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1/4

So far all existing data show smokers are underrepresented in Covid19 hospitalization data

2 studies from the US

1. medrxiv.org/content/10.110…

2.
2/4

13 studies from China

qeios.com/read/article/5…
4/4

The default "Smoking makes everything worse" is premature & irresponsible.

Afaik there are no data regarding cannabis consumption & Covid-19.

As for vaping 👇

reason.org/commentary/fda…
5/4

The data consistently show that former smokers are more at risk of serious outcomes than current smokers.
6/4
7/4 More from France

"Our cross sectional study in both COVID-19 out- and inpatients strongly suggests that current smokers have a very much lower probability of developing symptomatic or severe SARS-CoV-2 infection as compared to the general population"

qeios.com/read/article/5…
8/

West Virginia USA: Current smoking rate was 25.2% in 2018.

Source (slide 6) dhhr.wv.gov/COVID-19/Pages…
9/ US Veterans Age 54-75

"Current smoking (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.35-0.57), alcohol use disorder (OR 232 0.58, 95% CI 0.41- 0.83), and COPD (OR 0.67, 95%CI 0.50-0.88) were associated with decreased likelihood of Covid-19+."

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
10/

France

"The protection associated with smoking in our study was very substantial (75% decrease in risk of infection), and deserves full attention."

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
11/

Georgia USA (adult smoking rate was 16.1% in 2019)

"Among 305 patients hospitalized with COVID-19....Current smoking was reported for 5.2% of patients."

cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/6…
12/

Oregon USA (adult smoking rate was 15.6% in 2019)

Out of 73 deaths, only one was a smoker.

govsite-assets.s3.amazonaws.com/U2Ui9gUiSxG1oS…
13/

1536 patients at 169 hospitals (121 in US, 48 in 10 other countries)

"5.5% were current smokers"

Smoking rates in all 11 countries are considerably higher.

nejm.org/doi/full/10.10…
14/

Korea (adult smoking rate was 21.1% in 2018)

Small study: Of 27 hospitalized, 5 (18.5%) were smokers.

jkms.org/DOIx.php?id=10…
15/

UK (adult smoking rate was 14.7% in 2018)

Of 5,924 patients, 8.7% were smokers.

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
16/

UK (adult smoking rate was 14.7% in 2018)

Large study: Of 5,564 deaths, 7% were smokers.

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
17/

Italy (adult smoking rate was 23.7% in 2016)

Of 441 hospitalized patients, 4.8% were smokers.

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
18/

Spain

170 patients diagnosed with Covid-19

"A negative association was observed between tobacco consumption (0.52 95%CI 0.27-0.98) and the use of electronic cigarettes (0.45 95%CI 0.28-0.71) and SARS-CoV-2 infection."

jmir.org/preprint/19949…
19/

This isn't new evidence, but it's the peer-reviewed version of the systematic review & meta-analysis of 13 Chinese studies linked above.

link.springer.com/epdf/10.1007/s…
20/

New York City, USA (adult smoking rate was 13.4% in 2017)

Of 393 hospitalized patients, 5.1% were current smokers

(There might be some overlap between this study & the study in the first tweet of this thread)

nejm.org/doi/full/10.10…
21/

Switzerland (adult smoking rate was 27.1% in 2017)

Of 200 hospitalized patients, 4.5% were smokers.

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
22/

Mexico (adult smoking rate was 17.6% in 2016)

Of 10,544 cases, 8.96% were smokers.

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
23/

Kuwait (adult smoking rate was 22.5% in 2015)

Of 1,096 hospitalized cases, 4% were smokers.

Note: sample was 81% male. Male smoking rate in Kuwait was 43% in 2018.

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
24/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 202 hospitalized patients, 7.9% had a history of smoking.

journals.plos.org/plosntds/artic…
25/

3,799 patients in the UK

Smokers were half as likely as non-smokers to test positive for COVID-19

thelancet.com/journals/lanin…
26/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 121 hospitalized patients, 5% were smokers.

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
27/

Hong Kong (adult smoking rate was 10% in 2017)

Small study: of 37 hospitalized patients, 2 were current smokers (5.9%)

preprints.org/manuscript/202…
28/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 285 hospitalized patients, 11% had a history of smoking.

researchsquare.com/article/rs-273…
29/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 208 hospitalized patients, 5.8% were smokers

researchsquare.com/article/rs-238…
30/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 220 hospitalized patients, 12.8% had a history of smoking. This one includes smoking index data. Smoking index number is cigarettes per day x years smoked.

researchsquare.com/article/rs-267…
31/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 134 hospitalized patients, 10.4% were smokers.

researchsquare.com/article/rs-264…
32/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 142 hospitalized patients, 9.1% were smokers

researchsquare.com/article/rs-236…
33/

Very small study from China

"Based on the expression of ACE2 in smoking individuals, it is inferred that long-term smoking might be a risk factor for 2019-nCoV, and in this study, We showed the evidence against that finding."

researchsquare.com/article/rs-247…
34/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Reported: "There were more smokers (8.84% vs 1.36%, P = 0.006)...in the severe group than in the mild group."

Not mentioned: 5.1% of the 292 hospitalized patients had a history of smoking.

researchsquare.com/article/rs-232…
35/

New Mexico USA (adult smoking rate was 17.5% in 2017)

An outlier. Of 50 hospitalized patients, 48% were smokers. It's not clear whether current smokers or people with a history of smoking were counted.

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
36/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 101 hospitalized medical staff, 4 were smokers.

researchsquare.com/article/rs-287…
37/

Spain (adult smoking rate was 24% in 2019)

Of 54 patients with inflammatory rheumatic disease who were hospitalized with Covid-19, 5.56% were smokers.

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
38/

France (adult daily smoking rate was 27% in 2017)

Of 108 cancer patients who tested positive, 19% were active smokers.

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
39/

London, UK (adult smoking rate was 13.9% in 2018)

Of 75 cancer patients who tested positive, 9.3% were current smokers.

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
40/

North Carolina, USA (adult smoking rate was 17.4% in 2019)

Of 86 hospitalized patients, 3.5% were current or former smokers.

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
41/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 145 hospitalized patients, 10.3% had a history of smoking.

This is a peer-reviewed article that appears to use the same data as the preprint in tweet 32, but the numbers are slightly different.

link.springer.com/article/10.100…
42/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 125 hospitalized patients, 12.8% had a history of smoking

sciencedirect.com/science/articl…
43/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 73 hospitalized patients, 10.9% had a history of smoking

sciencedirect.com/science/articl…
44/

Toronto, Canada (Ontario current smoking rate age 12 and over was 15.2% in 2017)

Of 226 hospitalized patients, 15.9% were current or former smokers

sciencedirect.com/science/articl…
45/

New York City, USA (adult smoking rate was 13.4% in 2017)

Of 257 critically ill patients, 13% were current or former smokers

sciencedirect.com/science/articl…
46/

UK

"...we observed an apparently protective effect, in the tested sub-population, of smoking on the risk of having a positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2 infection (OR [95% CI] 0.73 [0.65 to 0.81]; p=9.49x10-9)..."

No hospitalization data reported.

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
47/

China (adult male smoking rate was 50.5% in 2018)

Of 125 male patients with mild symptoms, 65.6% were current smokers.

Notes:
Median age was 35
Patients with severe symptoms were excluded from study

researchsquare.com/article/rs-295…
48/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 50 critically ill patients admitted to ICU, 18% were current smokers

researchsquare.com/article/rs-296…
49/

New York City, USA (adult smoking rate was 13.4% in 2017)

Of 5,051 patients diagnosed with Covid-19, 3.6% were current smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
50/

Earth (adult smoking rate was ~20% in 2015)

Of 96,032 hospitalized patients, 9.88% were current smokers.

