Gama is very much synonymous with strength. A thread on him, and also how he is accidentally related to the rise of Yoga in India(through his brother). Read more 👇
Gama, a relatively poor, born around 1882 in Amritsar. From 1910 until 1950, he was the world champion. Unbeaten in London, Paris, and elsewhere in Europe, and in India also. In 1928, he defended his title in Patiala against Stanley Zbyszko, the Polish former world champion.
It is said that he won the bout in two-and-a-half seconds in front of a 40,000-strong crowd. Maharaja of Patiala, Bhupinder Singh, gifted him the pearl necklace he was wearing before awarding him with a village and an annual stipend of ₹6,000.
One Man many heritage-From Sugar business (Parry's Coffee Bite) to an AgroGiant in Making.
Coincidentally most of the business is now run by an equally amazing business Group. An 🧵on Mr. Parry of Parry's Cornerwale
Parrys as a surname was due to the fact that he belonged to a family that used to once rule, Powys (in Wales). The flat fertile land there was ideal for farming, which ensured his family richness. Thomas Parry arrived in Madras in 1788 and was licensed as a free merchant.
While most other Englishmen involved in the Trading in those time were either Writer or Cadet of EIC. Been a Free agent, gave give freedom, but also some problems. Madras had grown from Fort St George, and had Portuguese, French, Dutch, Jews also doing the Trading.
🧵Some Data Around Agriculture. Read and take your own side in the ongoing #FarmersProtest.
And if you have a counter view, show me Data, not emotions led tweets.
1. Four crops account for half of the global primary crop production: Wheat, sugar cane, rice and maize.
2. Among them, this is the distribution of Production:
Americas is the leading region in the production of sugar
cane (54% of the world total), maize (50%). Asia leads in the production of rice (90%) and wheat (45%).
🧵The Great Gambler of Borrowed Capital
Almost all the entrepreneurs are gamblers, but then most of them gamble with their blood, sweat and money. A thread about a Man who wanted to be the next Dhirubhai Ambani of India.
The Other Roy.
Peerless Group was established in 1932 by Radhashyam Roy (then a School Teacher)in Narayanganj, Bangladesh. Soon it diversified into a full-stack financing venture. By 1982, when it celebrated its golden jubilee, it had 400,000 agents and some 17 million customers.
Fearing its becoming too big to be managed, RBI tried to intervene and then we saw some of the biggest names from Bengal <Siddhartha Shankar Ray, Somnath Chatterjee, etc> to represent them against the ongoing case with RBI.
Computers came to India in 1952. TIFRAC <Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Automatic Calculator> was the first computer developed in India, at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research.
In Pic Jawaharlal Nehru and Homi J. Bhabha at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research.
FC Kohli was born in 1924, had grown up in Peshawar, where his father ran a drapery and apparel store. He was working with Tata Power at the time and they wanted to put some of our operations on the computer: inventory control, purchases and some employee data.
A short🧵: Tata War Babies.
Post WW1, Tata’s launched many companies, including a Bank. Given their reputation, and brief post-war economic boom, investors fought to subscribe to these new issues.
The years of World War I was highly successful for Tata Steel. Wartime economies are rapacious entities. And it is a commonplace of economic and military history that, as valuable as steel is in peace, it is vital during the war.
With English steel production after 1914 rapidly absorbed by the European war. The 'India Cement Company' was set up in 1912, later it was merged with three Indian companies and one British to form ACC. Sir Homi Mody, the Tata Director, was the first Chairman.
A Short🧵on Bangalore's notorious Pollen Allergy, its relationship with our Food shortage and origin of the nickname 'Congress Grass'👇
Post-independence, India's wheat bowl, had gone to Pakistan and within the next decade, we were struggling to feed our population. A spell of successive bad monsoons later, there was a severe food crisis by 1955. In 1954, part of their Cold War game.
Eisenhower signed a Public Law <PL>, where US food was used for overseas aid, PL 480. Nehru was sold to this idea and India was the biggest receiver (>50% of the total outflow). But there were many issues related to this.
The God Of Greed. From Oracle to Scam of the Dalal Street.
Some stories of #Scam1992
In the 1970s-80s BSE was still the club of few Gujaratis (esp Jains) & Parsee and Calcutta SE was the exclusive club of Marwaris. ‘Research’ in those time was just inside trading. One with the biggest money bag would win these speculation battles.
Manu Manek, was the Moneybag. He will lend money to play their games, however, if he gets to know that the person is not bagged by enough cash, we will play the other side of the play <which was usually playing a bearish game>
“India lives in villages.” Having ~320 wild species related to nearly 166 crop plants originated. Still, we struggled with Famine and even today we have our farmers doing suicides. Here is 🧵to give you a historical context and let you explore more themes around all this.
