Mac n’ Chise 🧬🦠🧫 Profile picture
Chise / ♏️ / ENFJ / Molecular Biologist 🧬🧫🦠 / Biracial / 🏳️‍🌈 / #blacklivesmatter / @darkroastyeen 💍 / My Tweets Are My Own
G Rush Profile picture Whatever Needed Profile picture MrsStuGotz2021Edition Profile picture 4 added to My Authors
19 Apr
Let’s talk about B.1.617. It is unlikely it will be able to evade vaccine-induced immunity. Why?

•Vaccines are polyclonal (Abs)
•Mutations compared to VOCs
•CD8+ T-cells covering 52 epitopes across the spike protein
•CD4+ T-cells covering 23 epitopes across the spike protein
Concerning mutations, our attention is focused on E484Q and L452R. While both these mutations have shown evidence of reduced neutralization (in monoclonal antibodies mind you), we have to remember something vital: Vaccines are polyclonal! Unlike monoclonal antibody therapies,
vaccines make polyclonal antibody responses and involve T-cell responses. This means that the antibodies you make after vaccination will be able to bind the coronavirus spike in multiple places, not just one. With this in mind, it is unlikely variants will truly “escape” them.
Read 11 tweets
16 Apr
Time for some fun. I wanted to make a thread with all my characters I’ve developed. One day, I would love to use them to help spread knowledge and awareness. I can dream, right? Science relies on some creativity after all! 🧫🦠🧬🔬🥼
First up is Chise. A Pine Marten who values knowledge, adventure, and all things sweet like tea with honey (Sorry, I LOVE honey). You’ll frequently see her wearing a lab coat and sharing some information related to science. 🍯🌸🔬🥼🦠 Image
Next is Karasu. A shy but extremely thoughtful Bone Bird no less, who really enjoys the cold weather and tea. Oh, and fish. Lots of fish. You’ll become their best friend if you give them a fresh one. 🍵❄️🐡🐠🐟 Image
Read 4 tweets
16 Apr
Please keep in mind variant B.1.167 out of India is still considered a variant of interest, not a variant of concern. B.1.167 lineage isolates are actually common in India and while it carries mutations E484Q and L452R, it does not carry any deletion mutations we see in current
variants of concern. Lastly, this variant was present in India last year, and while media highlights the presence of it in the UK as recent, it’s first occurrence in the UK dates back to February 22nd. The claims that it bypasses T-cell immunity are NOT currently substantiated.
The most important thing as always is to get vaccinated and control its spread. Let’s stay focused. Current variants of concern are: B.1.351, P.1, B.1.1.7, and B.1.427/B.1.429.
Read 5 tweets
14 Apr
Preclinical data shows Moderna’s variant-specific booster vaccine candidates (mRNA-1273.351 and mRNA-1273.211) increase neutralizing titers against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. The data is absolutely stunning! Preprint can be found here:
biorxiv.org/content/10.110…
mRNA-1273.351 encodes for the S protein found in the B.1.351 lineage and mRNA-1273.211 comprising a 1:1 mix of mRNA-1273 and mRNA-1273.351. Both vaccines were evaluated as a 2-dose primary series in mice.
mRNA-1273.351 was also evaluated as a booster dose in animals previously vaccinated with 2-doses of mRNA-1273. The results demonstrate that a primary vaccination series of mRNA-1273.351 was effective at increasing neutralizing antibody titers against the B.1.351 lineage, while
Read 5 tweets
13 Apr
Please be aware that out of 6.8M+ doses of the J&J vaccine that have been administered in the U.S., 6 cases of a rare & severe type of blood clot in individuals after receiving the vaccine have been reported. Right now, these adverse events appear to be extremely rare.
With this said, in the U.S., we have mRNA (Moderna & Pfizer) vaccines available so please do not let this deter you from getting vaccinated in the meantime. All 6 cases occurred among women between the ages of 18 and 48, and symptoms occurred 6 to 13 days after vaccination.
I want everyone to put this in perspective and try to process this rationally. 6 cases out of 6.8M+ doses administered (0.00000088). They’re looking into this out of an abundance of caution. You are MORE likely to suffer from blood clots from being infected with SARS-CoV-2.
Read 6 tweets
10 Apr
Wanted to clear this up. First, please remember that vaccines are preventives and NOT cures. One can still contract the virus once vaccinated and as long as it prevents them from facing severe disease and worse, it is still doing what it is supposed to.
timesofisrael.com/real-world-isr…
Secondly, what is important to know about this study is that most infections were from B.1.1.7, with only 8 cases being B.1.351. After two doses, extremely high effectiveness against B.1.1.7 took effect. While they observed reduced effectiveness against B.1.351, they also saw it
did not spread in Israel. In other words, B.1.1.7 is keeping B.1.351 “in check” which is what a lot of scientists predicted months ago when these variants came onto the scene. This is a good thing. Why? We know the vaccines are HIGHLY effective against B.1.1.7
Read 6 tweets
8 Apr
Encouraging studies! 🧵
An analysis of cross-reactive viral binding and neutralization of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants shows Novavax’s and Moderna’s vaccines elicit immune responses that are effective against variants B.1.429 (CA) and B.1.351 (S. Africa).
nejm.org/doi/full/10.10…
Patients previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 received Pfizer’s vaccine. Before vaccination, they had neutralizing activity against variants B.1.1.7 & P.1 but not B.1.351. AFTER one dose, neutralizing activity against ALL variants increased substantially!
nejm.org/doi/full/10.10…
Convalescent serum from those who recovered from an infection with SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.351 showed potent neutralization of D614G (original), as well as variants B.1.351 (S. Africa) AND P.1 (Brazil). Booster vaccines may just seal the deal if needed!
nejm.org/doi/full/10.10…
Read 9 tweets
5 Apr
We know individuals who recover from SARS-CoV-2 infections develop effective T-cell immunity. A new study in Nature finds individuals are able to gain T-cell memory in the absence of a detectable infection simply from exposure!
nature.com/articles/s4146…
Here researchers reported virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell memory in recovered COVID-19 patients and close contacts. Data showed that the memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells of 94.44% and 83.33%, respectively, of the COVID-19 patients successfully underwent expansion.
Their results indicated that most of the recovered COVID-19 patients had developed effective T-cell memory pools against SARS-CoV-2 and their close contacts to a lesser degree. The proliferation capacity, size and quality of T-cell responses in close contacts were also readily
Read 6 tweets
2 Apr
According to the CDC, those who are fully vaccinated can travel “at low risk to themselves,” both within the United States and internationally, but they must continue to take precautions like wearing a mask in public, avoiding crowds, maintaining social distancing.
Vaccinated individuals do not need to get a coronavirus test before arriving in another country, unless required to do so by authorities at the destination, and they do not need to quarantine after returning to the United States unless required to do so by local jurisdictions.
Vaccinated travelers should have a negative result from a coronavirus test before boarding a flight back to the United States, and they should get tested against three to five days after their return home. The recommendations do not alter the guidelines for the unvaccinated.
Read 4 tweets
1 Apr
Fantastic news out of Pfizer this morning!