Note: 65.9% of sample was from North America
Europe 17.3%
Asia 7.9%
Africa 4.6%
Australia 0.6%

thelancet.com/journals/lance…
51/

Monterey County, California, USA (adult smoking rate was 11.7% in 2017)

Of 362 confirmed cases, 4% were current or former smokers

co.monterey.ca.us/government/dep…
52/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 307 hospitalized patients, 21.8% had a history of smoking

researchsquare.com/article/rs-303…
53/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 201 hospitalized patients, 7.0% had a history of smoking

researchsquare.com/article/rs-304…
54/

Milan, Italy (adult smoking rate was 19% in 2017)

Of 222 hospitalized patients, 11.2% had a "smoke habit"

researchsquare.com/article/rs-304…
55/

Israel (adult smoking rate was 19.1% in 2018)

Of 4,353 people who tested positive, 11.8% were current smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
56/

New York City, USA (adult smoking rate was 13.4% in 2017)

Of 1,000 who tested positive, 4.9% were active smokers

Of 850 hospitalized, 4.12% were active smokers

Of 236 in ICU, 4.2% were active smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
56a/

There appears to be a considerable amount of overlap between the studies in tweet 56 & tweet 45.
57/

Mexico (adult smoking rate was 17.6% in 2016)

Of 51,633 who tested positive, 8.5% were smokers

Of 98,567 who tested negative, 9.8% were smokers

Of 26,933 suspected cases, 9.1% were smokers

Unclear whether numbers refer to current or ever smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
58/ Spain (adult smoking rate was 24% in 2019)

Of 2,226 hospitalized patients, 7.1% were current smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
59/

Earth (adult smoking rate was ~20% in 2015)

Of 17,124 admitted patients from 35 countries, 5.74% were smokers. It's unclear whether they were current smokers.

media.tghn.org/medialibrary/2…
60/

Spain (adult smoking rate was 24% in 2019)

Of 47 hospitalized patients, 21% were smokers. It's unclear whether they were current smokers.

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
61/

Mexico (adult smoking rate was 17.6% in 2016)

Of 7,497 patients who tested positive, 9.4% were smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
62/

France (adult daily smoking rate was 27% in 2017)

Of 152 hospitalized patients, 6.6% were smokers.

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
63/

France (adult daily smoking rate was 27% in 2017)

Of 50 hospitalized patients, 1 was a current smoker (2%)

Note: "Inpatients with pre-existing unstable chronic disorders...were excluded."

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
64/

San Francisco, USA (adult smoking rate was 9.5% in 2015)

Of 33 people who tested positive, zero were current smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
65/

Michigan, USA (adult smoking rate was 18.9% in 2019)

Of 172 hospitalized patients, 26% had a history of smoking

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
66/

USA (adult current smoking rate was 13.7% in 2018)

Of 368 patients hospitalized at VA Medical Centers, 14.1% were smokers

Notes:

It's not clear if smoking was current or ever.

Veterans traditionally have higher smoking rates than total population

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
67/

Mexico (adult smoking rate was 17.6% in 2016)

Of 31,522 who tested positive, 8.7% were smokers

Of 12,690 hospitalized, 9.5% were smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
68/

London, UK (adult smoking rate was 13.9% in 2018)

Of 8,985 suspected cases, 11.7% were current smokers.

Note: data from 4 boroughs only. "...all four feature in the top decile of the most socially deprived boroughs in England"

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
69/

Philadelphia, USA (adult current smoking rate was 18-19% in 2017)

Of 104 patients with moderate to severe hypoxic respiratory failure, 44.43% were smokers

Note: In this study, smokers were less likely to require intubation than non-smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
70/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 24 patients hospitalized with Covid-19, 2 were smokers (8.33%)

Of 79 patients hospitalized with influenza in the same 20-day period, 12 were smokers (15.19%)

researchsquare.com/article/rs-311…
71/

Spain (adult smoking rate was 24% in 2019)

Of 6,165 hospitalized patients, 5.3% were current smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
72/

Mexico (adult smoking rate was 17.6% in 2016)

Of 400 hospitalized patients, 12% were smokers. Smokers' survival rate was slightly lower than non-smokers.

Note: unclear if this is a random sample.

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
72a/

The lead author of the study in the previous tweet confirmed that the sample was indeed random.
73/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 326 adult patients, 12.58% were smokers.

Note: Unclear whether current or ever

researchsquare.com/article/rs-307…
74/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 138 patients hospitalized with severe Covid-19, 5.8% were smokers

Note: unclear whether current or ever

researchsquare.com/article/rs-307…
75/

Ohio, USA (adult current smoking rate was 20.5% in 2019)

Of 22 hospitalized patients, 45.5% had a history of smoking

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
76/

Philadelphia, USA (adult current smoking rate was 18-19% in 2017)

Of 129 hospitalized patients, 45.7% were current smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
77/

Detroit and Chicago, USA

Adult smoking rate in Wayne County (Detroit) was 22.6% in 2015. In Chicago it was 16.8% in 2018

Of 39 patients with multiple sclerosis who tested positive, 15.4% were smokers. Of 20 hospitalized patients, 30% were smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
78/

San Francisco, USA (adult smoking rate was 9.5% in 2015)

Of 26 patients admitted to ICU, 6 were current or former smokers (23%)

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
79/

Mexico (adult smoking rate was 17.6% in 2016)

Updated (old number)

Of 50,411 (31,522) who tested positive, 8.68 (8.7)% were smokers

Logistic regression table. Columns are:

Hospitalized, intubated, death & death (controlled for hospitalization)

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
80/

Brazil (adult daily smoking rate was 15.4% in 2015)

Of 48 hospitalized patients with suspected cases, 8.3% were current smokers

jamanetwork.com/journals/jaman…
81/

New York City, USA (adult smoking rate was 13.4% in 2017)

Of 1,074 hospitalized patients, 4.2% were current smokers

Note: New York City metro area

jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/…
82/

New York City, USA (adult smoking rate was 13.4% in 2017)

Of 1,376 hospitalized patients, 11.4% were current smokers

nejm.org/doi/full/10.10…
83/

Earth (adult smoking rate was ~20% in 2015)

Of 8,910 hospitalized patients, 5.5% were current smokers

Patients per continent (countries):

Europe (IT, ES, GB, TR, DE) 64.6%
Asia (CN, KR, JP) 18.2%
North America (US, CA) 17.2%

nejm.org/doi/full/10.10…
84/

Not new information; it's the peer-reviewed version of the study in tweet 56. Numbers didn't change.

bmj.com/content/369/bm…

85/

UK (adult smoking rate was 14.7% in 2018)

Updated and peer-reviewed version of study in tweet 15

(Old numbers: Of 5,924 patients, 8.7% were smokers)

New numbers:

Of 14,184 hospitalized patients
6% were current smokers
30.8% were previous smokers

bmj.com/content/369/bm…
86/

Turkey (adult smoking rate was 27.2% in 2016)

Of 40 Covid-19 patients with olfactory loss, 55% were smokers.

Note: not specified if current or ever

researchsquare.com/article/rs-317…
87/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 751 hospitalized patients, 6% were current smokers

Note: 232 patients with cancer, 519 without. Current smoking rate was 6% in both groups.

thelancet.com/journals/lanon…
88/

USA, Spain, Canada (adult smoking rates were 13.7%, 24% & 15.8% in 2018-19)

Of 838 Covid-19 patients with a current or past diagnosis of cancer, 5.13% were current smokers. 38.9% were former smokers

Patients:
USA 88%
Spain 7%
Canada 5%

thelancet.com/journals/lance…
89/

Italy (adult smoking rate was 23.7% in 2016)

Of 56 patients hospitalized for neurological diseases who had Covid-19, 1.8% was a current smoker

Of 117 patients hospitalized for neurological diseases who didn't have Covid-19, 6% were current smokers

n.neurology.org/content/early/…
90/

Earth (adult smoking rate was ~20% in 2015)

Of 14,712 positive cases, 8.67% had "nicotine dependence"

Patients:

USA 47% (adult current smoking rate was 13.7% in 2018)
Outside USA 53%

mayoclinicproceedings.org/article/S0025-…
91/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 31 hospitalized patients, 2 were current smokers (6%)

Note: Median age was 39

mja.com.au/journal/2020/2…
92/

New York City, USA

Of 31 HIV-positive patients hospitalized for Covid-19, 13 were current or former smokers (42%)

Note: Cigarette smoking rate is high among HIV+ people. National Cancer Institute estimated ~40% in US as of Jan 2020

academic.oup.com/cid/advance-ar…
93/

Virginia, USA (adult smoking rate was 14.9% in 2019)

Of 135 military hospital patients who tested positive, 10.4% used tobacco & another 9.6% had used tobacco in the past.

