In 1914, it was the site of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand by local Young Bosnia activist Gavrilo Princip that sparked World War I, which also ended Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and resulted in the creation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
Young Bosnia received some assistance from the Black Hand – a secret organization founded by members of the Serbian Army. On the other hand, Vladimir Gaćinović was the only Young Bosnia leader to join Black Hand, although after the First World War broke out he condemned
the assassination in a letter (presumably as a way to evade responsibility). The Unification or Death was established in the beginning of May 1911, the original constitution of the organization being signed on 9 May. Ljuba Čupa, Bogdan Radenković and Vojislav Tankosić
wrote the constitution of the organization. The constitution was modeled after similar German secret nationalist associations and the Italian Carbonari. The organization was mentioned in the Serbian parliament as the "Black Hand" in late 1911.
By 1911–12, Narodna Odbrana had established ties with the Black Hand, and the two became "parallel in action and overlapping in membership"In Skopje there was a central committee of "National Defense". A population of Skopje called their headquarters "Black House", after
the "Black Hand", secret organization that stood behind them. In the "black house" disloyal individuals were taken and beaten.
The Carbonari (lit. 'charcoal makers') was an informal network of secret revolutionary societies active in Italy from about 1800 to 1831. Although a plethora of theories has been advanced as to the origins of the Carbonari, the organization most likely emerged as an offshoot
of Freemasonry,[4] as part of the spread of liberal ideas from the French Revolution. They first became influential in the Kingdom of Naples (under the control of Joachim Murat) and in the Papal States, the most resistant opposition to the Risorgimento.
As a secret society that was often targeted for suppression by conservative governments, the Carbonari operated largely in secret. The name Carbonari identified the members as rural “charcoal-burners”; the place where they met was called a “Barack”, the members called
themselves “good cousin” while people who did not belong to the Carbonari were “Pagani”. There were special ceremonies to initiate the members. In 1827, Mazzini travelled to Tuscany, where he became a member of the Carbonari, a secret association with political purposes. On 31
October of that year, he was arrested at Genoa and interned at Savona. In early 1831, he was released from prison, but confined to a small hamlet. He chose exile instead, moving to Geneva in Switzerland. From London he also wrote an endless series of letters to his agents in
Europe and South America and made friends with Thomas Carlyle and his wife Jane. The "Young Europe" movement also inspired a group of young Turkish army cadets and students who, later in history, named themselves the "Young Turks". From this moment on, Mazzini was more of a
spectator than a protagonist of the Italian Risorgimento, whose reins were now strongly in the hands of the Savoyard monarch Victor Emmanuel II and his skilled prime minister, Camillo Benso, Conte di Cavour. The latter defined him as "Chief of the assassins".
Garibaldi and Cavour making Italy in a satirical cartoon of 1861; the boot is a well-known reference to the shape of the Italian Peninsula. Phrygian caps, soft conical hats with the top curled forward, originated in Phrygia (now part of modern Turkey). In ancient Rome freed
slaves wore a similar style of hat, called the pileus, to indicate their liberty. In Europe, it was later assumed that the pileus and the Phrygian cap were one and the same. When the people of Brittany rose against the taxation policies of Louis XIV in 1675, the rebels declared
their support by wearing red (sometimes blue) Phrygian caps. The uprising was suppressed, but the cap remained as a folk memory of liberty. It appeared frequently in British and colonial American art and iconography, and was used on seals and prints as visual symbolism during
the American Revolution.
When revolution broke out in France in 1789 the liberty cap was seized on again. With the country gripped by the Reign of Terror in 1793, what was by now a symbol of allegiance to the revolution was adopted by anyone, including aristocrats, who wished to
avoid the guillotine. The market women, who had led their own successful protest against the establishment in 1789, famously sat by the guillotine and knitted liberty caps between beheadings.
The red, white and blue cockade also served as a revolutionary symbol in France. It was worn by thousands of ordinary people – often pinned to a liberty cap. Napoleon wore one of these cockades pinned to his bicorn hat at the Battle of Waterloo, as an emblem of his ‘man of the
people’ persona.
The French Tricolore flag we know today was created during the French Revolution, adapted from these cockades. Marianne, the national symbol of the French republic is still often depicted wearing a Phrygian ‘liberty’ cap.
Did you know..?
