In ancient times the southern part of India was ruled principally by three main dynasties. They’re Pandyas, Cholas, Cheras. The Kings of these dynasties was collectively referred to as ‘Moovendhar’ (meaning, three crowned Kings).
@anexcommie @shreekanth2020 @HelloNNewman
Today, I’m gonna share with you what little information is available on internet on Pandyas – the oldest and tenacious of the three dynasties. I had to rely on internet bcos there’s still more to be explored about the Pandya dynasty.
@Valluva_Bharati @RajiIndustani
I was unable to cross-verify every detail and since their story is yet to be told, bringing them as is.

As per available information, Pandyas ruled parts of Southern India during three different periods of history (barring the pre-Sangam era) unlike the Cholas and Cheras.
These three periods are classified as ‘Sangam Era’, ‘First Empire’, ‘Second Empire’. It’s unknown as to when exactly the first empire of Pandyas was established, however the records about Pandya Kingdom in pre-Sangam era are mostly transmitted orally +
@Dharma_Yoddhaa @AnkitaBnsl
(their role in Kurushetra war) and does not have strong historical evidence to support.

Kulashekharan Pandya is the first known Pandyan King of the pre-Sangam era. He is said to be as strong as a bull. The name of the dynasty is derived from Tamil word ‘Pandi’, which means bull
This lends credence to Kulashekaran Pandya being the first known Pandya King and establisher of the dynasty. Another known King of this era is his son Malayadwaja Pandya. It is said that Malayadwaja Pandya fought in Kurushetra war alongside Pandavas.
@VedicWisdom1 @RapperPandit
He managed to wound Dronacharya in the war and goes on to duel with Ashwathama.

Meenakshi (a form of Maa Shakti), after whom the famous Meenakshi Amman temple is built in Madurai, is said to be daughter of Malayadwaja.

@rightwingchora @desi_thug1 @LevinaNeythiri
The Pandyas then resurface between c.600 BC – c.400 BC, this is known as the Sangam Era. Pandya Kings during this time were credited with construction of beautiful temples (Meenakshi Amman Temple, Nellaiappar Temple). Pandya kingdom was famous for their involvement in pearl +
+ trading, arts, poetry and literature. It is said that the Pandyas with their capital at present day Madurai established Sangam to grow the Tamil Literature. Thus, this period being known as ‘Sangam Era’. The Pandyas enjoyed diplomatic ties with the Roman republic and empire +
+ (apparently dating as far back as 550 BC, when Rome was still an occupied Etruscan kingdom), the Greeks, the Chinese, the Ptolemy Egyptians, etc. The Pandyan kingdom was also independent during the Mauryan rule of northern India and had friendly ties with them. @Sarvavyaapi
Marco Polo made mention of the Pandyan kingdom as one of the richest he had ever seen, as did Megasthenes in his work the Indika, and the Chinese traveller Yu Huan. The Sangam era came to an end when the Kalabhras takeover Pandya kingdom and push them to obscurity for 1100 years.
After almost 11 centuries of being a footnote in history, Kadungon Pandya retook the lost territories and established the Pandya Kingdom once again. This period is referred to as the First Empire of Pandyas. @hathyogi31 @Sanskritii_1 @Itishree001 @Anshulspiritual @sambhashan_in
This is a new era in the Tamil speaking region, as another King of Pallava dynasty (Simhavishnu) was achieving similar feat in establishing his kingdom. For re-establishing Pandya Kingdom, Kadungon Pandya was give epithet of ‘Pandyadhiraja’.

@Sankar2Narayan @rsankaras
Around 9th century, Chola army led by Aditya Karikala (son of Parantaka Chola II) defeats Vira Pandya in battle and dethroned the Pandyas. The Pandyas were replaced by Chola viceroys (Governors) called as Chola Pandyas.
@Bhairavinachiya @Padmaavathee @Man_Banarasiya
The mighty Pandya dynasty was reduced to being a vassal of Cholas. As one can imagine, it was quite humiliating for the Pandyas.

Jatavarman Kulasekharan I (1190-1216) resented his humbling position and lead a rebellion against the Cholas.
He’s quickly defeated and was forced to once again be vassal of Cholas.

Maravarman Sundara Pandyan I (1216-1236) - younger brother of Jatavarma Kulasekharan, avenged his brother’s defeat by sacking the Chola cities of Tanjavur and Uraiyur.
@NandiniVenkate3 @lalitha_jr
He briefly restores the Pandya fortune and even sends the crown Chola Prince – Raja Raja Chola III into exile. He ruled over extensive territories including that of Trichinopoly (present day Thiruchirappalli, Karur, Ariyalur and Perambalur) and Pudukottai.
This revival of fortune was short lived, as Rajendra Chola III defeats Maravarman Sundara Pandyan II (1238-1251).

Jatavarman Sundara Pandiyan III avenges defeat of his father (Maravarman Sundara Pandya II) by completely destroying the Chola empire.
He’s also credited for establishing the second powerful Pandyan empire. During his reign, he’s said to have acknowledged the contribution of other Kings from different dynasties towards the prosperity of the region.
@nair_hena @paperrose2k
It is said that he built a gate at the Sri Ranganathaswami Temple at Srirangam in which he engraves the names of all four great empires of Tamil Nadu – the Cholas, Pallavas, Pandyas and Cheras.
As per available information, the Pandya dynasty rule comes to an end in 1345 AD when General Malik Kafur of Delhi Sultanate invades Pandya kingdom and destroys it over the course of two decades.