Of 15 hospitalized, one used tobacco (6.7%), none formerly.

academic.oup.com/cid/advance-ar…
94/

Wayne County, Michigan, USA (Adult smoking rate was 22.6% in 2015)

Of 197 hospitalized patients, 5.6% were current tobacco smokers

Of 74 severe cases, 8.3% were current tobacco smokers

academic.oup.com/cid/advance-ar…
95/

Washington State, USA (Adult smoking rate was 12% in 2019)

Of 86 hospitalized cases, 26% were ever smokers

Of 41 severe cases, 24% were ever smokers

Note: 35% of patients were admitted from a senior home or a skilled nursing facility

academic.oup.com/cid/advance-ar…
96/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 275 hospitalized patients, 2.2% had a history of smoking

Of 45 severe patients, zero had a history of smoking

academic.oup.com/ofid/advance-a…
97/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 84 cases, 19% were smokers. Not clear if current or ever

academic.oup.com/cid/advance-ar…
98/

Italy (adult smoking rate was 23.7% in 2016)

Of 85 hospitalized patients, 20% had a history of smoking

academic.oup.com/eurheartj/arti…
99/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 323 hospitalized patients, 11.8% had a history of smoking

academic.oup.com/cid/advance-ar…
100/

Malaysia (smoking rate was 21.3% in 2019)

Of 86 deaths, 19.8% had a history of smoking

Note: all info comes from 2 news articles

1. nst.com.my/news/nation/20…

2. thestar.com.my/news/nation/20…
101/

British Columbia, Canada (tobacco smoking rate ages 12 & over was 12% in 2018)

Of 117 ICU patients, 13.7% were current or former tobacco smokers

cmaj.ca/content/cmaj/e…
102/

The preprint in tweet 35 was published. In this version, the authors stated that 24 out of 50 had a history of smoking. Somehow the number changed to 51% -- probably an error.

tandfonline.com/doi/figure/10.…

103/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 499 hospitalized patients, 6.6% had a history of smoking

link.springer.com/article/10.100…
104/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 115 patients, 8.7% were current smokers

link.springer.com/article/10.118…
105/

Indiana, USA (adult current smoking rate was 21.1% in 2019)

Of 144 patients admitted to ICU, 27.1% were smokers

Note: Not specified if current or ever

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
106/

Israel

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…

"...even among SARS-CoV-2 positive patients, we found no evidence of significant association between current or past smoking and disease severity, as reflected by death during hospitalization or by need for mechanical ventilation."
107/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 77 hospitalized young adults (age 65 and under), 3 were smokers (4%)

Of 40 young adults who died, 1 was a smoker (3%)

researchsquare.com/article/rs-313…
108/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 588 hospitalized adults, 6.5% were current smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
109/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 101 patients, 8 were smokers (7.9%)

Note: not specified if current or ever

heart.bmj.com/content/early/…
110/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 274 hospitalized patients, 4.4% were current smokers & 2.6% were former smokers

bmj.com/content/368/bm…
111/

Denmark (adult smoking rate was 19.1% in 2016)

Of 407 patients hospitalized with symptoms of Covid-19, 21.3% were active smokers.

117 patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 & 290 negative.

7.1% of those who tested positive were active smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
112/

London, UK (adult smoking rate was 13.9% in 2018)

Of 93 patients who had CT pulmonary angiography, 14.0% were current smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
113/

Italy (adult smoking rate was 23.7% in 2016)

Of 132 hospitalized patients who required oxygen therapy, 9.1% were active smokers

onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/dm…
114/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 733 critically ill patients, 6.1% were ever smokers

papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cf…
115/

Spain (adult smoking rate was 24% in 2019)

Of 37 HIV-positive patients with confirmed or suspected cases of Covid-19, 70% were current or past smokers.

Note: smoking rates among people living with HIV are higher than in the general population

papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cf…
116/

Poland (university student current smoking was 23.78% & current vaping was 8.33% in 2016)

Of 52 students (51 male) age 19-26 who tested positive, 7.8% were current smokers & 5.9% were current vapers

Note: not mentioned if any were dual users

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
117/

Spain (adult smoking rate was 24% in 2019)

Of 188 hospitalized patients, 4.8% were active smokers & 18.1% were ex-smokers

biorxiv.org/content/10.110…
118/

Belgium (adult current smoking rate was 19.4% in 2018)

Of 86 patients, 10.5% were smokers

Note: all patients were not hospitalized at time of study

onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.10…
119/

Belgium (adult current smoking rate was 19.4% in 2018)

Of 47 patients with severe Covid-19, zero were smokers

authorea.com/users/326467/a…
120/

UK (adult smoking rate was 14.7% in 2018)

Of 33 hospitalized patients, zero were current smokers

authorea.com/users/316818/a…
121/

Iran (adult cigarette smoking rate was 12% in 2019. Adult smoking rate including hookah was ~20% in 2019)

Of 490 hospitalized patients, 14% were smokers.

Note: Iran population smoking prevalence statistics are questionable

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
122/

Iran (adult cigarette smoking rate was 12% in 2019. Adult smoking rate including hookah was ~20% in 2019)

Of 193 hospitalized patients, 7.3% were cigarette smokers & 7.8% were waterpipe users. Zero dual users.

Note: see note in previous tweet

tobaccoinduceddiseases.org/Descriptive-ch…
123/

Poland (adult smoking rate was 26% in 2019)

Of 1,087 non-hospitalized patients, 11.2% said they smoked

mp.pl/paim/issue/art…
124/

New York City, USA (adult smoking rate was 13.4% in 2017)

Of 3,406 hospitalized patients, 23.3% had a history of smoking

572 patients age 50 & under: 13.3% had a history of smoking

2834 patients over 50: 25.3% had a history of smoking

onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.100…
125/

New York City, USA (adult smoking rate was 13.4% in 2017)

Of 200 hospitalized patients, 32.5% were current or former smokers

Note: Hospital in Bronx, where smoking rate is higher than NYC total

metabolismjournal.com/article/S0026-…
126/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 339 hospitalized patients, 8.3% were current smokers

sciencedirect.com/science/articl…
127/

Spain (adult smoking rate was 24% in 2019)

Of 3,127 hospitalized patients, 7.1% were current smokers

Of 460 deaths, 9.6% were current smokers

mdpi.com/2077-0383/9/6/…
128/

Belgium (adult current smoking rate was 19.4% in 2018)

Of 299 positive cases, 7.4% were smokers

researchsquare.com/article/rs-331…
129/

The large studies in tweets 13, 50, and 83 have been retracted.

statnews.com/2020/06/04/lan…
130/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 675 patients, 9.5% were current smokers and 4.9% were former smokers

researchsquare.com/article/rs-322…
131/

Rajasthan, India (adult current smoking rate was 13.2% in 2016-17)

Of 234 hospitalized young adults (median age 35), 8.5% were smokers

Note: results likely complicated by smokeless tobacco use (14.1% including 2.6% dual use in 2016-17)

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
132/

Italy (adult smoking rate was 23.7% in 2016)

Of 962 patients hospitalized with Covid-19 pneumonia, 28.6% were current or former smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
133/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 186 hospitalized patients ages 60 and over, 16.7% had a history of smoking

researchsquare.com/article/rs-311…
134/

Mexico (adult smoking rate was 17.6% in 2016)

Of 72 hospitalized patients, 25% were smokers.

Notes:

Not specified if current or ever

Results of smaller studies from Mexico are likely included in larger samples, e.g. studies in tweets 67 and 79

authorea.com/users/330400/a…
135/

Switzerland (adult smoking rate was 27.1% in 2017)

Of 120 patients admitted to ICU, 12.5% were active smokers

papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cf…
136/

Germany (adult smoking rate was 25% in 2017)

Of 60 hospitalized patients, 10% were smokers

Note: not stated if current or ever

papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cf…
137/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 142 patients, 9.2% were smokers

Note: not specified if current or ever

researchsquare.com/article/rs-328…
137a/

Correction: The text & the table contradict each other, but it appears 9.2% had *a history* of smoking
138/

Mexico (adult smoking rate was 17.6% in 2016)

Updated information

Of 236,439 people with suspected viral respiratory disease, 9.1% were current smokers

Of 89,756 with positive Covid-19 diagnosis, 8.3% were current smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…

continued
138a/

Of 146,683 with negative Covid-19 diagnosis, 9.5% were current smokers

"Notably, smoking was not associated with a higher risk for adverse outcomes and hospitalization. Smokers were also less likely to be diagnosed with COVID-19 compared to non-smokers."
139/

New York City, USA (adult smoking rate was 13.4% in 2017)

Of 57 multiple myeloma patients who were diagnosed with Covid-19, 37% were current or former smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
140/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 76 hospitalized patients, 3 were current smokers (4%)

papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cf…
141/

Italy (adult smoking rate was 23.7% in 2016)

Of 296 hospitalized patients, 17.2% had a history of smoking

papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cf…
142/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 171 hospitalized patients, 8.2% were "persistent" smokers. Another 4.7% had quit.

papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cf…
143/

Quebec, Canada (smoking ages 12 & over was 17.5% in 2018)

Of 134 who tested positive, 11.2% said they were active smokers and 32.8% said they were past smokers

Note: patients who were dead or hospitalized at the time of the survey were excluded

cmaj.ca/content/early/…
144/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 81 patients with severe Covid-19, three were smokers (3.7%)

ccforum.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.11…
145/

Earth (adult smoking rate was ~20% in 2015)