The comic characters The Smurfs all wear white liberty caps, except for their leader, Papa Smurf, whose cap is red. Lazard's New York City headquarters spans the top floors of 30 Rockefeller Plaza, including what used to be Room 5600, the former offices of the Rockefeller family
dynasty. The construction of Rockefeller Center occurred between 1932 and 1940 on land that John D. Rockefeller Jr. leased from Columbia University. The Rockefeller family's Standard Oil Company moved into the RCA Building in 1934. The Rockefeller family moved into various floors
and suites throughout the same building to give potential tenants the impression of occupancy.[34] In particular, the family's office took up "Room 5600" on the entire 56th floor,[35] while the family's Rockefeller Foundation took up the entire floor below, and two other
organizations supported by the Rockefellers also moved into the building.[35][36] By 1937, there were 392 employees of Room 5600, and by the time World War II was over, Room 5600 comprised the entire 54th through 56th floors.[37] The family offices became a hub for the family's
political activity, with ties to both the Democratic and Republican parties at the city, state, and national levels.

British Security Co-ordination (BSC) was a covert organisation set up in New York City by the British Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) in May 1940 upon the
authorisation of the Prime Minister, Winston Churchill. The office, which was established for intelligence and propaganda services, was headed by Canadian industrialist William Stephenson. Its first tasks were to promote British interests in the United States, counter Nazi
propaganda, and protect the Atlantic convoys from enemy sabotage.
The BSC was registered by the State Department as a foreign entity. It operated out of Room 3603 at Rockefeller Center and was officially known as the British Passport Control Office from which it had expanded.
BSC acted as administrative headquarters more than operational one for SIS and the Special Operations Executive (SOE) and was a channel for communications and liaison between US and British security and intelligence organisations.[
BSC acted as administrative headquarters more than operational one for SIS and the Special Operations Executive (SOE) and was a channel for communications and liaison between US and British security and intelligence organisations.
Few people were aware of SOE's existence. Those who were part of it or liaised with it were sometimes referred to as the "Baker Street Irregulars", after the location of its London headquarters. It was also known as "Churchill's Secret Army" or the "Ministry of Ungentlemanly
Warfare". Its various branches, and sometimes the organisation as a whole, were concealed for security purposes behind names such as the "Joint Technical Board" or the "Inter-Service Research Bureau", or fictitious branches of the Air Ministry, Admiralty or War Office. Notable
members of SOE included Sir Christopher Lee[2] and Ian Fleming.

After the war, the organisation was officially dissolved on 15 January 1946. The official memorial to all those who served in the SOE during the Second World War was unveiled on 13 February 1996 on the wall of the
west cloister of Westminster Abbey by Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother. On 13 June 1940, at the instigation of newly appointed Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Lord Hankey (who held the Cabinet post of Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster) persuaded Section D and MI(R) that
their operations should be coordinated. On 1 July, a Cabinet level meeting arranged the formation of a single sabotage organisation. On 16 July, Hugh Dalton, the Minister of Economic Warfare, was appointed to take political responsibility for the new organisation, which was
formally created on 22 July 1940.

The director of SOE was usually referred to by the initials "CD". Nelson, the first director to be appointed, was a former head of a trading firm in India, a back bench Conservative Member of Parliament and Consul in Basel, Switzerland.
There he had also been engaged in undercover intelligence work. Selborne in turn retired Nelson, who had suffered ill health as a result of his hard work, and appointed Sir Charles Hambro, head of Hambros Bank, to replace him. Hambros was founded by the Danish merchant and banker
Carl Joachim Hambro in London in 1839 as C. J. Hambro & Son. During the 1850s he was responsible for arranging various British Government loan stock issues enabling the bank to prosper. After the Second World War, Hambros became also known as the 'diamond bank' with its thriving
activity in financing the diamond industry and its trade.[By the end of the decade Hambros had 1,400 staff, 900 of whom were based at 41 Tower Hill in London. In February 1998 the Hambros PLC board recommended a sale of Hambros Bank Ltd to the French bank Société Générale, which
the majority of the shareholders accepted. Société Générale sold Hambros PLC, including its private equity and investment side, to Investec, a South African bank in May 1998. In 1998, Investec acquired Guinness Mahon, a leading London based merchant bank, and Henderson
Crosthwaite, its stockbroking arm, for £95 million.[10] It also bought Hambros plc, another London-based merchant bank the same year The firm was founded as a land agency in Dublin in 1836 by barrister Robert Rundell Guinness, a great-nephew of the brewer Arthur Guinness,[1] and
John Ross Mahon, an estate agent.

