Nick Krontiris Profile picture
Founder, Suprastratum. Health, Fitness, Nutrition.
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Feb 17 6 tweets 2 min read
This systematic review and meta-analysis finds that whey protein supplementation, especially when combined with resistance training, can improve measures of sarcopenia in older adults. Image - Whey protein supplementation was found likely to increase appendicular skeletal muscle mass, the appendicular skeletal muscle mass index and gait speed, but not handgrip strength in older patients with sarcopenia.
Jan 31 8 tweets 2 min read
Shedding doubt to the obesity paradox, here, central adiposity indices such as the waist-to-hip ratio exhibited more consistent associations with an increased risk of cardiometabolic disease and mortality compared with the BMI. Image - The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations of general and central obesity with risk of first cardiometabolic disease, cardiometabolic multimorbidity and death.
Dec 5, 2023 8 tweets 2 min read
This one in mice may suggest that Vitamin D deficiency may be characterized by metabolic inflexibility from a predisposition of skeletal muscle to primarily depend on fatty acids for energy metabolism but also a systemic glucose imbalance due to defective insulin synthesis. Image - A previous study showed that mice lacking vitamin D receptor exhibit severe glycogen storage disorder in the skeletal muscles, which leads to systemic energy deprivation and severe muscle atrophy.

Ref:
doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.1…
Dec 2, 2023 10 tweets 2 min read
This systematic review and meta-analysis finds that regular exercise is likely to reduce measures of adiposity in individuals with overweight or obesity, with aerobic exercise of at least moderate intensity appearing to be the most effective exercise treatment. Image - This systematic review and network meta-analysis included aimed to investigate the effect of different exercise categories on visceral adipose tissue, weight, total body fat, BMI, waist circumference and subcutaneous adipose tissue in individuals with overweight and obesity.
Nov 10, 2023 8 tweets 2 min read
The findings of this one suggest that even though carbohydrate oxidation during exercise increases with exercise intensity, there is a preference for carbohydrate sparing (and fat oxidation) during recovery from moderate-intensity compared with low-intensity exercise. Image - The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of exercise intensity on the proportion and rate of carbohydrate oxidation and glucoregulatory hormone responses during recovery from exercise.
Sep 17, 2023 11 tweets 2 min read
In this one in Japanese individuals with a mean age of 59 years, a healthy lifestyle was associated with a lower risk for coronary artery disease regardless of Lp(a) levels. Image - The study ustilized a four-point scale score for lifestyle assessment, which included dietary patterns, exercise habits, smoking status and body weight.
Aug 20, 2023 7 tweets 2 min read
The findings of this one suggest that a longer eating window and late first and last meal timing are associated with cardiometabolic risks in US adults. Image - This study aimed to characterize the chrononutrition patterns of adults and elderly individuals in the American population and investigate their association with obesity and metabolic disorders that constitute the metabolic syndrome.
Aug 3, 2023 6 tweets 2 min read
In this one, higher ultra-processed food consumption was associated with reduced survival and higher cardiovascular disease mortality rate, independent of diet quality in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Image - This study aimed to evaluate the association of ultra-processed food intake with all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality among participants with type 2 diabetes from the Moli-sani Study in Italy (enrollment 2005–2010).
Aug 2, 2023 9 tweets 2 min read
The findings of this one suggest that exercise in the oldest-old is linked with better performance on cognitive measures of processing speed and executive functioning, and that there may be an additive or synergistic effect of combining aerobic exercise with resistance training. Image - The present study explored the relationship between self-reported engagement in physical exercise and cognition in the oldest-old.
Jul 28, 2023 7 tweets 2 min read
This systematic review and network meta-analysis suggests that a big range of exercise training modalities is likely improve resting blood pressure, particularly isometric exercise. Image - The role of exercise training as an effective non-pharmacological antihypertensive intervention is generally well-established.
Jun 16, 2023 14 tweets 3 min read
This systematic review finds that overall the literature suggests that daily low-carbohydrate intake is not likely to negatively affect psychological well-being, or that this type of diet is worse than any other in this respect. Image - This systematic review evaluated the impact of a carbohydrate-restricted or ketogenic diet on psychological outcomes.
