The last ride of Henry II of France: orbital injury and a king's demise - PubMed pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25890627/
In the third match, Gabriel de Montgomery struck Henry on the right shoulder and the lance splintered, sending wooden shards into his face and right orbit. Despite being cared for by the prominent physicians Ambroise Paré and Andreas Vesalius, the king died 10 days later and was
found to have a cerebral abscess. The wound was not explored immediately after the injury; nevertheless, wooden foreign bodies were discovered in the orbit at the time of autopsy. The dura had not been violated, suggesting that an infection may have traveled from the orbit into
the brain. Nostradamus and Luca Guarico, the astrologer to the Medici family, had prophesied the death of Henry II of France, but he ignored their warnings and thus changed the course of history in Renaissance Europe.
The accident occurred at a tournament at Greenwich Palace on 24 January 1536 when 44-year-old Henry, in full armour, was thrown from his horse, itself armoured, which then fell on top of him. He was unconscious for two hours and was thought at first to have been fatally injured.
But, although he recovered, the incident, which ended his jousting career, aggravated serious leg problems which plagued him for the rest of his life, and may well have caused an undetected brain injury which profoundly affected his personality, according to the History Channel
documentary Inside the Body of Henry VIII. He may have had a bout of smallpox at the age of 23, but the experts speculate that his real medical problems began at the age of 30 when he appears to have contracted malaria, which is thought to have returned throughout his life. They
were intensified by two factors: open sores on his legs and sporting injuries.
The sores – varicose ulcers, which began on his left leg when he was 36, and later affected his right – may have been caused by the restrictive garters he wore to show off his calves.
His first serious accident occurred in 1524 when he failed to lower the visor on his helmet and was hit by his opponent's lance just above the right eye, after which he constantly suffered from migraines. What is beyond doubt is that the end of his jousting combined with his leg
ulcers to restrict his movement and Henry, who had a large appetite anyway, began to put on weight rapidly. The programme reconstructs his diet, suggesting he may have eaten up to 13 dishes a day, the majority comprising meat such as lamb, chicken, beef, game, rabbit, and a
variety of birds like peacock and swan, and he may have drunk 10 pints of ale a day as well as wine, as water was unsafe.

Henry, the programme says, "became a comfort-eating paranoid recluse – a 28 stone man-mountain."
His disagreement with Pope Clement VII about such an annulment led Henry to initiate the English Reformation, separating the Church of England from papal authority. He appointed himself Supreme Head of the Church of England and dissolved convents and monasteries, for which he was
excommunicated. Henry is also known as "the father of the Royal Navy," as he invested heavily in the navy, increasing its size from a few to more than 50 ships, and established the Navy Board. Thomas Wolsey, Thomas More, Thomas Cromwell, Richard Rich, and Thomas Cranmer all
figured prominently in his administration Born on 28 June 1491 at the Palace of Placentia in Greenwich, Kent, Henry Tudor was the third child and second son of King Henry VII and Elizabeth of York.

In November 1501, Henry played a considerable part in the ceremonies surrounding
his brother Arthur's marriage to Catherine, the youngest child of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile.[10] As Duke of York, Henry used the arms of his father as king, differenced by a label of three points ermine. He was further honoured on 9 February 1506
by Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, who made him a Knight of the Golden Fleece.[11]
In 1502, Arthur died at the age of 15, possibly of sweating sickness,[12] just 20 weeks after his marriage to Catherine. It was in Durham House that Raleigh hosted Manteo and Wanchese, the first
Native American Algonquin Indians to travel to England from the New World. In 1584 Sir Walter Raleigh had dispatched the first of a number of expeditions to Roanoke island to explore and eventually settle the new land of Virginia. Upon Elizabeth's death and Raleigh's resultant
loss of influence at court, Tobias Matthew, then bishop of Durham, reclaimed Durham House for the see and offered it for use of the Privy Council. The new king, James I, approved the move. The stables were demolished for construction of the New Exchange, a market which was
occupied by milliners and seamstresses in shops along upper and lower tiers on each side of a central alley. In the 1630s it was the setting for the Durham House Group, including Richard Neile, William Laud and other high church Anglicans. Inigo Jones submitted a design, but
these were not used. It was built by Sir Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury. Building commenced on 10 June 1608. The site had previously been occupied by the stables of Durham House, now 52 to 64 Strand.[5] It was briefly known as the Salisbury Exchange, but was renamed when
James I opened the building on 11 April 1609.[2] He was accompanied by his queen, Anne of Denmark, his son, later Charles I of England and daughter Elizabeth, later Queen of Bohemia. These are for the most part under the care of well-dressed women, who are busily employed in
work, although many are served by young men called apprentices."In 1624, a thitherto[a] obscure Cambridge scholar, Richard Montagu, obtained royal permission to publish A New Gagg for an Old Goose. The book was framed as a rebuttal of a Catholic critique of the Church of England.
In response, Montagu argued that the Calvinist positions objected to were held only by a small, Puritan minority in the Church of England, and that the majority of clergy in the Church of England rejected high Calvinism. He was blamed for the introduction of the 1637 Book of
Common Prayer into Scotland, although a similar policy had originated with King James I. Laud's Conference with Fisher the Jesuite is a classic work of Anglican apologetics and has been called 'one of the last great works of scholastic divinity.'His poetry was championed by the
later Oxford Movement and notably influenced the piety of the movement through his influence on figures like John Keble. Tractarians were also disparagingly referred to as "Newmanites" (before 1845) and "Puseyites" (after 1845) after two prominent Tractarians, John Henry Newman
and Edward Bouverie Pusey. Edward Bouverie Pusey (/ˈpjuːzi/; 22 August 1800 – 16 September 1882) was an English churchman, for more than fifty years Regius Professor of Hebrew at the University of Oxford.
He became one of the more notable leaders of the Oxford Movement, an influential and controversial grouping of Anglicans who wished to return to the Church of England many Catholic beliefs and liturgical rituals from before the English Reformation. In this, the movement had some
success. After publishing his controversial "Tract 90" in 1841, Newman later wrote, "I was on my death-bed, as regards my membership with the Anglican Church".[He is the fifth saint of the City of London, behind Thomas Becket (born in Cheapside), Thomas More (born on Milk
Street), Edmund Campion (son of a London book seller) and Polydore Plasden (of Fleet Street).

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