Of 600 diagnosed cases in individuals with rheumatic disease from 40 countries, 25% were ever smokers

Note: 71% of sample was female

ard.bmj.com/content/annrhe…
146/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 133 hospitalized cases, 10.5% were smokers

onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.10…
147/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 454 hospitalized cases, 9.7% were smokers

atsjournals.org/doi/10.1164/rc…
148/

Brazil (adult daily smoking rate was 15.4% in 2015)

Of 159 who tested positive, 3.1% said they were current smokers, and 11.9% said they were former smokers

Note: 68.6% of respondents were female

sciencedirect.com/science/articl…
149/

Greece (adult smoking rate was 27.1% in 2017)

Of 22 hospitalized cases, 13% were smokers

link.springer.com/article/10.100…
150/

Spain (adult smoking rate was 24% in 2019)

Of 38 patients with arterial thrombotic complications who tested positive, 13.2% were smokers

Of 49 patients with arterial thrombotic complications who didn't test positive, 22.5% were smokers

sciencedirect.com/science/articl…
151/

New York City, USA (adult smoking rate was 13.4% in 2017)

Of 4,458 people who tested positive, 6.5% were current smokers & 20.2% were former smokers

Of 2,296 hospitalized, 6.1% were current smokers & 24.6% were former smokers

bmj.com/content/369/bm…
152/

Georgia, USA (adult smoking rate was 16.1% in 2019)

Of 49 people with diabetes who tested positive, 2 were active smokers (4%) & 9 were former smokers (18%)

Note: 73% of patients were female

diabetesresearchclinicalpractice.com/article/S0168-…
153/

Italy (adult smoking rate was 23.7% in 2016)

Of 65 patients hospitalized with severe Covid-19 pneumonia, 2 were smokers (3.1%)

Note: 86.2% of patients were male

ejinme.com/article/S0953-…
154/

Milan, Italy (adult smoking rate was 19% in 2017)

Of 193 hospitalized patients, 30% had a history of smoking

sciencedirect.com/science/articl…
155/

Italy (adult smoking rate was 23.7% in 2016)

Of 78 hospitalized patients, 26.9% were smokers

sciencedirect.com/science/articl…
156/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018, and smoking rate ages 15-24 was 18.6% in 2018)

Of 14 infected patients ages 10-24, one was an ever or current smoker (7.1%)

Of 32 infected patients ages 25-35, four were ever or current smokers (12.5%)

sciencedirect.com/science/articl…
157/

Chicago, USA (adult smoking rate was 16.8% in 2018)

Of 486 hospitalized patients, 33.5% were current or former smokers

journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/01…
158/

Switzerland (adult smoking rate was 27.1% in 2017)

Of 103 patients with positive diagnoses, 8.8% were current smokers, and 18.4% were former smokers

journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/01…
159/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 150 hospitalized patients, 3 had a history of smoking (2%)

link.springer.com/article/10.100…
160/

Colorado, USA (adult smoking rate was 14.5% in 2019, and 5.3% of adults reported e-cigarette use in 2017)

Of 44 patients admitted to ICU, two were smokers and/or vapers (4.5%)

journalacs.org/article/S1072-…
161/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 21 severe or critical cases, 28.6% had a history of smoking

ascpt.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.11…
162/

Italy (adult smoking rate was 23.7% in 2016)

Of 31 patients ages 65 & over hospitalized with severe Covid-19, 25.8% had a history of smoking

journalofinfection.com/article/S0163-…
163/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 1,004 patients hospitalized with confirmed or suspected Covid-19, 15% had a history of smoking.

Of the 144 confirmed cases, 14% had a history of smoking

thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/…
164/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 291 confirmed cases, 8.9% had a history of smoking

onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.11…
165/

Italy (adult smoking rate was 23.7% in 2016)

Of 31 Covid-19 patients with acute coronary syndrome, 35.5% were current smokers

onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.10…
166/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 154 patients with Covid-19 pneumonia, 6.29% had a history of smoking

Of 100 patients with other viral pneumonia, 16% had a history of smoking

link.springer.com/article/10.100…
167/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 110 hospitalized & released patients with non-critical cases, 11.8% were smokers

Note: not specified if ever or current

erj.ersjournals.com/content/early/…
168/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 15 asymptomatic patients, one was a smoker (6.7%)

onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.10…
169/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 545 with mild or moderate cases, 22.39% had a history of smoking

papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cf…
170/

Hong Kong (adult smoking rate was 10% in 2017)

Of 18 hospitalized patients (ages 18-60), one was a smoker (6%)

academic.oup.com/ofid/advance-a…
171/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 2,877 hospitalized patients, 6.6% were smokers

Note: not specified if current or ever

academic.oup.com/eurheartj/adva…
172/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 154 hospitalized patients, 7.8% were smokers

papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cf…
173/

Germany (adult smoking rate was 25% in 2017)

Of 14 patients who experienced abnormal taste and/or smell, 3 were regular smokers (21%)

papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cf…
174/

Italy (adult smoking rate was 23.7% in 2016)

Of 508 positive diagnoses, 5.9% were current smokers & 26.8% were former smokers

Of 295 hospitalized, 4.1% were current smokers & 33.5% were former smokers

papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cf…
175/

Earth (adult smoking rate was ~20% in 2015)

Of 1,113 patients from 24 countries who were diagnosed with Covid-19 around the time of surgery, 9.5% were current smokers

thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/…

Countries 👇
176/

Countries (adult smoking rate)

France (27% in 2017)
Italy (23.7% in 2016)
Spain (24% in 2019)
Belgium (19.4% in 2018)

Of 702 patients with mild-to-moderate cases, 15% were smokers

jvoice.org/article/S0892-…
177/

Texas, USA (adult smoking rate was 14.4% in 2019 & 4.7% vaped in 2017)

Of 14 hospitalized patients, 3 were current tobacco users (21%), one was a vaper (7%), and one was a marijuana user (7%)

Note: not stated if any were dual (or triple) users

onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.10…
178/

France (adult daily smoking rate was 27% in 2017)

Of 1,029 people with diabetes hospitalized with Covid-19, 5.5% were current tobacco users & 37.9% were former tobacco users

Type 1: 3.0%
Type 2: 88.5%
Other: 5.4%
Diagnosed on admission: 3.1%

link.springer.com/article/10.100…
179/

Earth (adult smoking rate was ~20% in 2015)

Of 1,379 positive diagnoses in people with inflammatory bowel disease in 40+ countries, 4.8% were current smokers

Of 413 hospitalized patients, 6.8% were current smokers

Of 80 admitted to ICU, 5% were current smokers

continued
179a/

Of 64 who needed mechanical ventilation, 3.1% were current smokers

Of 48 who died, 8.3% were current smokers

Note: smoking among people with IBD may differ from general population

covidibd.org/current-data/
180/

Portugal (adult smoking rate was 22.7% in 2016)

Of 14 workers at a hospital rheumatology dept. who tested positive, 4 had a history of smoking (28.6%)

Of 8 patients who tested positive, 1 was an active smoker (12.5%) & 3 were past smokers (37.5%)

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
181/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 148 patients hospitalized with mild to moderate cases, 5.4% had a history of smoking

Of 56 patients whose cases progressed to severe, 5.4% had a history of smoking

papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cf…
182/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 85 who tested positive, 11.8% were current or former smokers

researchsquare.com/article/rs-326…
183/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 219 hospitalized patients, 23.3% were smokers

Note: not specified if current or ever

researchsquare.com/article/rs-325…
184/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 56 patients with cancer who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, 9% had a history of smoking

researchsquare.com/article/rs-332…
185/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 289 hospitalized patients, 9.7% had a history of smoking

authorea.com/users/320592/a…
186/

Milan, Italy (adult smoking rate was 19% in 2017)

Of 388 hospitalized patients, 11.6% were smokers

Of 61 patients admitted to ICU, 4.9% were smokers

Note: not specified if current or ever

sciencedirect.com/science/articl…
187/

Italy (adult smoking rate was 23.7% in 2016)

Of 133 people with hypertension who tested positive, three were active smokers (2.3%)

academic.oup.com/ajh/advance-ar…
188/

UK (adult smoking rate was 14.7% in 2018)

Of 419 pregnant women hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infections, 4.8% were current smokers

Note: results may be complicated because pregnant women are advised to not smoke

bmj.com/content/369/bm…
189/

Spain (adult smoking rate was 24% in 2019)

Of 82 pregnant women who were infected, 7.3% were smokers

Notes:

Not specified if current or ever

Results may be complicated because pregnant women are advised to not smoke

Most cases mild/asymptomatic

jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/…
190/

USA, Spain, Italy, UK (adult smoking rates were 13.7, 24, 23.7 & 13.9%)

Of 66 Covid-19 patients who had LVO strokes, 8 were active smokers (12.1%) However, the authors reported '19%' without providing any clue as to how they arrived at that number

papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cf…
191/

France (adult daily smoking rate was 27% in 2017)

Of 2,878 hospitalized patients, 13.5% were smokers

Note: not specified if current or ever

papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cf…
192/

France (adult daily smoking rate was 27% in 2017)

Of 310 hospitalized patients, 4.2% were active smokers

Of 102 admitted to ICU, 3.9% were active smokers

papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cf…
193/

Switzerland (adult smoking rate was 27.1% in 2017)

Of 80 people infected with SARS-CoV-2, one was a current smoker (1.3%).