Jun 15, 2023 9 tweets 4 min read
The findings of this one in mice suggest that dietary nitrate is capable of preserving mitochondrial bioenergetics during skeletal muscle disuse, and maintain mitochondrial-specific function during short-term (but not long-term) limb immobilization. Image - Skeletal muscle disuse reduces muscle protein synthesis rates and induces atrophy, events associated with decreased mitochondrial respiration and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS).
Jun 15, 2023 7 tweets 2 min read
Here, compared with men at the lowest end of the normal BMI spectrum, increased risk for an early acute coronary event was detectable already within the normal range of BMI at the age of 18 years, increasing to >5‐fold in the highest weight category at the age of 40 years. Image - Coronary heart disease remains the dominant cause of death worldwide.
Jun 15, 2023 5 tweets 4 min read
This one found that among patients with newly diagnosed diabetes, a reduction in exercise frequency was related to increases in the risk of pneumonia and upper respiratory tract infection in Korean adults. Image - The risks of both pneumonia and upper respiratory tract infection increased when moderate-to-vigorous physical activity frequency was reduced from ≥ 5 times of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity/week to a state of physical inactivity.
Jun 15, 2023 9 tweets 4 min read
Here, a triple agonist that interacts with GLP-1, neuropeptide Y1&Y2 receptors, regulated insulin secretion in rat and human pancreatic islets, promoted insulin-independent Y1-R-mediated glucose uptake in rat muscle tissue ex vivo and reduced food intake and body weight in rats. Image - Mechanisms underlying long-term sustained weight loss and glycemic normalization after obesity surgery include changes in gut hormone levels, including glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY).
Jun 15, 2023 8 tweets 4 min read
This one in mice suggests that chronic inflammation, and specifically IL-6 levels, may lead to increases in frailty and physical decline due to skeletal muscle changes that are mediated by changes in mitochondrial regulation and autophagy. Image - This study focuses on a humanized inducible IL-6 model "due to the significant homology between mouse and human IL-6 at the amino acid level".
Jun 14, 2023 10 tweets 3 min read
Here, despite younger age at diagnosis, lower prevalence of obesity and diabetes family history, individuals with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes who had a low birthweight were more likely to have greater use of glucose-lowering medications and a larger burden of comorbidity. Image - Low birthweight is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes but it is unknown whether low birthweight is associated with distinct clinical characteristics at disease onset.
Jun 14, 2023 12 tweets 4 min read
This one provides genetically proxied evidence to support that FGF21 signaling may reduce chronic kidney disease risk, have favorable effects across a broad range of renal outcomes and cardiometabolic risk factors. Image - Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a fasting or stress inducible metabolic hormone produced mainly in the liver.

It plays important roles in regulating glucose and lipid homeostasis, as well as bone homeostasis.
Jun 14, 2023 5 tweets 2 min read
This systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that the dietary resemblance between parents and children are most likely to be weak to moderate for most aspects of dietary intakes. - There is a strong societal belief that parents are role models for their child's dietary behaviours in early life that may persist throughout the life course.

Evidence has shown inconclusive dietary resemblance in parent-child pairs.
Jun 13, 2023 10 tweets 3 min read
In this one, the authors report the development and validation of the Essential Amino Acid-9 (EAA-9) score, an innovative, nutrient-based protein quality scoring framework, which allows for personalization of essential amino acid needs based on age or metabolic conditions. Image - Currently, recognition of essential amino acid requirements is embedded within a generalized measure of protein quality known as PDCAAS (Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score).
Jun 13, 2023 7 tweets 2 min read
The findings of this one suggest that carotid artery intima‐media thickness is associated with the long‐term risk of developing first‐ever carotid plaque, independent of several traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Image - This study undertook an individual participant data meta‐analysis of 20 prospective studies from the Proof‐ATHERO (Prospective Studies of Atherosclerosis) consortium that recorded baseline carotid artery intima‐media thickness (CCA‐IMT)...