In his will, Dr. Price left £100 each to "his servant" Arthur and his father in 1752. Starting his first brewery in Leixlip in 1755, Arthur then bought a long lease of an adjacent site from George Bryan "of Philadelphia in the Province of
Pennsylvania" in 1756, that was developed as investment property.

Four members of the family in succession held the UK Parliament constituency of Southend, which became popularly known as "Guinness-on-Sea".
The "banking line" Guinnesses all descend from Arthur's brother
Samuel (1727–1795) who set up as a goldbeater in Dublin in 1750; his son Richard (1755–1830), a Dublin barrister; and Richard's son Robert Rundell Guinness who founded Guinness Mahon in 1836.
The arms granted to the Rev. Hosea Guinness in 1814, Per saltire gules and azure a lion rampant Or on a chief ermine, a dexter hand couped at the wrist of the first, include the Red Hand of Ulster. His Motto was Spes mea in Deo [My hope in God]
Guinness supported Henry Grattan in the 1780s and 1790s, not least because Grattan wanted to reduce the tax on beer. He was one of the four brewers' guild representatives on Dublin Corporation from the 1760s until his death.
Dublin Corporation first came into being under the Anglo-Normans in Dublin in the late 13th century. For centuries it was a two-chamber body, made up of an upper house of 24 aldermen, who elected a mayor from their number, and a lower house, known as the "sheriffs and commons",
consisting of up to 48 sheriffs peers (former sheriffs) and 96 representatives of guilds.[The modern Dublin Corporation was restructured by late 19th-century and 20th-century legislation, particularly, the Municipal Corporations (Ireland) Act 1840, with the elected body reduced
to a single chamber Dublin City Council, presided over by the Lord Mayor of Dublin, an office first instituted but not filled by King Charles I and reconstituted following the Restoration of the Crown by King Charles II.
Queen Victoria, refused to visit Ireland for a number of
years, partly in protest at Dublin Corporation's decision not to congratulate her son, Prince Albert Edward, The Prince of Wales, on both his marriage to Princess Alexandra of Denmark and on the birth of the royal couple's oldest son, Prince Albert Victor. On 1 January 2002,
following a major reform of local government which also abolished the 700-year-old title of 'town clerk' in Dublin, the name of Dublin Corporation was changed to Dublin City Council, which previously had been used simply to refer to the assembly of elected councillors. The body
had full corporate continuity but there were some boundary and other changes. Guinness leased a brewery in Leixlip in 1755, brewing ale. Five years later he left his younger brother Richard in charge of that enterprise and moved on to another in St. James' Gate, Dublin, at the
end of 1759. The 9,000-year lease he signed for the brewery is presently displayed in the floor at St. James' Gate, effective from 31 December 1759. By 1767 he was elected Master of the Dublin Corporation of Brewers.
St. James's Gate Brewery (Irish: Grúdlann Gheata Naomh Séamuis, [ˈɡɾˠuːd̪ˠlˠən̪ˠ ˈʝat̪ˠə n̪ˠiːw ˈʃeːmˠəsˠ]) is a brewery founded in 1759 in Dublin, Ireland, by Arthur Guinness. The company is now a part of Diageo, a British company formed from the merger of Guinness and Grand
Metropolitan in 1997. St. James's Gate, located off the south quays of Dublin, on James's Street, was the western entrance to the city during the Middle Ages. During this time the gate was the traditional starting point for the Camino pilgrimage from Dublin to Santiago
de Compostela in Spain. As a walled city, the main entrances to Dublin were protected by city gates. St. James's Gate was the city's western entrance, and was named for the 12th century church and parish of St. James.[4] Also named for St. James, a holy well in the area was
the location of a longstanding summer festival.[3]
Standing for up to 5 centuries,[3] the gate was a toll point for goods entering the city.[2] It is referenced in 13th century texts, is marked on John Speed's 17th century map of Dublin, and on Charles Brooking's early 18th
century map of the city.[4] Dilapidated by time, the medieval gate was demolished by the mid 18th c. The St James's area has been associated with the brewing trade since the 17th century. A number of breweries had been established in Dublin up to the mid-17th century - one such
