Encouraging studies! 🧵
An analysis of cross-reactive viral binding and neutralization of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants shows Novavax’s and Moderna’s vaccines elicit immune responses that are effective against variants B.1.429 (CA) and B.1.351 (S. Africa).
Patients previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 received Pfizer’s vaccine. Before vaccination, they had neutralizing activity against variants B.1.1.7 & P.1 but not B.1.351. AFTER one dose, neutralizing activity against ALL variants increased substantially!
Convalescent serum from those who recovered from an infection with SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.351 showed potent neutralization of D614G (original), as well as variants B.1.351 (S. Africa) AND P.1 (Brazil). Booster vaccines may just seal the deal if needed!
3 weeks after a single dose, those with recent SARS-CoV-2 infection or seropositive status had higher levels of antibody to 4 SARS-CoV-2 antigens and higher levels of antibodies with neutralizing characteristics than those without a history of infection.
Moderna’s vaccine significantly reduces neutralizing activity against VOCs B.1.1.7 (UK), B.1.1.7+ E484K, P.1 (Brazil), B.1.351 (S. Africa) AND B.1.427/B.1.429 (CA).
Data from a UK clinical study suggests the AstraZenecas vaccine is 70.4% effective against symptomatic COVID-19 caused by variant B.1.1.7. The vaccine was 81.5% effective in preventing symptomatic COVID-19 caused by non-B.1.1.7 strains.
Antibody titers of vaccinees who recovered from a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection were found to be 10x to 45x as high as those of vaccinees without preexisting immunity at the same time points after just one dose of either mRNA vaccine.
Serum samples obtained from participants vaccinated with two doses of Pfizer’s BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine shows effective neutralization against VOCs B.1.1.7 (UK), B.1.351 (S. Africa) AND P.1 (Brazil).
Why is this all good news? Because the vaccines are effective! This thread includes something on just about each of them. These also don’t even take into account cell-mediated immunity/ my love of T-cells which add a whole other layer of protection!

Have a great day! ☀️🧬🦠🧫💉

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More from @sailorrooscout

5 Apr
We know individuals who recover from SARS-CoV-2 infections develop effective T-cell immunity. A new study in Nature finds individuals are able to gain T-cell memory in the absence of a detectable infection simply from exposure!
Here researchers reported virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell memory in recovered COVID-19 patients and close contacts. Data showed that the memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells of 94.44% and 83.33%, respectively, of the COVID-19 patients successfully underwent expansion.
Their results indicated that most of the recovered COVID-19 patients had developed effective T-cell memory pools against SARS-CoV-2 and their close contacts to a lesser degree. The proliferation capacity, size and quality of T-cell responses in close contacts were also readily
Read 6 tweets
2 Apr
According to the CDC, those who are fully vaccinated can travel “at low risk to themselves,” both within the United States and internationally, but they must continue to take precautions like wearing a mask in public, avoiding crowds, maintaining social distancing.
Vaccinated individuals do not need to get a coronavirus test before arriving in another country, unless required to do so by authorities at the destination, and they do not need to quarantine after returning to the United States unless required to do so by local jurisdictions.
Vaccinated travelers should have a negative result from a coronavirus test before boarding a flight back to the United States, and they should get tested against three to five days after their return home. The recommendations do not alter the guidelines for the unvaccinated.
Read 4 tweets
1 Apr
Fantastic news out of Pfizer this morning!

•91.3% vaccine efficacy observed against COVID-19, measured seven days through up to six months after the second dose

•100% effective in preventing COVID-19 cases in South Africa, where the B.1.351 lineage is prevalent!
Pfizer’s vaccine was 100% effective in preventing severe disease as defined by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and 95.3% effective in preventing severe disease as defined by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This is AMAZING.
This does NOT mean the vaccine is only effective for 6 months. It means that at the 6 month mark this level of high protection is still present! Vaccine safety now evaluated in more than 44,000 participants 16 years of age and older, with more than 12,000 vaccinated participants
Read 6 tweets
30 Mar
This is fantastic. Research out of Israel shows there have NOT been ANY vaccine-resistant SARS-CoV-2 variants found in the population. Comparing the prevalence of differing variants in the vaccinated and unvaccinated population, no difference was detected.
Remember, vaccines are preventives, not cures! Some people will get infected despite being vaccinated or recovered as no vaccine is 100% effective (but remember it will protect you from the worst of it all). Researchers observed if these individuals were disproportionately being
infected by a vaccine-resistant variant. They were not! Indeed there are variants, and E484K variants in the population. While still in the early days of their vaccination program, the variants do not appear to be gaining any advantage which means the vaccines are stopping them!
Read 4 tweets
28 Mar
Vaccines are preventives, not cures. Immunity is not instantaneous. It is important to realize that vaccinated people who do get infected tend to only have mild or even asymptomatic cases of COVID-19, and don’t require hospitalization. This means the vaccines are indeed working.
With this said, when we see cases rising, or cases of reinfection, especially in places that have had a very robust vaccination program, we have to realize there is a period of time (~14 days after your 2nd dose) where you are considered “fully vaccinated.” It doesn’t just happen
with the snap of a finger. This is why it is still important for you to wear your mask after getting vaccinated. Masks and social distancing will not be forever, believe me, but this is not the time to let up. It is important for you to know there is an end in sight.
Read 5 tweets
28 Mar
•Antibodies from infected and vaccinated individuals bind to the B.1.351 RBD
•Convalescent sera through eight months can neutralize the B.1.351 variant
•Serum from vaccinated individuals retain neutralization against the B.1.351 variant
Researchers compared antibody binding and live virus neutralization of sera from individuals naturally infected and Moderna vaccinated individuals against two SARS-CoV-2 variants: B.1 containing the spike mutation D614G and variant B.1.351 containing additional spike mutations
and deletions. Researchers found that sera from acutely-infected and convalescent COVID-19 patients exhibited a 3-fold reduction in binding antibody titers to variant B.1.351’s receptor binding domain of the spike protein and a 3.5-fold reduction in neutralizing antibody titers
Read 6 tweets

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