62 patients were hospitalized, including 21 who were intubated and/or died, but this smoker was treated as an outpatient.

papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cf…
194/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 306 patients hospitalized with severe cases, 5 were current smokers (1.6%)

papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cf…
195/

Suffolk County, NY, USA (adult smoking rate was 17.8% in 2015. NY State current smoking was 12.8% in 2019)

Of 4,404 patients exhibiting symptoms, 6% were current smokers & 2% were former smokers.

Note: only 58% of 2,828 total tests were positive

papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cf…
196/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 148 hospitalized patients, 11.49% were current smokers & 2.7% were past smokers

Of 29 severe cases, 20.69% were current smokers & 6.9% were past smokers

papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cf…
197/

In the words of the lead author of the study in tweet 171:

"It’s current smoker. although likely underreported, please note that the mean age is about 60 and half was female..."

198/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Systematic review & meta-analysis of Covid-19 patients in China. Undoubtedly there is a significant amount of overlap with other data in this thread.

Of 5,094 patients in 35 studies, 9.93% were smokers

papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cf…
199/

Iran (adult cigarette smoking rate was 12% in 2019. Adult smoking rate including hookah was ~20% in 2019)

Of 19 positive patients who underwent CV surgery, 2 were smokers (10.5%)

Note: Iran population smoking prevalence statistics are questionable

papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cf…
200/

Bradford, UK (adult smoking rate was 18.9% in 2017)

Of 524 confirmed and suspected cases, 11.5% were smokers

Note: not specified if current or ever

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
201/

Broward County, Florida, USA (adult smoking rate was 15% in 2017)

Of 255 hospitalized patients, 6.3% were current smokers & 11.7% were former smokers

Of 46 deaths, 39% were current or former smokers. (Shameful to lump them together)

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
202/

France (adult daily smoking rate was 27% in 2017)

Of 246 patients hospitalized with severe Covid-19 pneumonia, 25.2% were active or past smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
203/

France: "54,358 patients with clinically suspected Covid-19"

"Tested smokers are less likely to be PCR+ (46% are PCR+ vs 66%, p<0.0001)."

"some patients with a priori higher respiratory risk (any comorbidity, smokers) are less likely to be tested"

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
204/

The lead author of the study in tweet 200 confirmed that it is current

205/

Spain (adult smoking rate was 24% in 2019)

Of 339 deaths with confirmed or probable diagnoses, 30.7% had a history of smoking

Note: average age was 80.5

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
206/

Massachusetts, USA (adult smoking rate was 13.4% in 2019)

Of 104 employees at one grocery store, 25 were smokers (24%)

Of the 21 who tested positive, 1 was a smoker (4.8%)

"...cigarette smokers had a 90% risk reduction..."

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
207/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 138 people with positive diagnoses, 13.0% were smokers

Note: not specified if current or ever

researchsquare.com/article/rs-323…
208/

Milan, Italy (adult smoking rate was 19% in 2017)

Of 28 pregnant women who tested positive, 1 smoked during pregnancy (3.6%)

Of 287 pregnant women who did not test positive, 12 smoked during pregnancy (4.2%)

researchsquare.com/article/rs-344…
209/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 138 patients with severe and critical cases, 22.3% had a history of smoking

researchsquare.com/article/rs-314…
210/

Ireland (adult smoking rate was 17.1% in 2019)

Of 82 hospitalized patients, 25.6% were current or previous smokers

Note: "The hospital is located in Dublin’s north inner city with many of Ireland’s most deprived neighbourhoods are situated..."

researchsquare.com/article/rs-340…
211/

London, UK (adult smoking rate was 13.9% in 2018)

Of 188 health care workers who were tested, 11.7% were current smokers & 17.6% were former smokers

Of 38 who tested positive at least once, 10.5% were current smokers & 18.4% were former smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
212/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 238 hospitalized patients, 2.9% were current smokers

Notes:

Patients who died (n=4) were excluded
15.1% of cases were severe or critical
57.1% of patients were female

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
213/

China (adult smoking was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 1,007 patients with mild or moderate cases, 8.7% had a history of smoking

Of 244 whose illness progressed to severe or critical, 7% had a smoking history

Of 43 who died, 1 had a smoking history (2.3%)

clinicalmicrobiologyandinfection.com/article/S1198-…
214/

Germany (adult smoking rate was 25% in 2017)

Of 105 hospitalized patients, 27% were current or ex-smokers

Of 14 "with radiologic signs consistent with bilateral COVID-19 pneumonitis or COVID-19 associated ARDS", 9 were current or ex-smokers (64%)

nature.com/articles/s4137…
215/

China (adult smoking was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 135 hospitalized patients, 3.0% were current smokers

Note: patients who died, who required ICU within 14 days, or whose hospital stay was less than 14 days were excluded

sciencedirect.com/science/articl…
216/

China (adult smoking was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 18 patients who survived, 3 had a history of smoking (16.7%)

Of the 10 patients with with impaired respiratory function when tested ~2 weeks after discharge, 1 had a history of smoking (10%)

ccforum.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.11…
217/

Spain (adult smoking rate was 24% in 2019)

Of 63 patients with active cancer hospitalized due to Covid-19 infection, 11% were current smokers & 43% were former smokers

ejcancer.com/article/S0959-…

Overall respiratory failure & ARDS data in table
218/

China (adult smoking was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 105 patients with severe cases who were treated with HFNC oxygen therapy, 10.5% were current or former smokers

researchsquare.com/article/rs-345…
219/

China (adult smoking was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 67 confirmed cases, 5 were current smokers (7.5%)

researchsquare.com/article/rs-342…
220/

China (adult smoking was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 67 hospitalized patients, 3 were current smokers (4.5%) and 2 were former smokers (3.0%)

researchsquare.com/article/rs-161…
221/

Spain (adult smoking rate was 24% in 2019)

Of 564 hospitalized patients, 36% were smokers

Note: not specified if current or ever

papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cf…
222/

New York City, USA (adult smoking rate was 13.4% in 2017)

Of 39 patients who had surgery within a few days before or after testing positive, 3 were active smokers (8.8%) & 5 were former smokers (14.7%)

papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cf…
223/

China (adult smoking was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 46 patients, 5 were smokers (10.9%)

Of 21 patients with severe cases, one was a smoker (4.8%)

Note: not specified if current or ever

papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cf…
224/

Iran (cigarette smoking rate was 12% in 2019. Smoking rate including hookah was ~20% in 2019)

Of 105 patients with severe cases, 5.7% were cigarette smokers & 22.9% were hookah users

Note: population smoking prevalence statistics are questionable

papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cf…
225/

Maryland and DC, USA (adult smoking rates were 12.5 & 13.8% in 2019)

Of 832 hospitalized patients, 6.3% were current smokers & 25.8% were former smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…

Outcome data in table
226/

USA (adult current smoking rate was 13.7% in 2018)

Of 22 critically-ill patients, 10 had a history of smoking (45.5%)

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
227/

Michigan, USA (adult smoking rate was 18.9% in 2019)

Of 44 hospitalized patients, 27.3% had a history of smoking

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
228/

New York City, US (adult smoking rate was 13.4% in 2017)

Of 1,108 patients hospitalized with Covid-19 symptoms, 7.4% were current smokers & 31.2% were former smokers

When those who tested negative were excluded, 5.7% current & 30.4% former (n=965)

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
229/

China (adult smoking was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 145 patients, 6% were smokers

onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.10…
230/

Earth (adult smoking rate was ~20% in 2015)

Of 518 people with rheumatic disease who were diagnosed with Covid-19, 28.8% were ever smokers

Of the 227 of those patients who were hospitalized, 30% were ever smokers

ard.bmj.com/content/early/…
231/

London, UK (adult smoking rate was 13.9% in 2018)

Of 109 cancer patients who tested positive, 10.1% were current smokers & 35.8% were ex-smokers

Of 18 severe cases, 11.1% were current smokers & 44.4% were ex-smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
232/

Saudi Arabia (adult smoking rate was estimated at 15.4% in 2020)

Of 128 who tested positive, 15.5% were current smokers & 2.3% were former smokers

Note: all mild cases or asymptomatic

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
233/

London, UK (adult smoking rate was 13.9% in 2018)

Of 16 who died, 1 was a current smoker (6.2%) & 12 were ex-smokers (75%)

Of 15 survivors who recovered after a long time in ICU, zero were current smokers & 10 were ex-smokers (66.7%)

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
234/

Chicago, USA (adult smoking rate was 16.8% in 2018)

Of 60 critically ill patients, 36.7% were smokers

Note: not specified if current or ever

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
235/

Milan, Italy (adult smoking rate was 19% in 2017)

Of 174 hospitalized patients, 33.3% were smokers.