brewery established by Alderman Giles Mee at St. James's gate around 1670. Giles Mee was given a lease to the water rights at St James's Gate (called "The Pipes") by Dublin Corporation. Rainsford is most noted as the original founder of the Guinness Brewery in St. James's Gate,
Dublin.[5] His business manufactured 'Beer and Fine Ales' and he was succeeded by his son - also named Mark Rainsford. In 1715 the business went to Captain Paul Espinasse. In 1750 the business fell back into the Rainsford family. Rainsford's grandson, also called Mark Rainsford,
signed over the now famous 9000 year lease to Arthur Guinness on 31 December 1759. The original lease with signatures are viewable on a tour of the Guinness Brewery at the Guinness Storehouse. The building in which the Storehouse is located was constructed in 1902 as a
fermentation plant for the St. James's Gate Brewery (yeast is added to the brew). It was designed in the style of the Chicago School of Architecture and was the first multi-storey steel-framed building to be constructed in Ireland. In the 19th century, German immigrants moved
to the meadows north of North Avenue and began farming what had previously been swampland, planting celery, potatoes, and cabbages. This led the area to be nicknamed "The Cabbage Patch", a name which stuck until the early 1900s. By 1976, Wells Street in Old Town had many sex-
industry businesses operating,[29] so many that Wells street was specifically named in Time Magazine's 1976 article "The Porno Plague". Wells Street is a major north–south street in Chicago. It is officially designated as 200 West, and is named in honor of William Wells, a
United States Army Captain who died in the Battle of Fort Dearborn.[1] Between 1870 and 1912, it was named 5th Avenue so as not to tarnish the name of Wells during a period when the street had a bad reputation. William Wells (c. 1770 – 15 August 1812), also known as
Apekonit ("Carrot top"), was the son-in-law of Chief Little Turtle of the Miami. He fought for the Miami in the Northwest Indian War. Wells was located and visited by his brother Cary around 1788 or 1789. He visited his family in Louisville but remained with the Miami, perhaps
because he had married a Wea woman and had a child. His wife and daughter were later captured in a raid by General James Wilkinson in 1791 and taken to Cincinnati. Meanwhile, under the command of the great Miami war chief Little Turtle, Wells led a group of Miami sharpshooters at
St. Clair's defeat in 1791,[3] the biggest victory the Native Americans ever won against the U. S. Army. Territorial Governor William Henry Harrison at first favored Wells, and appointed him a Justice of the Peace.[11] Wells was also charged with establishing a mail route
between Fort Wayne and Fort Dearborn. Well's good standing with Harrison would soon sour, however, when he sided with Little Turtle in opposition to the 1804 Treaty of Vincennes, which gave large amounts of land to the Americans for settlement.[11] Harrison responded by accusing
Wells of opposing the Quaker Agriculture missions to the Miami. Wells appealed to General James Wilkinson, but Wilkinson sided with Harrison and Johnston.
In 1805, Governor Harrison sent General John Gibson and Colonel Francis Vigo to investigate Wells and Little Turtle on
suspicion of fiscal corruption and instigation of the Miami against the United States. Their report concluded that Wells "seems more attentive to the Indians than the people of the United States."Wells also established and managed a farm in Fort Wayne, which he jointly owned
with his friend Jean François Hamtramck. Wells, who was acting as a scout in advance of the party, knew the Indians would attack and had painted his face black: a sign of bravery, a sign to the Pottawattomi that he knew their intentions, and as a sign that he knew he was going
to die. As the evacuated garrison walked down the beach, Wells rode in advance to keep an eye on the Pottawattomi, and he was one of the first to fall when they attacked. The "battle" took place in the dunes along Lake Michigan about a mile south of the Chicago River, in what is
now downtown Chicago. Wells was shot and killed by the Potowatamis.[22] His opponents, although considering him a traitor to their cause, nonetheless sought to gain some of his courage by consuming his heart.
