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14 Oct, 10 tweets, 8 min read
For the Ancient Egyptians, color was an important part of their life, it symbolized the nature of the beings they depicted. The Egyptian word for color, IWN (iwen) also translates as character, disposition and nature. Thus, color was intimately linked to the essence of being.
The Egyptian artist had 6 main colors in the palette: green, red, blue, yellow, white and black. They were usually obtained from mineral compounds, and prepared with a mixture of pigments acquired by grinding colored earth with the addition of water, rubber latex and egg’s white.
The mineral compounds used have allowed some of the colors to remain vibrant and beautiful for thousands of years. Colors weren’t used randomly, they conveyed meaning. Truly, wasn’t just the value or scarcity of the materials that mattered, but their symbolic meaning.
Green (Wadj) was obtained from malachite, the word Wadj also means to flourish or to be healthy. Earth and fertility gods, Geb and Osiris, are depicted with green skin, reflecting their power to grow vegetation and power of resurrection. Wadj, was also associated with Hathor.
Red (Deshr) was the color of life and victory. It was obtained from Jasper or red ocre. Men were generally depicted with red skin, reflecting their vitality. Deshr was associated with Ra. Lector priests wrote important phrases, described evil, and recorded unlucky days in red.
Yellow, Khenet represented eternity and immortality. It was thought that the skin of the gods was made of gold, thus many of their statues were made of gold, covered or painted with gold. Egyptians made yellow pigments like ochre and massicot. Women were painted with yellow skin.
Blue (irtiu) referred to as Egyptian Blue, was made from copper and iron oxides with silica and calcium. Symbolized fertility, birth, rebirth and life. Was used to depict water and the heavens. Thoth, the eye of Horus & Bes are depicted in blue, which also symbolized protection.
White symbolized purity and omnipotence. Hedj means white and silver. Silver was highly prized in Egypt, and fairly scarce. White was worn in religious rituals; embalming objects and tools were made of white alabaster. White paint was made from chalk or gypsum, abundant in Egypt.
Black (Kem) represented death and chaos, but also fertility and resurrection. Egypt was known as Kemet, the black land, perhaps in reference to the black silt deposited by the Nile floods. Black was made from soot, charcoal and occasionally from an ore of manganese.
Ancient Egyptians used colors purposefully, each had different meaning. Recognizing their symbolism and why they were used, allows a greater appreciation and understanding of Egyptian art, and the message the artist was trying to convey.
R. David, Wilkinson, B. Evans

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More from @surimana16

12 Sep
There isn’t enough information about human sacrifice in ancient Egypt, though there is some evidence that it could have been practiced in the Nile Valley during the 1st Dynasty and possibly the Predynastic period.
J. Kinnaer posits there were two types of human sacrifice possibly practiced in early ancient Egypt: the killing of human beings as offerings to the gods regularly, or on special occasions and the retainer sacrifice, the killing of servants who were buried with their master.
One form of human sacrifices to the gods may have been the slaying of criminals and prisoners of war. It was a custom, in Predynastic times, to slay slaves at the graves of kings and nobles in order that the souls of the slaughtered might protect them and keep away evil spirits.
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5 Aug
Ancient Egypt’s crowns, the Deshret crown, red crown worn by the ruler of Lower Egypt. Probably was made of fabric or leather with a copper wire ending in a spiral. In Egyptian mythology, the Deshret was first given to Horus by Geb to symbolize his rule over Lower Egypt.
The Hedjet crown, White crown was associated with Upper Egypt and confirmed the rule of the king over southern Egypt.
This Crown is depicted on one side of the Narmer Palette, it was worn by gods with a connection to upper Egypt, such as Nekhbet the vulture goddess and Horus.
The Pschent, Double Crown, known as Sekhemti,Two Powerful Ones,symbolized the king’s rule of Upper and Lower Egypt.The Pschent is often embelished with the cobra and the vulture (Wadjet and Nekhbet). The crowns were worn seperately in earlier periods until the 19th Dynasty.
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8 Jun
The Benben stone is an architectural name given to the tip of an obelisk or the capstone placed on top of a pyramid. This architectural feature is known also as a pyramidion. Also the Benben stone is a symbol of the Phoenix and the cycle of the seasons.
Egyptian mythology has many stories of the creation, one says the god Atum, brought the universe into being. In the beginning, there was nothing but darkness and chaos. It was out of the dark waters that the primordial hill, known as the Benben stone arose with Atum on top of it.
In some versions of the myth, Atum masturbated, creating Shu and Tefnut. In other versions of the story, they were created by Atum’s copulation with his own shadow. Shu and Tefnut left Atum on the Benben stone, and went away to create the rest of the world.
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19 May
Ancient Egyptian Writing. In the last part of the Predynastic Period, 6000-3150 BCE Anc. Egyptians began to use symbols to represent simple concepts limited to notations to identify a person, place, event or possession. Most likely the earliest purpose of writing was for trading.
The first extant evidence of Egyptian writing is found in Offering Lists, which are a list of the gifts due to a person when they died. Who had done great deeds, held a high position of authority, or led troops to victory was due greater offerings than who had done less in life.
Along with the list, there was an epitaph, stating who the person was, what they had done, and why they were due offerings. The lists and epitaphs sometimes were brief, but most of the time were long till the day someone saw that a short prayer would substitute the list.
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4 Apr
The Ancient Egyptians’ complex beliefs of life, death and afterlife evolved over thousands of years. Life was only one part of an eternal journey and didn’t end in death, but in an eternal joy. One was born by the goodwill of the Seven Hathors, who decreed ones’ fate after birth.
The soul was to live a life as good a as it could in the body it had been given for a time, so when death came, it would transition to another realm where, if one was deemed good by the gods, one would live eternally in a paradise known as The Field of Reeds.
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The board game of Senet was very popular and represented one's journey in life to eternity.
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29 Mar
1/ A little research about the main #pandemics that affected us throughout history. Contagious diseases had already existed during the nomadic stages of humankind, but the shift to the sedentary life, 10,000 years ago, made the spread of epidemics more often and at larger scales.
2/ The establishment of communities and the development of civilizations with trading routes and activities, and waging wars generated the opportunities for the occurrence of the pandemics that have decimated human populations, and changed the curse of history. ImageImage
3/ The earliest recorded pandemic occurred during the Peloponnesian War. It came from Ethiopia and Egypt, reaching Athens in 430 BC. 2/3 of the population died of a suspected typhoid fever. It weakened the Athenians and helped in their defeat by the Spartans. Image
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