With news of Dr. Reddy's applying for accelerated approval of 'Sputnik V' vaccine, here is a quick summary of the potential candidate:

✅ Vaccine platform: Viral vector technology using Adenovirus as the vector. Covishield uses the same platform, but there is a difference.

1/n
✅ Sputnik V uses 2 different variants of the human adenovirus for the 1st and 2nd dose, unlike Covishield where both doses use the same variant of a chimpanzee adenovirus.

✅ Who is developing this vaccine? Gamaleya Research Institute, Russia.

2/n
✅ Has the vaccine got approval in other countries? Russia stirred critical discussions when use of Sputnik V was authorized in Russia before completion of trials. Subsequently Phase 3 interim results have been published.
20+ countries have given emergency approval.

3/n
✅ What is the efficacy of the vaccine? Interim results of Phase 3 trials published in The Lancet, puts the efficacy at 91.6%.
More importantly, 100% efficacy noted for severe cases.

Important fineprint regarding the efficacy data:
➡️ Asymptomatic cases not considered.

4/n
➡️ Efficacy analysis done 21 days after 1st dose. In effect, the 91.6% efficacy is for a single dose and 21 days after the 1st dose.
➡️ High efficacy of 91.8% noted in those above 60.
➡️ Efficacy of 73% noted for cases reported ANY TIME after 1st dose.

5/n
➡️ The graph compares reported cases across vaccine and placebo groups over time. Cases were similar between the 2 groups till about 16 days from 1st dose. But post that, cases drastically dropped in the vaccine arm group. Pointing to an effective response under 20 days.

6/n
✅ Other properties: Stored between 2 to 8C.
Administration route: Intramuscular.
Number of doses: 2 doses administered 21 days apart.
✅ Is any trial conducted in India? Bridging trial with 1500 participants is in advanced stage in India. Overseen by Dr. Reddy's in India.

7/n
✅ Will the vaccine be manufactured in India?
Russian Direct Investment Fund (RDIF) talked about deals with 3 to 4 Indian players for manufacturing Sputnik V. Names floated include Hetero Biopharma and Virchow Biotech.

8/n
✅ Interesting tidbit: AstraZeneca did announce trials to combine Oxford vaccine and Sputnik V, with the aim to boost the efficacy of the Oxford vaccine. Trial started in Azerbaijan.

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More from @covid19indiaorg

21 Feb
In an earlier analysis, we had seen how the TPR and CPM of Kerala, spiked post September, 2020.

Results of the 3 national sero surveys give clues to interpret this.

➡️ As of August 2020, KL had a seroprevalence of only 0.8% compared to national avg. of 6.6%.

1/5
➡️ This relatively low prevalence in KL correlates with the lower case load seen in the state till August.

➡️ In Dec, the prevalence saw a multi fold increase to 11.6% (national 21%) from 0.8% in August. This is reflected in the significant spike seen in KL from September.

2/5
➡️ It is notable that in Aug, KL had a relatively low prevalence of 0.8% - reflecting the initial control of spread.
➡️ It left a high % of population vulnerable to infection, which would have contributed to the spike post August. Furthered by local body elections and Onam.

3/5
Read 5 tweets
20 Feb
How has Covid19 and the changes brought by it, affected different spheres of your life?
Let us know in this series of polls:

1. What impact did Covid19 have on your job and career prospects?

1/7
2. How did Covid19 affect your personal relationships with your dearest ones?

2/7
3. How did Covid19 affect your physical health?

3/7
Read 7 tweets
9 Feb
Kerala - Of delayed peak and long plateau: After reporting the 1st Covid19 case in Jan 2020, KL hit it's peak only in Oct 2020. Even till Sept., cases per million of KL remained lower than that of states like TN, KA, AP.
The story after the peak though has been different.

1/4
TN + AP peaked in Aug '20, while KA hit it's peak in Sep '20. KL had a monthly TPR of only 5.8% in September (overall TPR 4.5%), again indicating an increasing but controlled spread.
Did this relatively controlled spread for most of 2020, lead to increased cases post Sept.?

2/4
After hitting the peak, states like TN, KA and AP saw a significant decline in cases within 2 months. Unlike them, monthly cases per million and TPR have mostly plateaued in KL, without seeing a significant dip.
A combination of increased mobility, high population density,

3/4
Read 4 tweets
5 Jan
The expert committee of CDSCO met on 30/12, 01/01 and 02/01 to deliberate on accelerated approval of vaccines. Recommendations made on each day have been officially published.

📣 In this thread, we take a look at the timeline of events that lead to the approval. Must read.

1/n
30th December:
#Covaxin: Bharat Biotech presents status of Phase 3 trials and updated safety data.
📣 Committee recommends that updated safety and EFFICACY data of Phase 3 trials have to be presented for further consideration.

2/n
30th December:
#Covishield: SII presents safety and efficacy data of Phase 2/3 trials from UK, Brazil, SA along with data from ongoing Indian trials. SII mentions that UK has provided EUA.

📣 Committee asks for complete details of UK approval to be submitted.

3/n
Read 10 tweets
5 Jan
Israel's vaccination sprint: Around 14% of Israel's total population have already received the 1st dose of Covid19 vaccine. A sprint that has taken Israel to the top of the per capita vaccination chart.

How did the country of 9M people achieve this? A thread.

1/n
Small size: Israel is a small country of 9 million people - slightly larger than Chennai and less than half of Mumbai's population. The size makes distribution/logistics easier and can't be compared to the challenges of larger countries. But, the story goes beyond it's size.

2/n
Healthcare system: At the center of Israel's swift vaccination progress is the universal, vertically integrated, digitised healthcare system. Health care is a fundamental right in Israel, with mandatory health insurance run by 4 health maintenance organizations.

3/n
Read 12 tweets
4 Jan
A (long) thread on Bharat Biotech - ICMR's #Covaxin vaccine.

1. Type of vaccine: #Covaxin is a whole virion INACTIVATED vaccine.
In such vaccines, the whole #sarscov2 virus is inactivated to make it harmless and used to make the vaccine. Seed virus provided by NIV Pune.

1/n Image
2. How is it different from #Covishield? Covishield is a VIRAL VECTOR vaccine. Here, the spike protein of #sarscov2 is sequenced. A weakened virus that causes common cold in chimpanzees called Adenovirus is used as the vector to carry the spike protein in the vaccine.

2/n Image
3. Phase 1 trial: 375 persons in trial, done across 11 sites in 9 states.
Age profile: 18 to 55.
375 persons divided into 4 groups. 3 groups of 100 each received 3 different formulations of the vaccine and 1 control group of 75 received placebo.
Dosage: 2 doses, 14 days.

3/n Image
Read 12 tweets

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