🧬 Profile picture
21 Jul, 12 tweets, 2 min read
Cell Danger Response (CDR)

8 major changes initiated by the mitochondria to combat viruses, bacteria, & chemical toxins.

Consistent CDR expression results in chronic cellular inflammation, leading to long-term disease.
The CDR is a set of changes made in the cell, controlled & initiated by the mitochondria, that serve to protect the cell from threat/stress/injury/infection & signal a warning to neighboring cells.
The mitochondria has its own DNA which encodes about 1300 proteins to help it carry out its many functions; one of those being the ability to sense a disturbance in electron flow & sulfur oxidation.
Upon detecting a disturbance, the mitochondria will immediately slow its consumption of oxygen, creating an oxygen surplus in the cell to stop an infecting virus from making its own polymers.

The CDR is essential for mounting a defense against an infecting virus or bacteria.
Why does this matter?

The CDR is ancient & essential.

It evolved to respond to viral, bacterial, & physical stressors that are common in the environment.

However, it can be initiated by anything that disturbs electron flow & sulfur oxidation in the cell.
Industrial chemicals, drugs, dyes, & pesticides (etc) can initiate CDR, & being coupled with bio threats can increase the intensity of the response.

Not only this, but the constant exposure to environmental toxins can keep cells in a constant state of alarm & altered metabolism
Here are the 8 major changes that the CDR activates in the cell.

1.Shifts cell metabolism from net synthesis to monomer synthesis to prevent hijacking from pathogens.

2.Stiffens membranes to limit pathogen egress.
3.Releases anti microbial & antiviral chemicals in & around the cell.

4.Increases autophagy & mitochondrial fission to remove intercellular pathogens.

5.Changes DNA methylation & histone modification to alter gene expression.
6.Produces genetic variations with endogenous retroviruses & transposons.

7.Warns neighboring cells & effector cells of danger.

8.Alters the behavior & sleep pattern of the host to facilitate healing & prevent spread to kin.
A last thought to leave you with:

Modern day environmental chemicals & toxins have the ability to initiate this response. Exposure to thousands of them each day is almost unavoidable.
Chronic CDR expression has been linked with many chronic diseases & disorders which stem from chronic cellular inflammation.

It is likely that everyone is experiencing cellular inflammation due to CDR at some magnitude whether it be large or small.
I plan on tweeting more about this in the coming months as I expand my own knowledge on each of the 8 changes.

• • •

Missing some Tweet in this thread? You can try to force a refresh

Keep Current with 🧬

🧬 Profile picture

Stay in touch and get notified when new unrolls are available from this author!

Read all threads

This Thread may be Removed Anytime!


Twitter may remove this content at anytime! Save it as PDF for later use!

Try unrolling a thread yourself!

how to unroll video
  1. Follow @ThreadReaderApp to mention us!

  2. From a Twitter thread mention us with a keyword "unroll"
@threadreaderapp unroll

Practice here first or read more on our help page!

More from @jessdiscala

16 Jul
This is the metal activity series

It is not intended to be used to show the biological importance of elements.

However, when looking at it you’ll notice:

Potassium, sodium, calcium, and magnesium are all near the top. Image
While at the bottom are elements you wouldn’t want much of in your body.

The elements at the top are often seen in strong bases which will ionize completely.

These ions are then needed in the synapse between nerve cells to transfer energy & get the nerve to fire.
I found it interesting that potassium is at the top, since those with a potassium deficiency can experience muscle twitching.

Muscle twitching can also be seen in those that have a deficiency in the other top elements: sodium, calcium & magnesium.
Read 4 tweets
14 Jun
UV-ray DNA damage repair

Here I will go over:
⁃DNA Pol Eta (translesion synthesis)
⁃Nucleotide Excision Repair

These are two mechanisms that work proficiently to prevent skin cancer, & are part of why I believe the sun does not cause it.
UV rays can cause a wide variety of damage to DNA. They most commonly break the backbone of DNA which causes single & double stranded breaks.
They can also cause thymine dimers:

Thymine dimers are when two thymines that are next to each other on a strand get covalently bonded together, which contorts them into a shape where they are not able to form H-bonds with their base pair.
Read 17 tweets

Did Thread Reader help you today?

Support us! We are indie developers!

This site is made by just two indie developers on a laptop doing marketing, support and development! Read more about the story.

Become a Premium Member ($3/month or $30/year) and get exclusive features!

Become Premium

Too expensive? Make a small donation by buying us coffee ($5) or help with server cost ($10)

Donate via Paypal Become our Patreon

Thank you for your support!

Follow Us on Twitter!