The Zamindary <holder of land> was the linchpin of India's agrarian system since the Mughal era. They were required to pay land taxes which were broken as Jama<assessment> and Hasil<actual collection>. At the start, they were NOT the landowner, and acted on ~10 commissions.
Soon with the decline of Mughal, they became Raja/Talquadars and involved other as agents <Desai, Reddy, Patel, etc> to collect the taxes from peasants. British continued with this system. But EIC revenue officers also focused on the availability of credit as they focused on ..
Swami Dayanand in 1873 made Swadeshi as an article of Faith. Post that #AtmaNirbhar Bharat campaign had three phases <Pre-47>, each resulting in some Hits and misses. But in totality, it did shape a few things which we see today in things around us. This 🧵is about all that
The first version of Swadeshi was developed in Western India. Tilak, along with Govind Ranade, Gopal Agarkar <Agarkar Chowk in Andheri> extended the Dadabhai’s Economic Drain theory and would eventually be called for a boycott campaign <first phase of nationalism> in 1896
Around the same time, these events happen: 1. Jamsetji Tata rename newly purchased Dharamsi Mills as the Swadeshi Mills <1886>, ironically 1st mill was Empress <Nagpur> 2. Profullachandra Roy started his Bengal Chemicals in Calcutta <1893>, Satis Mukherji started Dawn Society
🧵Rajputs hardly fought any battles (post-Mughals) then why they consider themself as Warriors? How a Bunch of Firangi Traders in their pursuit of economical gain will trigger two-family occupations in the Shekhawati region of Rajasthan? Understand the after impact of all this
Shekhawati along with the Mewar, Marwar & Hadoti is the Subdivision of Rajasthan, it was named as the ‘Garden of the Shekhas <which itself comes from Rao Shekha the chief of their community>
It was ruled by the Muslim Rajputs named Kyam-Khanis <Chauhan that converted to Islam during Feroze Tughlaq> for nearly three centuries. With the decline of the Mughals, Hindu Rajputs reclaimed these and entire Shekhawati was divided into 33 thikanas/pargana
🧵How a Company, in order to solve their problem of Trade Deficit (arisen due to a newfound addiction), will end up running a drug cartel. How Birth of Israel is related to Opium, all this in this Thread on the JOY PLANT
Sumerians, the mysterious folks from ancient Mesopotamia started cultivating something which they named as Hul Gil (“joy plant”). Later Greeks associated it with their three Gods: Hypnos (sleep), Nyx (night), and Thanatos (death). They named it as ópion (juice of a plant)
During Islamic Golden Age, it was rediscovered as a medicine, so much so that Ibn Sina (famous alchemist) proclaimed it as Allah's gift. As the Arab were the driving force of the World trade (of that time), they would then introduce this to India, with Baghdad as Epicenter.
Long before Ottoman and Arab did their Islamization, followed by West’s Globalization, there was something called Indianization. And, the Kingdom of Kalinga (before Pallavas) was the epicentre of this. More about them and their almost lost Maritime heritage in this 🧵
Indian western coast was trading with Arabs, Greeks & Romans, the eastern coast was doing this with South East Asia & China. A good maritime trade requires (a) inland water transport (b) coastal transport (c) overseas transport. From Maurya rule in 4th century B.C. till 15th C.
2/20. Kalinga provided all this and thus became an important maritime kingdom which had seafaring activities. They were trading in spices, diamonds, elephants, ivory, paper, betel nuts, fine textiles and fabrics. And, were known as Calingae, Holing, Kiling in different languages.
🧵How Cotton has contributed to the emergence of capitalism & colonialism? Understanding Cotton as an intersection of industrial, financial, & agricultural relations. Making of the Industrial Revolution in Britain and US roles, all this 👇
Originated in India, the cotton industry in the Indian subcontinent has been well-developed since ancient Vedic times. Soon, its plant & seed diffused to China & Africa between AD 800 & 1000. But India maintained their edge due to quality (and colour, washability, design)
The entire process of making Cloth was slow & very labour intensive. It involved bowing, ginning, reeling, & spinning. Arabs were the main trading partner & cotton was grown on the Coromandel Coast (and Coimbatore) & in Gujarat (near the Sea Ports).
🧵The Genesis of the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE). What major change happened in 1977 and then an event of 1982 which made Dhirubhai Ambani as an Equity Cult figure and Why you Should NOT mess with Ambanis. All while most of us are wondering about #JioPlatforms & #Jio
In the 1840s few folks started trading in bullion, exchange, & shares under the Banyan tree. As the volume goes up, there were now 25 in the count and all of them contributed Re. 1, to form an association, and called it as 'The Native Share and Stock Brokers’ Association'
But they needed space, so hired a trading hall in present Dalal Street. With no funds of its own to pay the trading hall’s monthly rental of Rs. 100 they got Dinshaw Maneckji Petit, to fund them. Another Parsi contribution in Bombay Story. Read more
🧵Isaac Newton was a genius of his age<we all know>, But DYN, what monetary policy came via his ‘‘fit of absent-mindedness’. And, why he once said this in 1720:
“I can calculate the motions of heavenly bodies, but not the madness of people” and Bubble Investments. Read 👇
As a child, he spent his pocket money on tools and made a working model of a windmill. A treadmill, run by a mouse. Also, fixed a paper lantern to a kite. By, 1665 he had to return home due to Plague from Trinity College, Cambridge. And, soon he developed his law of gravity.
