Many of these Bills are trying to impose symmetry on an inherently asymmetric situation.

Anyone should be allowed, safety assured, to ‘punch up’ a category. This is especially important when they do not have a category of their own.
There should not be barrier to a female playing in a male team (if she is safe to do so). Reframing all ‘male’ categories as ‘open’ (as many technically are) will underline this concept.
Regulating transgirls/transwomen in female sport is not mirrored by exactly the same set of concerns as regulating transboys/transmen in open-but-practically-male sport.
Legislators who propose to regulate the former by exclusion and then knee-jerk to similarly regulate the latter risk demonstrating lack of rational thinking in their proposals.
I would strongly urge anyone considering writing such Bills to understand the difference between the two situations and evidence that in their words.

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More from @FondOfBeetles

12 Mar
@LaurenOxleyx If you are going to present ‘basic research’, at least do it.

1.7% of the world is not intersex. The vast majority of this figure are unambiguous females - adults, mothers, etc - with high testosterone. Do you think such females are intersex?
@LaurenOxleyx Your use of redheads as a reference value is thus inaccurate. And ironically, some of the biggest clusters of DSDs happen in populations where red hair would be unheard of.....
@LaurenOxleyx People with DSDs are not different sexes, they are males or females who, owing to genetic mutations or environmental insult, don’t follow typical development. They don’t represent a third sex.
Read 8 tweets
6 Mar
Full contact ‘collision’ sports are those where deliberate, forceful contact against an opponent are an integral part of gameplay.

The aim of contact play may be to defend or retrieve possession of, say, a ball (e.g. rugby) or to win by disabling your opponent (e.g. boxing).
Sports federations regulating full contact sports, where contact cannot be eliminated without changing the face of the sport, have a *special duty* to minimise the potential for injury during gameplay.

See Jon Pike @runthinkwrite on this.…
This is evident in policies to, for example, limit contact to specific moves or regions of the body, to regulate how contact is enacted, and the wearing of protective gear to minimise injury potential during contact.
Read 18 tweets
6 Mar
There have been two academic reviews of musculoskeletal changes in transwomen suppressing testosterone.

Both conclude that loss of muscle mass and strength is small, and that strength advantage over females is retained.

Citations to follow.
The first review is Hilton and Lundberg, 2020, published in Sports Medicine.

The second review is Harper et al., 2021, published in the British Journal of Sports Medicine.…
Read 8 tweets
3 Mar
Systematic review from Joanna Harper on muscular changes in transwomen.

‘These findings suggest that strength may be well preserved in transwomen during the first 3 years of hormone therapy.’…
Her conclusions mirror those of a recent review by me and Tommy Lundberg @tlexercise

‘These longitudinal data comprise a clear pattern of very modest to negligible changes in muscle mass and strength in transgender women suppressing testosterone for at least 12 months.’
Link to our review here:…
Read 6 tweets
27 Feb
Over the past month or so, I have been testing the hypothesis ‘Doing X causes Y to happen’.

So I have been ‘Doing X’ a repeated number of times and scoring how often it ‘causes Y to happen’.
If I don’t do X, Y rarely happens, but there is a background rate of Y happening in the absence of X.

If I do X, Y almost always happens, but there have been a few times where it didn’t happen.
Not doing X = Y happens in 4/60 tests.

Doing X = Y happens in 57/60 tests.

It’s clear to me (and statistically) that ‘Doing X’ does indeed correlate with ‘Y happening’, and I have a well-known mechanism to assert not just correlation but cause.
Read 8 tweets
23 Feb
Excellent piece here from Jon Pike @runthinkwrite

I’ve often struggled to articulate the fallacious ‘Range Argument’. Jon makes a good job of it.
‘According to the range argument, however, lots of male-born people, including transwomen, are in the range of females. This means they are not necessarily faster or stronger than the fastest or strongest female athletes just because they were born male.’
‘So, if transwomen are “in the range” of female athletes, then their inclusion in sport is still fair, right?
Read 4 tweets

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