•91.3% vaccine efficacy observed against COVID-19, measured seven days through up to six months after the second dose

•100% effective in preventing COVID-19 cases in South Africa, where the B.1.351 lineage is prevalent!
Pfizer’s vaccine was 100% effective in preventing severe disease as defined by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and 95.3% effective in preventing severe disease as defined by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This is AMAZING.
pfizer.com/news/press-rel…
This does NOT mean the vaccine is only effective for 6 months. It means that at the 6 month mark this level of high protection is still present! Vaccine safety now evaluated in more than 44,000 participants 16 years of age and older, with more than 12,000 vaccinated participants
Read 6 tweets
30 Mar
This is fantastic. Research out of Israel shows there have NOT been ANY vaccine-resistant SARS-CoV-2 variants found in the population. Comparing the prevalence of differing variants in the vaccinated and unvaccinated population, no difference was detected.
ynetnews.com/health_science…
Remember, vaccines are preventives, not cures! Some people will get infected despite being vaccinated or recovered as no vaccine is 100% effective (but remember it will protect you from the worst of it all). Researchers observed if these individuals were disproportionately being
infected by a vaccine-resistant variant. They were not! Indeed there are variants, and E484K variants in the population. While still in the early days of their vaccination program, the variants do not appear to be gaining any advantage which means the vaccines are stopping them!
Read 4 tweets
28 Mar
Vaccines are preventives, not cures. Immunity is not instantaneous. It is important to realize that vaccinated people who do get infected tend to only have mild or even asymptomatic cases of COVID-19, and don’t require hospitalization. This means the vaccines are indeed working.
With this said, when we see cases rising, or cases of reinfection, especially in places that have had a very robust vaccination program, we have to realize there is a period of time (~14 days after your 2nd dose) where you are considered “fully vaccinated.” It doesn’t just happen
with the snap of a finger. This is why it is still important for you to wear your mask after getting vaccinated. Masks and social distancing will not be forever, believe me, but this is not the time to let up. It is important for you to know there is an end in sight.
Read 5 tweets
28 Mar
•Antibodies from infected and vaccinated individuals bind to the B.1.351 RBD
•Convalescent sera through eight months can neutralize the B.1.351 variant
•Serum from vaccinated individuals retain neutralization against the B.1.351 variant
cell.com/cell-host-micr…
Researchers compared antibody binding and live virus neutralization of sera from individuals naturally infected and Moderna vaccinated individuals against two SARS-CoV-2 variants: B.1 containing the spike mutation D614G and variant B.1.351 containing additional spike mutations
and deletions. Researchers found that sera from acutely-infected and convalescent COVID-19 patients exhibited a 3-fold reduction in binding antibody titers to variant B.1.351’s receptor binding domain of the spike protein and a 3.5-fold reduction in neutralizing antibody titers
Read 6 tweets
26 Mar
RIP my notifications. I swear I’ll read everything when I can. No, I didn’t think I would end up in the news from across the pond. I was just trying to put out the right facts for everyone. Give me a little time and I will answer everyone. Thank you.
One thing I do want to say. If all you have to insult me on is my name or my profile pic rather than the science I share, that says a lot more about you than it does me, trust me. Also, no, I didn’t target anyone. I was very polite, so you can all stop playing white knights now.
Good morning. ☀️ I wanted to thank everyone for the support. It means a lot to me. I think I confused some people and I apologize. I’m not going anywhere, and no article put me in a bad light, it was more so my notifications were too much to keep up with at once while at work.
Read 4 tweets
26 Mar
A study finds vaccination boosts cross-variant neutralizing antibodies elicited by previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Immunization generated B and CD4+ T-cell responses AND a 1000-fold increase in neutralizing antibody titers against B.1.351!🧵
science.sciencemag.org/content/early/…
Researchers examined whether sera from recovered and naïve donors collected prior to, and following immunizations with existing mRNA vaccines, could neutralize the Wuhan-Hu-1 and B.1.351 variants. Pre-vaccination sera from recovered donors neutralized Wuhan-Hu-1 and sporadically
neutralized B.1.351, but a SINGLE immunization boosted neutralizing titers against all variants and SARS-CoV-1 by up to 1000-fold. Neutralization was due to antibodies targeting the RBD and was not boosted by a second immunization in recovered donors.
Read 11 tweets
25 Mar
AstraZeneca’s data from their clinical trials in the U.S. along with studies in Chile and Peru now in sync with the Data and Satety Monitoring Board is here!

