Two poles are emerging: the total state or market anarchy.
Let's talk about the total state first, starting with the codes China put into WeChat.
Green? You can travel
Yellow? Exposed, stay home
Red? Supervised quarantine
If a yellow or red code moved, let alone walked into a sea of greens, you'd see it. And you'd message all the greens, and mark them yellow.
Yet on the other hand, you can't repeat the exercise of manually tracing-and-testing 1900 people every time a COVID-19 positive walks into a bar.
For an urban economy with crowds of strangers, this is one option nations may choose.
Refuse a WeChat-like system, but either (a) give up the urban economy & go rural or (b) build a new isolated urban economy of people who are immune, vaccinated, or don't care about the virus.
So you go to a rural setting. Space yourself out, avoid urban crowds of strangers, slash your consumption, be autarkic.
So to actually build a functional urban economy without WeChat-style tracking, you'll need people who are immune, vaccinated, or DGAF.
(Herd immunity will also "work", but at the cost of many dead & hard-to-foresee consequences.)
So, focus on tech.
1) The total state: sacrifice privacy to control the virus
2) Market anarchy: preserve privacy, but don't control the virus
3) Superior technology: develop biomedical tech so good the virus and any successors don't matter