Hope you enjoyed reading about one of the ancient kingdoms of India.
I’ll write a separate thread listing the names of Pandya Kings and their relative history (what little is available).

Have a great day and week ahead! @BesuraTaansane

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More from @almightykarthik

23 Sep
There's a well-known adage in Tamil - கற்றது கைமண் அளவு, கல்லாதது உலகளவு. Its English equivalent would be 'Known is a drop, unknown is an ocean'.

Story Time! Let me narrate an incident involving Bhagwan Murugan and Avvaiyar.

@anexcommie @shreekanth2020 @HelloNNewman
But, before that, let me give you a quick and paraphrased introduction of ‘Avvaiyar’

Avvaiyars (Tamil: ஔவையார்; ‘Respectable Women’) was title of more than one poet who was active during different periods of Tamil literature. Image
The Avvaiyar were some of the most famous and important female poets of the Tamil canon. Abithana Chintamani states that there were three female poets honoured wih the title of Avvaiyar. There’s no name to be found (at least I couldn’t) for any of the three Avvyaiyars.
Read 15 tweets
22 Sep
Hello Dear Tweeples!

I'm gonna start sharing about 18 Siddhars, here am reposting a thread I wrote last October about 'Pambatti Siddhar'. Please do read and correct me if am wrong anywhere.

Pambatti Siddhar's birth name is lost in the annals of time.

@HelloNNewman Image
Pambatti Siddhar before meeting his Guru was a snake-charmer and lived in erstwhile Pandiya Kingdom. He was fearless and used to catch snake for living as well as for fun.

@Dharma_Yoddhaa @VedicWisdom1 @vedvyazz @sambhashan_in
During one such expedition, he met his Guru (another Siddhar by name 'Sattaimuni Siddhar') who asked him what he's doing. He replied that he's looking for snakes to catch. Sensing something in the young man, Sattaimuni Siddhar further probed what type of snake is he looking for?
Read 17 tweets
21 Sep
#Thread on Siddhis.

The word Siddhi means attainment/accomplishment, or perfection. While in current times, Siddhi might seem like a Supernatural power, I firmly believe that everyone one of us have these abilities and potential to use them, but we’re unable to because of the
distractions in life. However, in ancient times, people had these power and utilised it for betterment of humans. 18 Siddhars, who’re considered to be prominent amongst Siddhars are example of this fact. That is the reason I believe that in by-gone era, Siddhi meant perfection.
While today, it means attainment/accomplishment.

We have references to Siddhis in various scriptures. This verse in Hanuman Chalisa is one such example:

Ashta siddhi nava nidhi ke dātā, asa bara dīnha jānakī mātā

@Dharma_Yoddhaa @VedicWisdom1
Read 30 tweets
6 Sep
Many have replied to the quoted twee with the reasons they think why there are less Sadhvis as compared to Sadhus. Let me share my own thoughts.

The word Sadhu means an ascetic, who lives a life of Vairagyā. They renounce their known world and embark on a journey of unknown +
+ & self-discovery.

A man when takes pratigyā to renounce everything, he becomes a Sadhu. For women, they already follow this when they get married. Women renounces her known world and embarks on a journey of unknown and in this journey, she discovers herself.
She lives a life of Vairagyā, where she follows way of life that gives her satisfaction.

Very few women do not find the way of life post marriage as appealing and go on to become a Sadhvi.

To conclude, women are already living a life of Sadhvi being a grahini and +
Read 4 tweets
31 Aug
First, let me start by wishing everyone a very Happy Onam.

On this auspicious occasion, let me introduce you all to one of the prominent temples in Vaishnava belief. We're gonna look at Trivikrama (‘Conqueror of Three Worlds’) temple in Thirukovilur town in Villipuram district. ImageImage
Bhagwan in this temple is also known as ‘Ulagalantha Perumal’ (one who measured the worlds).

This temple is one of the 108 Divya Desams and has third tallest Gopuram in the state, first and second being SriRangam and Srivilliputthur respectively. @RajiIndustani @wataboutery Image
The temple is believed to have been built by the Medieval Cholas, with later contributions from Vijayanagar kings and Madurai Nayaks. Moolavar here is said to be made of ‘Tharu-wood’ and said to be the tallest vigraha in country (not sure about this).

@HelloNNewman @desi_thug1
Read 11 tweets
27 Aug
अहम् ब्रह्मास्मि (aham brahmasmi) literally means, 'I am Brahman'. This realisation is what leads a living being to mukti (liberation) from the cycle of life.

Thing is people (including me) start the journey of life and reach till 'I am' but do not go any further. @anexcommie
This 'I am' is creates a Maya so intoxicating tht we do not want to realise the Brahma tatva within us. Instead we become self-obsessed.

And it's not just us, even great Rishi's have been blinded by this Maya. Let me narrate a story I heard long back, this is purely from memory,
so apologies in advance if I get this wrong in any way.

Maharishi Naarad does not need an introduction. He's an ardent bhakt of Sriman Narayana and always has 'Hari Naam' in his lips, so much so that even Naarad Muni's greeting has become 'Narayana Narayana'.

Read 19 tweets

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