Devised laws of mechanics to explain moving bodies, invented the differential & integral calculus (along with German philosopher Gottfried Leibniz). Made significant discoveries in optics. After astronomy, physics & mathematics, he got an exciting role, as warden of Royal Mint.
Counter THREAD: Madhubala, Attaullah Khan, Dilip Kumar and That Famous Court Case.
At time a well narrated emotional story tries to whitewash the FACTS. This thread was all about that. Let me counter this with some facts and less views (of mine)👇
Who was Madhubala?
Born to Atauallah Khan (AK) and Mumtaz Begum in a family of Pathan. She was born in abject poverty <Living in a slum>, the 5th of 11 children. He,left his job at Imperial Tobacco over some tiff & was taking her to auditions at various studios.
One day he got succeeded in getting her 8-year-old, daughter Mumtaz Khan, with an audition with Devika Rani <She gave her a new name, Madhubala and part in the 1942 film Basant>. She was paid Rs. 50 & then 50 more as AK said he has to accompany her and hence can not do a job.
What was Goa before Portuguese came? Did Portuguese develop Goa as the major trading hubs? And If So, Why they failed to expand and let Dutch and English run the show in the Indian Ocean(IO), what role does Jesuits Played? Read about Goa's history <Gaud Saraswat Brahmins-18th C.>
Aryans in the form of GSB reached here when they cut themselves off from their group near Saraswati River, as they compromised their vegetarian Dharm by eating fish to tide over a 12-year famine. Place where Ram spent time during his exile days <We have a Cabo de Rama Fort>
Goa's excellent waterways made it a strategic post. Hindu and Muslim dynasties battled for long. Sea Ventures soon spotted it, Sumerians called it Gubi. Persians & Arabs also came. Muslim rulers decided to make the port the centre for Haj. Kadamba ruler made Gopakapattana.
Thread: Awadh, Nawabs & Lucknow.
'Ayodhya' <from Sanskrit='unconquerable'> was the original Ramaraj place. Modified as Awadh, & Lakshman laid the formation of Lucknow.
नवाबों की नगरी लखनऊ=अलहदा तहज़ीब। जिन्होंने अवध को एक नई पहचान दी। आइए शुरुआत करते है ट्विटर पे ये क़िस्सागोई।
From 1500 the Ottoman Empire expanded and conquered Syria and Iraq. The Safavid Empire, based in Azerbaijan, subdued the Iranian plateau. All this will force another set of migration from that land. First one was by Parsi. Read more about them & Bombay
A dynasty by Shias <from the Persian city of Nishapur on Silk Route > begins with Saadat Khan in 1722 <Nawabs= Arabic 'naib', ='assistant'>. He will later betray Mughals and invite Nadir Shah to attack Delhi, and sadden by his act, he will commit suicide. More from @anmol_dhawan
SUB-THREAD: Wajid Ali Shah <The Last Nawab of Awadh>. Defamed as a debauch and inefficient ruler, by British historian (& many Indian also). It is ironical that one who wrote a book on regulations and management, Dastoor-e-Wajidi, lost his own kingdom on grounds of mismanagement.
Music was always an intrinsic part of Awadh: Benaras, Jaunpur & Ayodhya, were centres of musical training. He was musically talented himself & has been credited with popularising classical North Indian music. It was due to this that Bhatkhande/Marris College of Music got started.
His pen name was Akhtar, and he wrote almost all styles of poetry like hajo (satirical), marsiya (elegy, dirge), ghazal (amatory song or poem), masnawi (verse), salam (a form of religious poetry), nauha (mourning poetry) and also bhajans on Radha-Krishna.
Thread: How Bombay became the epicenter of Parsi commercial and cultural activity<3C: Commerce, Cricket & Cinema>; how they laid the foundation of modern Bombay. Been earliest to enter Trade & modern industries, and able to maintain their lead-in until the end of World War I.
No one was interested in present-day Mumbai. Trade of Indian Ocean was controlled from Malabar, Goa & Gujarat (Surat, Madavi). Portugal grab it in 1534, and rewarded most of the land to religious orders (Franciscans and Jesuits), and named this place as Bom Baim (Good Harbor).
Back in Europe, they needed a strong ally, so their princess was married to English’s prince & Bombay ended up with Royal Crown<offered this to East India Co, who rejected saying the cost is too high. RC tried on their own and failed royally, again offered EIC at a huge discount