At the time of the War of 1812, a band of Potawatomi inhabited the area near Fort Dearborn, where Chicago developed. Led by the chiefs Blackbird and Nuscotomeg (Mad Sturgeon), a force of about 500 warriors attacked the United States evacuation column leaving Fort Dearborn; they
killed most of the civilians and 54 of Captain Nathan Heald's force and wounded many others. George Ronan, the first graduate of West Point to be killed in combat, died in this ambush. The incident is referred to as the "Fort Dearborn Massacre". A Potawatomi chief named
Mucktypoke (Makdébki, Black Pheasant), counseled his fellow warriors against the attack. Later he saved some of the civilian captives who were being ransomed by the Potawatomi. Putnam's advocacy for land grants led him, with partners, to establish the Ohio Company of
Associates for the purchase and settlement of Western lands. After passage of the Northwest Ordinance to organize the territory, the Company bought about 1,000,000 acres (4,000 km2) of land north of the Ohio River, between the present day sites of Marietta, Ohio, and Huntington,
West Virginia. Cutler had tried to purchase all the land between the Ohio and Scioto rivers, but the western half was optioned by the Scioto Company. It later failed without having purchased any of the land. the animal most sacred to the Gauls was the boar which can be found
on many Gallic military standards The nearly complete and mysterious disappearance of the Celtic language from most of the territorial lands of ancient Gaul, with the exception of Brittany Their only original feature was a distinct culture, called "Colombanian".
The Breton War of Succession, a local episode of the Hundred Years' War, saw the House of Blois, backed by the French, fighting with the House of Montfort, backed by the English. In 1664, Jean-Baptiste Colbert founded the French East Indies Company.[3] In June 1666, an ordinance
of Louis XIV granted lands of Port-Louis to the company, along with Faouédic on the other side of the roadstead. The town experienced a period of growth when John Law formed the Perpetual Company of the Indies by absorbing other chartered companies (including the
French East India Company), and chose Lorient as its operative base. Despite the economic bubble caused by the Company in 1720, the city was still growing[7] as it took part in the Atlantic triangular slave trade. In 1769, the city evolved into a full-scale naval base for the
for the Royal Navy when the King bought out the Company's infrastructures for 17,500,000 livres tournois.[10] From 1775 on, the American revolutionary war brought a surge in activity, as many privateers hailed from Lorient. When the war ended, transatlantic lines opened to the
United States, and in 1785, a new commercial company started under Calonne's tutelage (then Controller-General of Finances) with the same goal as the previous entities, i.e. conducting trade in India and China, with again Lorient standing as its operative base.[12]
The French
Revolution and the subsequent Napoleonic wars put an end to trade for nearly two decades. The Company was not able to maintain itself financially, and it was abolished in 1769, about 20 years before the French Revolution. King Louis XVI issued a 1769 edict that required the
Company to transfer to the state all its properties, assets and rights, which were valued at 30 million livres. The King agreed to pay all of the Company's debts and obligations, though holders of Company stock and notes received only an estimated 15 percent of the face value of
their investments by the end of corporate liquidation in 1790. The company was reconstituted in 1785[4] and issued 40,000 shares of stock, priced at 1,000 livres apiece.[3] It was given monopoly on all trade with countries beyond the Cape of Good Hope[4] for an agreed period of
seven years.[3] The agreement, however, did not anticipate the French Revolution, and on 3 April 1790 the monopoly was abolished by an act of the new French Assembly which enthusiastically declared that the lucrative Far Eastern trade would henceforth be "thrown open to all
Frenchmen". Even as the company was headed consciously toward extinction, it became embroiled in its most infamous scandal. The Committee of Public Safety had banned all joint-stock companies on 24 August 1793, and specifically seized the assets and papers of the East India
Company.[5] While its liquidation proceedings were being set up, directors of the company bribed various senior state officials to allow the company to carry out its own liquidation, rather than be supervised by the government.[5] When this became known the following year, the
resulting scandal led to the execution of key Montagnard deputies like Fabre d'Églantine and Joseph Delaunay, among others.[5] The infighting sparked by the episode also brought down Georges Danton[6] and can be said to have led to the downfall of the Montagnards as a whole. The
Committee of Public Safety (French: Comité de salut public) formed the provisional government in France, led mainly by Maximilien Robespierre, during the Reign of Terror (1793–1794), a phase of the French Revolution. During the American War of Independence, American Patriots
formed Committees of safety. That was a recent major precedent of a Republican revolution, well-known to the French revolutionaries. In New York City, it was called the Committee of Observation or Committee of Sixty. Fraunces Tavern in Lower Manhattan, meeting place of the
"Committee of Fifty" on May 16, 1774
On May 23, the committee met at the Coffee-house and appointed Isaac Low as permanent chairman and John Alsop as deputy chairman. The Union is much older than the Constitution. It was formed, in fact, by the Articles of Association in 1774.
It was matured and continued by the Declaration of Independence in 1776. It was further matured… by the Articles of Confederation in 1778. And finally, in 1787, one of the declared objects for ordaining and establishing the Constitution was "to form a more perfect Union."

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