Between ~1800 -800 million yrs ago, Indian continental crust sagged due to various tectonic forces to form several long lasting sedimentary basins. The Kaladgi Basin in which the Badami area sandstones were deposited is one such basin.
Much of this deposition took place in inland seas that flooded the Indian continent. During intervals of sea level fall, rivers carved valleys and deposited coarse sediment. The Badami Cave sandstones are river deposits of the Kaladgi Basin.
Thread- Wonders of the Deccan Landscape. A 66 million year river of lava...exhumed!
On Pune Nasik Road, turn east at Ale phata. Look for Mandohol Dam. And a ridge named Mhasoba Zap.
Can you spot the lava river?
Basalt lava is less viscous and can flow for long distances. It can get channeled along a preexisting valley or follow lows in the landscape, forming a sinuous lava channel. Pic from USGS captures a lava channel from recent eruption in Hawaii.
The view in this pic at Mhasoba Zap is looking upslope. The sinuous ridge you see is the exhumed lava channel. It stands out as a ridge about 100 meters above the adjacent plains.
Thread- Hot Springs of Konkan. Geologic Significance
One interesting feature of Konkan coastal belt is the presence of hot water springs arranged in a fairly narrow linear belt from north of Mumbai to Ratnagiri area in the south. They occur somewhat midway between the W. Ghat Escarpment and the coast.
Few names from north to south- Vajreshwari, Akoli kund, Ganeshpuri, Pali, Dasgaon, Unhere, Tural, Aaravali, Rajapur. Satellite image shows the area between Dabhol and Ratnagiri. Hot springs are located within the oval.
The plateau cap layer that provides a foundation for the wind turbines (south of Satara) is an ancient hardened iron rich soil known as laterite.
Thread- Brief history of laterites of India Western Margin and their significance in understanding landscape evolution..
After Deccan volcanism ended ~ 63 mya, a vast lava field about 1 km elevation had formed. In Eocene times a phase of humid climate caused deep chemical weathering of this lava resulting in a thick weathering mantle of iron rich soil known as laterite.
Such deep prolonged weathering episodes point to a period of tectonic stability, humid weather, establishment of long lasting groundwater system to flush way mobile elements but retaining immobile iron hydroxides. The result was landscapes like the Panchgani tableland.