Of the 82 of them admitted to ICU, 13.4% were smokers

Note: not specified if current or ever

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
236/

USA (adult current smoking rate was 13.7% in 2018)

Of 2,489 hospitalized patients, 6.0% were current smokers, 25.8% were former smokers & 68.2 were never smokers or had unknown status

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
237/

Spain (adult smoking rate was 24% in 2019)

Of 146 hospitalized patients, 6.8% had a history of smoking

Of 71 with critical cases, 8.5% had a history of smoking

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
238/

Spain (adult smoking rate was 24% in 2019)

Of 4,194 hospitalized patients, 5.5% were active smokers & 19.6% were former smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
239/

North Carolina, USA (adult smoking rate was 17.4% in 2019)

Of 11 patients, 1 was a current cigarette smoker & 1 was a current vaper (9% each)

Shame on the authors for including vaping under "tobacco use"

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
240/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 541 hospitalized patients, 10.5% were current smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
241/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 135 hospitalized patients, 9.6% were smokers

Note: not specified if current or ever

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
242/

Mexico (adult smoking rate was 17.6% in 2016)

Of 569 hospitalized patients, 10.4% were current or past smokers

Of 230 of them who needed critical care, 10.0% were current or past smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
243/

New York State (adult current smoking rate was 12.8% in 2019)

Of 74 patients with multiple sclerosis or related disorders who received positive diagnoses for Covid-19, 2 were current smokers (2.7%) & 20 were former smokers (27%)

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
244/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 51 severely & critically ill patients, 13.7% were current smokers

Of 12 of them who died, one was a current smoker (8.3%)

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
245/

Finland (adult current smoking rate was 19% in 2018)

Of 28 hospitalized patients, 3 were current smokers (11%) & 8 were ex-smokers (29%)

Of 7 of them admitted to ICU, 2 were current smokers (29%) & 1 was an ex-smoker (14%)

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
246/

Milan, Italy (adult smoking rate was 19% in 2017)

Of 40 healthy blood donors who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, 7 were active smokers (17.5%)

Of 749 healthy blood donors who tested negative, 197 were active smokers (27.3%)

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
247/

New York State (adult current smoking rate was 12.8% in 2019)

Of 54 kidney transplant recipients who were diagnosed with Covid-19, 22% had a history of smoking

Of 39 of them who were hospitalized, 21% had a history of smoking

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
248/

France (adult daily smoking rate was 27% in 2017)

Of 135 patients (125 hospitalized), 4% were daily smokers & 38% were ex-smokers

Of 10 patients who developed ARDS, all 10 were never smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
249/

New York City, USA (adult smoking rate was 13.4% in 2017)

Of 127 people with multiple myeloma or related disorders who received positive diagnoses, 27% were current or former smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
250/

France (adult daily smoking rate was 27% in 2017)

Of 55 patients hospitalized with Covid-19, 25.4% had a history of smoking

Of 45 patients hospitalized without Covid-19 during the same period, 42.3% had a history of smoking

researchsquare.com/article/rs-345…
251/

France (adult daily smoking rate was 27% in 2017)

Of 302 cancer patients with suspected cases, 11.6% were current tobacco users & 20.2% were former tobacco users.

Smoking data not disclosed for the 55 patients with confirmed positive diagnoses

continued
251a/

"Present tobacco use...former tobacco use...were not significantly different between the SARS-COV-2 RT-PCR positive and negative subgroups."

ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/P…
252/

France (adult daily smoking rate was 27% in 2017)

Of 100 people who reported Covid-19 symptoms at an emergency room, 23% were smokers

Of 31 who tested positive, 2 were smokers (6%)

Of 69 who tested negative, 21 were smokers (30%)

onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.11…
253/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 475 confirmed & suspected cases, 16% had a history of smoking

Of 336 confirmed cases, 16.4% had a history of smoking

onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jm…
254/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 98 patients recovering from Covid-19, 8 were smokers (8.2%)

Of 17 of them who tested positive during post-discharge quarantine, all 17 were non-smokers

onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jc…
255/

Turkey (adult male smoking rate was 44% in 2018)

Of 18 men with enlarged prostates who tested positive, 7 were smokers (38.9%)

onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ij…
256/

Countries (adult smoking rate)

France (27% in 2017)
Italy (23.7% in 2016)
Spain (24% in 2019)
Belgium (19.4% in 2018)
Switzerland (27.1% in 2017)

Of 1,420 mild-to-moderate cases, 14.3% were smokers

onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jo…

Continued
256a/

Notes:

67.7% of patients were female

30.7% were health care workers

Mean age: 39.17

Much overlap with study in tweet 176

257/

New York State (adult current smoking rate was 12.8% in 2019)

Of 3,567 hospitalized patients, 84.4% were never smokers

jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/…
258/

China (adult smoking was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 68 cancer patients with moderate-to-severe cases of Covid-19, 73.5% had a history of smoking

"...we did not find that...smoking history could further increase the mortality risk of patients with cancer"

jhoonline.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.11…
259/

Italy (adult smoking rate was 23.7% in 2016)

Of 102 hospitalized patients, including 16 cancer patients, 7.8% were current smokers & 31.4% were former smokers

journalofinfection.com/article/S0163-…
260/

Sweden (adult daily smoking rate was 10.4% in 2017)

Of 60 hospitalized patients, 8.3% were smokers

Notes:

Not specified if current or ever

Many Swedes are snus users; could complicate results (not mentioned in this paper)

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
261/

New York City, USA (adult smoking rate was 13.4% in 2017)

Of 5,510 confirmed positive patients, 5.0% were current smokers & 23.5% were former smokers

Of 636 deaths, 4.4% were current smokers & 33.6% were former smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
262/

Thailand (adult smoking rate was 19.9% in 2016)

Contact tracing tests of asymptomatic individuals:

Of 209 positive, 13 reported sharing cigarettes or vaping devices (6.2%)

Of 836 negative, 12 reported sharing cigarettes or vaping devices (1.5%)

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
263/

France (adult daily smoking rate was 27% in 2017)

There's more in this study than I can tweet. Recommended reading.

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
264/

London, UK (adult smoking rate was 13.9% in 2018)

Of 1,700 hospitalized patients, 10.2% were smokers

Note: not explicitly stated if current or ever. The phrase "smoking history" was used once

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
265/

Italy (adult female smoking was 19.8% in 2016)

Of 132 infected women who gave birth, zero were current smokers & 10.6% quit before or during pregnancy

Of 43 of them who gave birth with Covid-19 pneumonia, 7% quit before or during pregnancy

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
266/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 262 hospitalized patients, 5.3% were smokers

Of 128 who died, 8.6% were smokers

Note: not specified if current or ever

researchsquare.com/article/rs-347…
267/

Italy (adult smoking rate was 23.7% in 2016)

Of 41 patients who tested positive within days of having surgery, 5 were current smokers within 1 year (12.2%)

Of 82 who didn't test positive, 8 were current smokers within 1 year (9.8%)

jamanetwork.com/journals/jamas…
268/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 1,590 hospitalized patients, 7% were former or current smokers

Of 131 of them with critical cases, 13.7% were former or current smokers

Note: mean age was 48.9

jamanetwork.com/journals/jamai…
269/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 149 hospitalized patients, 4 were current smokers (2.7%)

Notes:

"the median age of patients was 42 years (range 2-91), and 114 (76.5%) were 21-60 years old"

14 patients were ages 2-20

onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/tb…
270/

Italy (adult smoking rate was 23.7% in 2016)

Of 355 people with confirmed diagnoses, 13.5% were smokers

Note: not specified if current or ever

onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/he…
271/

Another one which contains more than I can tweet:

National Smoking Rates Correlate Inversely with COVID-19 Mortality

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
272/

Washington State, USA (Adult smoking rate was 12% in 2019)