•76% effective against symptomatic COVID-19

•100% effective against severe illness

•No safety concerns reported
Comparable efficacy result across ethnicity and age. 85% efficacy in participants aged 65+. These were 4-week dose interval.
astrazeneca.com/media-centre/p…
Want to emphasize again, this efficacy was achieved using a 4-week dosing interval. The 12-week dosing interval used in the UK doubles levels of neutralizing antibodies, further increasing protection, hence results could have had the potential to be higher.
Read 5 tweets
24 Mar
Vaccines are preventives NOT cures. You can still contract the virus once vaccinated. The vaccines are here to make sure you don’t suffer from a severe case or worse. What you need to know is none of these individuals have severe symptoms. Therefore, the vaccines are WORKING.
Also PSST. Know what this means? This means those cell-mediated immune responses are kicking in and your T-cells have once again come to the rescue!
The department confirmed in a statement that none of the three people became severely ill after contracting the virus and did not appear to pass it on to anyone else. Vaccines WORK. ✨
Read 4 tweets
23 Mar
Dear Politicians,

Stop playing Scientists. You’re making our jobs a lot harder than they need to be.
In regards to NIAID’s statement on AstraZeneca, it is indeed quite bizarre of them to produce quite a statement overnight. We need to wait for the FDA’s documents which will ultimately have to be reviewed by NIAID as well. The real-world data on this vaccine speaks for itself.
With this said, excuse my French, but any damn country that doesn’t want to use that vaccine needs to hand it over and give it to those that need it now. People are struggling and all we are doing is sitting on our damn hands. Stop this mess.
Read 6 tweets
18 Mar
There had been a lot of concern surrounding fertility and pregnancy with the vaccines. I thought it would be nice to share the wonders of passive immunity as the first baby with antibodies against COVID-19 in the United States was born yesterday.
At 36 weeks pregnant, the South Florida frontline health care worker had received their first dose of Moderna’s vaccine.
cbsnews.com/news/covid-vac…
Do excuse the “yesterday” part! Apparently it was slow off the press! medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
Read 4 tweets
17 Mar
Super excited to share this. New data from the New England Journal of Medicine shows Moderna’s mRNA-1273 vaccine significantly reduces neutralizing activity against VOCs B.1.1.7, P.1, and B.1.351 and VOI B.1.427/B.1.429. The results are very encouraging!🧵
nejm.org/doi/full/10.10…
Researchers assayed the neutralizing activity against recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV)–based SARS-CoV-2 (a pseudovirus-based model) in serum samples obtained from eight participants in our Phase 1 trial. The samples were obtained one week after participants had
received the second dose of mRNA-1273 vaccine. They then tested pseudoviruses bearing the spike proteins from the original Wuhan-Hu-1 isolate, the D614G variant, and the B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, B.1.427/B.1.429, B.1.1.7+E484K, and other variants (20E [EU1], 20A.EU2, N439K-D614G,
Read 9 tweets
15 Mar
“mRNA vaccines are gene therapy.” Yeah, that’s false. If you see someone claim this, they aren’t worth their salt as a scientist. Sorry not sorry. For one, this is mRNA we are talking about not DNA. Yes, there is a difference.
Gene therapy implies the use of DNA, which stays in your body and can be incorporated into your chromosomes. RNA doesn’t do this. The mRNA in our vaccines wouldn’t be converted into DNA because the enzymes capable of doing that aren’t present. Yeah, those are necessary, trust me.
Lastly, the mRNA strand is not stable enough to hang around. This is what lipid nanoparticles are for. We encased the mRNA so that it maintains its integrity and doesn’t get damaged as it enters cells. After the strand is read the mRNA then degrades. It doesn’t alter your DNA.
Read 4 tweets