathways join at this signaling node
👇🏻👇🏻👇🏻
journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/17…
Read 22 tweets
27 Oct 20
1/ Thread on immunity in the respiratory system: how it does and doesn't work (i.e. myths), simplified as much as I could. I’ll use the apropos of a new press release by Imperial College. To avoid mainstream media fantasies, let's use the original piece. imperial.ac.uk/news/207333/co…
2/ The main pillars of mucosal immunity in the respiratory system are:
– Innate immunity. This ancient part includes the physical barrier: mucus production and continuous flow upwards, driven by ciliary epithelial cells. There are also phagocytes ("eating cells") and…
3/ …other cellular components that produce signaling molecules, set traps, etc.

– Adaptive immunity
---> B & plasma cells that release antibodies into the airways through the single cell layer called the epithelium.
Read 21 tweets
8 Oct 20
Bacteria-fighting neutrophils in the URT ⬆️ risk of viral infections. Implications are huge, pinpointing a potential unifying mechanism. In metabolic diseases a similar elevation of activated neutrophils occurs. What about periodontitis in severe COVID-19? imperial.ac.uk/news/206253/ba…
From the study:
“those who resisted infection showed a transient boost in mucosal markers of innate immune activation for several days after viral administration and no subsequent viral replication.”
In the meantime everybody is obsessed with antibodies circulating in the arms?
Two major components of mucosal immunity largely ignored in respiratory infections. SIgA is the other one:
“Prior RSV-specific nasal IgA correlated significantly more strongly with protection from [PCR-]confirmed infection than serum neutralizing antibody”
atsjournals.org/doi/10.1164/rc…
Read 4 tweets
24 Aug 20
1/ Below is a perfect example of how we can fall victim of our presumptions, and why understanding underlying mechanisms, or when applicable, design/evolution, is fundamentally important.
This is about water in the door of my car.
2/ Were you aware that (rain, washing, etc.) water is can normally get into the doors of a car and leave through exit holes at the bottom?
Quite obviously, I wasn’t.
I'm not a completely theoretical person, yet I just didn't know about this. It cost me about 2 hours.
3/ I assumed, or more precisely, I was confident that the several liters (~1 gallon) of water wobbling in the left rear door was the result of a faulty section in the insulation. Nothing else even came to my mind that could've altered my approach to fix the problem.
Read 4 tweets
5 Aug 20
Short thread.
If you’re not through COVID-19 yet I really hope that you’ve spent the last couple of months preparing for it. Losing beer belly, being out in the sun, and eating nutrient dense, fat soluble vitamin-rich foods. Definitely don’t rely only on vaccines if you’re…
…(metabolically) obese. Why? By now, it’s clear that obese are not only susceptible to more severe COVID, but also to influenza.
➡︎ Overweight and obese adult humans have a defective cellular immune response to pandemic H1N1 Influenza A virus onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.10…
What’s more, vaccines don’t work quite as well in obese people as in the (metabolically) healthy. See e.g.
➡︎ Obesity is associated with impaired immune response to influenza vaccination in humans
nature.com/articles/ijo20…
Read 4 tweets
24 Jul 20
This is not the first study that identifies obesity as the single biggest factor that is associated with progression to pneumonia in COVID-19. The authors suggest hyperleptinemia as the underlying mechanism.
The immunomodulatory functions of leptin next… medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
2 reviews
Leptin in inflammation and autoimmunity sciencedirect.com/science/articl…