Of 111 hospitalized patients, 10.8% were current smokers & 6.3% were former smokers

heartrhythmopen.com/article/S2666-…
273/

Of 14 Italian tourists treated at a hospital in Gurgaon, India, 3 were smokers (21.43%)

Adult smoking rates in 2016-17:

Haryana 19.7% in 2016-17
Delhi 11.3% in 2016-17
Italy: 23.7% in 2016

Notes:

not stated if current or ever

ages 45-80

sciencedirect.com/science/articl…
274/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 1,449 hospitalized patients, 5.7% had a history of smoking

Of 122 of them who died, 13.9% had a history of smoking

nature.com/articles/s4137…
275/

Turkey (adult smoking rate was 27.2% in 2016)

Of 64 symptomatic individuals who tested positive, 14 were smokers (21.9%)

Notes:

not specified if current or ever

60.9% of sample was female

mean age was 37.78

journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/01…
276/

France (adult female smoking rate was 22.9% in 2018)

Of 88 pregnant women who tested positive, 3 were smokers (3.4%)

Note: women are advised to refrain from smoking during pregnancy

ejog.org/article/S0301-…
277/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 1,004 hospitalized patients, 46% were smokers

Of 40 of them who died, 55% were smokers

Note: not specified if current or ever

onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.10…
278/

New York City, USA (2017 smoking rate was 13.4%)

Past or present smoking in hospitalized adults:

572 age ≤50: 13.3%
2,834 age >50: 25.3%

Past or present smoking deaths

60 ≤50: 21.7%
1,076 >50: 26.8%

Note:

≤50: 69.4% male
>50: 55.2% male

onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.100…
279/

Italy (adult male smoking rate was 28.3% in 2015)

Of 31 men in respiratory ICU, one was a current smoker (3.2%) & 11 were former smokers (35.5%)

onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.11…
280/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 80 patients, 8 were smokers (10%)

Of 69 of them with severe cases, 8 were smokers (11.59%)

Note: median age of severe patients was 56 & median age for non-severe patients was 31

embopress.org/doi/full/10.15…
281/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 130 patients, 11.5% were current smokers

Note: not a completely random sample; half of patients had metabolic associated fatty liver disease.

Current smokers
Without MAFLD: 16.9%
With MAFLD: 6.2%

onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.11…
282/

Italy (adult smoking rate was 23.7% in 2016)

Of 50 patients with cirrhosis with confirmed diagnoses of Covid-19, 20 were current or former tobacco smokers (40%)

Smoking history was not significantly associated with 30-day mortality

journal-of-hepatology.eu/article/S0168-…
283/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 1,875 hospitalized patients, 7.8% were smokers

Of 50 of them with a history of stroke, 16% were smokers

Note: not explicitly specified if current or ever, but the term "smoking history" is used once

ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/ST…
284/

Hong Kong (adult smoking rate was 10% in 2017)

Of 9 adult Hong Kong residents who tested positive on their return to Hong Kong after being quarantined on the Diamond Princess, 1 was a smoker (11%)

Of 206 who tested negative, 18 were smokers (9%)

thelancet.com/journals/lanin…
285/

Earth (adult smoking rate was ~20% in 2015)

Of 196 patients with thoracic cancer & a positive Covid-19 diagnosis, 24% were current smokers & 57% were former smokers

Of 148 of them who were hospitalized, 26% were current smokers & 57% were former smokers

Continued
285a/

Notes:

94% of patients had lung cancer

Patients from Italy, Spain, France, Switzerland, Netherlands, USA, UK, and China

thelancet.com/journals/lanon…
286/

Of 104 Diamond Princess passengers/crew hospitalized in Japan after testing positive, 17% were current smokers

Patient nationality:
53% East Asian
20% Southeast Asian
27% other

Note: 41% of patients were asymptomatic

thelancet.com/journals/lanin…
287/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 155 individuals with confirmed diagnoses, 12.9% had a history of smoking

authorea.com/users/333698/a…
288/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 271 patients with severe cases, 37.3% were smokers

Of 22 deaths, 13 were smokers (59.1%)

Note: not specified if current or ever

researchsquare.com/article/rs-351…
289/

France (daily smoking rate was 27% in 2017)

Of 702 individuals who had transcatheter aortic valve replacement between 2010 & 2019, 3.7% were current smokers (when?)

Of 22 of them who had confirmed cases of Covid-19, one was a current smoker (4.5%)

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
290/

Israel (adult smoking rate was 19.1% in 2018)

Of 145 hospitalized patients, 12.4% were current smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
291/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 88 ICU patients, 10.2% had a history of smoking*

Of 64 of them who died within 14 days, 9.4% had a history of smoking

*There is a error in the count. Might be 11.4%.

authorea.com/users/333981/a…
292/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 788 hospitalized patients, 6.9% were current smokers

journals.lww.com/ajg/Abstract/9…
293/

Jordan (adult smoking rate was 41.0% in 2015)

Of 88 cases, 32.1% were cigarette smokers

Notes:

population smoking statistics are questionable

waterpipe use may complicate results

mean age: 40

only 1 patient died: a woman (age 80) with cancer

sciencedirect.com/science/articl…
294/

Chile (adult smoking rate was 38% in 2015)

Of 21 hospitalized patients, 2 were previous or current tobacco smokers (9.5%)

Note: 76.2% of patients were female (female smoking rate in 2015 was 36%)

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
295/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 57 patients studied 30 days after discharge from a hospital, 15.7% had a history of smoking

researchsquare.com/article/rs-264…
296/

Netherlands (adult cigarette smoking rate was 22.4% in 2018)

Of 32 patients considered too frail for mechanical ventilation & given HFNC treatment instead, 15.6% were current smokers & 18.8% were former smokers

Continued
296a/

Of 24 of them who died, 16.7% were current smokers & 20.8% were former smokers

Note: ages 72.5 to 84.3

researchsquare.com/article/rs-344…
297/

Victoria, Australia (adult daily smoking rate was 12.8% in 2016)

Of 424 people tested, 45% were smokers

Of 14 who tested positive, 64% were smokers

Note: not stated if current or ever

onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/17…
298/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 1,031 hospitalized patients, 10.1% were smokers

Of 165 of them who died, 21.8% were smokers

Note: not explicitly stated if current or ever, but the term "smoking history" is used once

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
299/

Earth (adult smoking rate was ~20% in 2015)

Of 9,358 patients ages 50 & under with confirmed diagnoses, 5.9% had "nicotine dependence"

Of 64 of them who had an acute ischemic stroke, 34.4% of them had "nicotine dependence"

ajconline.org/article/S0002-…
300/

Norway (adult daily smoking rate was 9% in 2019. Daily & non-daily smoking was 20.2% in 2016)

Of 58 hospitalized patients, 31% were current or former smokers

Of 15 severe cases, 26.7% were current or former smokers

Note: snus use may complicate

researchsquare.com/article/rs-308…
301/

Germany (smoking rate 25% in 2017)

Of 26 infected patients who died, 3 were active smokers (10.5%)

Autopsies showed multiple comorbidities in all patients, more than stated in medical records. 7 had emphysema (26.9%), including 1 of the 3 smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
302/

USA (adult current smoking rate was 13.7% in 2018)

Of 333 hospitalized patients, 7.6% were current smokers & 40.5% were former smokers

link.springer.com/article/10.100…
303/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 1,859 hospitalized patients, 2.4% were current smokers & 3.6% were former smokers

Of 208 of them who died, 6.3% were current smokers & 5.8% were former smokers

Continued
303a/

Note: "Smoking history was defined as current or former smoker (stopping >5 years ago) with exposure of ≥20 cigarettes per day for ≥1 year (1 pack year)."

nature.com/articles/s4137…
304/

Indiana, USA (adult current smoking rate was 21.1% in 2019)

Of 2,953 tested asymptomatic individuals, 3.9% were current smokers & 24.2% were former smokers

Of 91 of them who tested positive, 1.1% was a current smoker & 25.3% were former smokers

onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jm…
305/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 856 hospitalized patients, 7.0% were current smokers

onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.10…
306/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 51 hospitalized patients, 37.3% had a history of smoking

onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.11…
307/

Michigan, USA (adult smoking rate was 18.9% in 2019)

Of 463 patients, 34.8% were tobacco users (TUs)

Of 355 hospitalized, 38.6% were TUs

Of 141 in ICU, 41.1% were TUs

Notes:

72.1% of patients were African American

not stated if current or ever

jamanetwork.com/journals/jaman…
308/

London, UK (adult smoking rate was 13.9% in 2018)