Leptin as an immunomodulator sciencedirect.com/science/articl…
A bit more recent and more specific,
“leptin also signals through the Jak/STAT and Akt pathways, among others, to modulate T cell number and function. Thus, leptin connects metabolism with the immune response.“
nature.com/articles/s4136…
Read 4 tweets
24 Jul 20
Immunocompromised people can get severely ill or even die of infections with cold coronaviruses. Eventually, immune function/suppression falls on a spectrum and has various causes. Advanced age and hormonal imbalances are typical examples, the latter observed in e.g. T2 diabetes. Image
"This study shows that all known non-SARS HCoVs can be found in stools of children with acute gastroenteritis."
Infection of the digestive system is not unique to SARS coronaviruses, although HCoVs are usually not the main pathogens that cause diarrhea. sciencedirect.com/science/articl…
Infecting the central nervous system has also been described, sometimes with nasty effects. Image
Read 5 tweets
16 Jul 20
Nasal immunization could be the most efficient and potentially least harmful against coronaviruses, in line with the primary role of the mucosal barrier in providing protection. cell.com/immunity/fullt…
“mortality in 12- to 22-month-old mice infected with SARS-CoV or IAV was reduced from 80 to 100% to 0 to 10% by treatment with a TLR3 agonist, poly(I·C), with concomitant increased expression of interferon (IFN) and other proinflammatory molecules”
jvi.asm.org/content/86/21/…
Looking at systemic antibody levels in connection with respiratory infections is counterproductive. Let’s focus on healthy physiology/basic (mucosal) immunology, instead of centering on traditional vaccinations.
jvi.asm.org/content/77/21/…
Read 6 tweets
8 Jul 20
I keep hearing that SARS-CoV-2 is not like the flu, it’s a totally different virus. Well, can you spot the differences & similarities? I highlighted the most important commonality, i.e. how they typically kill.
mdpi.com/1999-4915/12/4…
sciencedirect.com/science/articl… ImageImage
The majority of SARS transmissions was linked to hospitals (intubation and ventilation as prime suspects) and to superspreading events. Sounds familiar? Why did it not to our infectious disease experts?
sciencedirect.com/science/articl… Image
Read 4 tweets
23 Jun 20
There seems to be a lack of understanding how the respiratory immune system works, and why only severe cases of viral infections result in high serum IgG levels. The reason: successful containment of a virus in the upper respiratory tract involves IgA, not IgG.
@FatEmperor Image
A useful review.

T cell-mediated immune response to respiratory coronaviruses
link.springer.com/article/10.100… Image
Read 7 tweets
18 Nov 19
I’m starting a thread of interesting recent reviews that I skimmed and recommend to read. First one is about the paternal epigenetic programming of offspring metabolism.

Diet-Induced Modification of the Sperm Epigenome Programs Metabolism and Behavior cell.com/trends/endocri…
“mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the only form of non-nuclear DNA in eukaryotic cells, is a major activator of inflammation when leaked out from stressed mitochondria”

Emerging Role of Mitochondrial DNA as a Major Driver of Inflammation and Disease Progression cell.com/trends/immunol…
This one I read in full. Apart from ignoring quick delivery of glucose/easily hydrolyzed starch as a source of similar problems, it’s a really good one.
academic.oup.com/advances/advan…
Read 8 tweets
13 Sep 19
Researchers are amused by the differences in fat absorption. Also, they think that the only problem with the following meal is the amount of fat.
“a small hamburger, small fries, and a small ice cream shake with fruit”
Let me explain it briefly. 1/n

ars.usda.gov/news-events/ne…
Refined wheat flour, cooked potatoes, the sugar in the shake contain a lot of quick-absorbing glucose. These maintain a bacterial population in the small intestine that is rich in Gram negative LPS producers. The long-chain fat in the diet helps the LPS get into chylomicrons. 2/n
What's more, simple sugars speed up chylomicron formation, pushing even more LPS into the lymphatics.
Now, what would be the best strategy to minimize this effect? (NB, some LPS translocation is perfectly fine.) Have you considered why LCFA are absorbed into lymph at all? 3/n
Read 5 tweets
12 Jun 19
What renders your HDL pro-atherogenic? The acute phase response, or more precisely, serum amyloid A (SAA), that displaces ApoA-I in HDL. Beautiful ‘design’ to deal with infection/infiltration, but a huge problem if the trigger remains unresolved.
ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.11…
The same underlying cause of high CVD mortality in late- and end-stage renal disease.
jasn.asnjournals.org/content/23/5/9…
Serum amyloid A impairs the antiinflammatory properties of HDL jci.org/articles/view/…
Read 6 tweets
10 Jan 19
Several recent studies/reviews highlight the importance of chronically suppressed autophagy in driving chronic diseases of civilization.
cell.com/cell-reports/f…
ebiomedicine.com/article/S2352-…
emboj.embopress.org/content/early/…
cell.com/cell-reports/f…
nature.com/articles/s4157…
frontiersin.org/articles/10.33…
And another review out in Cell.
cell.com/cell/fulltext/…
Chronically suppressed autophagy ⇄ chronic inflammation. Chronic hyperinsulinemia is just a tool to maintain the necessary metabolic support.
Read 13 tweets