Of 51 surviving patients with troponin elevation, 25.5% had a history of smoking

Notes

80.4% male

patients age 80+ were excluded

papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cf…
309/

New Jersey, USA (adult smoking rate was 13.1% in 2019)

Of 20 Covid-19 patients who had an acute ischemic stroke, 5 had a history of smoking (25%)

papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cf…
310/

UK (adult smoking rate was 14.7% in 2018)

Updated numbers from same dataset as study in tweet 85

Of 20,246 hospitalized patients, 7.1% were current smokers & 34.2% were former smokers

papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cf…

311/

Iran

120 hospitalized patients: age and sex matched groups of smokers & non smokers

"Current findings showed that the clinical picture of smoker and non-smoker COVID-19 patients does not differ significantly."

researchsquare.com/article/rs-342…
312/

Texas, USA (adult smoking rate was 14.4% in 2019)

Of 147 hospitalized patients, 14.3% were active smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
313/

Michigan, USA (adult smoking rate was 18.9% in 2019)

Of 4,699 tested, 8.5% were current smokers (CS) & 29.9% were past smokers (PS)

Of 884 who tested positive, CS=4.5% & PS=29.9%

Of 373 hospitalized, CS=2.7% & PS=37%

Of 134 in ICU, CS=2.2% & PS=45.5%

Continued
313a/

Of 20 who died, CS=zero & PS=70%

Notes:

6.6% of tested were age 18 or less
0.8% of positive were 18 or less

38% of tested were male
56.5% of hospitalized were male

2019 MI female smoking rate was 16.9%
2019 MI male smoking rate was 21.1%

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
314/

Spain (adult smoking rate was 24% in 2019)

Of 25 hospitalized patients, 2 were current smokers (8%) and zero were former smokers

preprints.org/manuscript/202…
315/

China (smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 1,690 hospitalized patients with non-critical cases, 13.6% had a history of smoking

Of 697 critical patients, 19.7% had a history of smoking

2nd group included 346 from 1st group whose illness progressed

drc.bmj.com/content/8/1/e0…
316/

France (adult daily smoking rate was 27% in 2017)

All patients assessed at one hospital

Of 70 adults infected with SARS-CoV-2, 14.3% were current smokers

Of 54 adults infected with influenza during the same time period, 20.4% were current smokers

sciencedirect.com/science/articl…
317/

France (adult daily smoking rate was 27% in 2017)

Of 15 ICU patients, 2 were smokers (13.3%)

Notes:

ages 60-72
80% of patients were male

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
318/

Milan, Italy (adult smoking rate was 19% in 2017)

Of 204 hospitalized patients, 35.3% had a history of smoking

Note: patients who were "intubated, receiving noninvasive ventilatory assistance, or deceased" were excluded

jamanetwork.com/journals/jamao…
319/

Georgia, USA (adult smoking was 16.1% in 2019)

Of 259 nonhospitalized patients, 14.3% were past or current smokers (PCS)

Of 211 hospitalized patients, 25.6% were PCS

cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/6…

Note: hospitalized patients were "selected" from 👇

320/

France (adult daily smoking rate was 27% in 2017)

Of 4,486 hospitalized patients, 25.8% were current smokers

Note; "Co-morbidities and risk factors...were recorded for the two-year period before the index date"

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
321/

Spain (adult smoking rate was 24% in 2019)

Of 125 pregnant women who tested positive, 8.0% were smokers

1st trimester: 7.4%
3rd trimester: 8.5%

Notes:

Not specified if current or ever
Pregnant women are encouraged to refrain from smoking

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
322/

England, UK (adult smoking rate was 14.4% in 2018)

Of 251,440 people with T1 diabetes, 17.3% were current smokers (CS) & 24.6% were ex-smokers (XS)

Of 418 of them who died with Covid-19, CS=8.4% & XS=37.8%

papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cf…

Continued
322a/

Of 2,886,740 people with T2 diabetes, CS=12.8% & XS=35.1%

Of 9,362 of them who died with Covid-19, CS=5.2% & XS=42.8%

Note: ~2% of sample was classified "non-smoker" because they did not currently smoke, but it was unknown whether they had formerly. I included with never
323/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 370 survivors, 5.7% were current smokers

Of 50 of them who reported post-discharge anxiety, 4.0% were current smokers

Of 40 of them who reported post-discharge depression, 2.5% were current smokers

onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.10…
324/

London, UK (adult smoking rate was 13.9% in 2018)

Of 204 hospitalized patients, 43.1% had a history of smoking

Of 54 who died, 51.9% had a history of smoking

journalofinfection.com/article/S0163-…
325/

Turkey (adult smoking rate was 27.2% in 2016)

Of 29 genetically related patients hospitalized with confirmed Covid-19, 37.9% had a history of smoking

Of an age and sex matched group (n=52) admitted to the same hospital, 23.1% had a smoking history

onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.100…
326/

Italy (adult smoking rate was 23.7% in 2016)

Of 51 hospitalized (non-intubated) patients who required oxygen or CPAP:

1 was an active smoker (2%)
1 was a former smoker for less than a year (2%)
20 were former smokers for more than a year (39.2%)

thelancet.com/journals/lanre…
327/

India (adult smoking rate was 10.7% & smokeless tobacco use was 21.4% in 2016-17)

Of 109 patients with confirmed diagnoses, 3.6% had a history of smoking & 5.5% were tobacco users

papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cf…

Continued
327a/

Notes:

Mean age was 38.4

86.2% of patients were male (male smoking rate was 19% & smokeless use was 29.6% in 2016-17)

Intubated & very sick patients were excluded (number unstated)

Patients were hospitalized April 1-20. The government banned tobacco sales on April 15
328/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 363 severe & critical cases, 7.2% were smokers

159 severe: 3.1% were smokers
204 critical: 10.3% were smokers

Of 152 of them who died, 11.2% were smokers

Note: not specified if current or ever

papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cf…
329/

New York, USA

102 lung cancer patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2

Number of smokers & non-smokers not reported.

Only 27 of them had a smoking history equal to or greater than 5 pack-years (26.47%, which the authors rounded up to 27%)

sciencedirect.com/science/articl…
330/

USA (adult current smoking rate was 13.7% in 2018)

Of 6,256 patients with obesity or T2 diabetes hospitalized for Covid-19, 13 were tobacco users (0.2%)

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
331/

Italy (adult smoking rate was 23.7% in 2016)

Of 173 patients with severe Covid-19 pneumonia, 29.5% were ever smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
332/

London, UK (adult smoking rate was 13.9% in 2018)

Of 6,215 people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, 67.3% were current smokers (CS) & 27.2% were past smokers (PS)

Of 100 of them who tested positive, CS=78 & PS=20

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…

Note: see methods 👇
333/

Spain (adult smoking rate was 24% in 2019)

Of 260 who tested positive, 31.2% were current or ex-smokers

Of 141 hospitalized, 35.5% were current or ex-smokers

Of 48 deaths or ICU admissions, 43.8% were current or ex-smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
334/

New York State (adult current smoking rate was 12.8% in 2019)

Of 32 critically ill patients, 50% were current or former smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
335/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 616 patients hospitalized with confirmed Covid-19, 3.8% were smokers

Of 35 patients hospitalized with suspected Covid-19 who tested negative for antibodies, 5.7% were smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
336/

New York City, USA (adult smoking rate was 13.4% in 2017)

Of 407 hospitalized African Americans, 8.8% were active smokers

Of 132 of them who died, 6.1% were active smokers

papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cf…
337/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 105 patients with confirmed or suspected cases, 43.8% were current smokers

Of the 21 who had confirmed cases, 52.4% were current smokers

atm.amegroups.com/article/view/4…
338/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 80 hospitalized patients, 6.3% had a history of smoking

Of 27 of them with severe cases, 14.8% had a history of smoking

journals.plos.org/plosone/articl…
339/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 97 hospitalized patients, 20.6% were current smokers & 12.4% were former smokers

Of 12 of them with severe cases, 5 were current smokers (41.7%) & 1 was a former smoker (8.3%)

onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/al…
340/

Ontario, Canada (current smoking rate age 12 and over was 15.2% in 2017)

Of 21,922 confirmed cases, 2.4% were smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
341/

Chicago, USA (adult smoking rate was 16.8% in 2018)

Of 103 recovered patients who donated plasma, 25.2% were past or current smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
342/

Germany (adult smoking rate was 25% in 2017)

Of 126 symptomatic patients who were tested at an emergency department, 30.2% were current smokers & 24.6% had quit

Of 13 of them who tested positive, 7.7% was a current smoker & 23.1% had quit

researchsquare.com/article/rs-370…
343/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 200 hospitalized patients, 3.5% were current smokers

researchsquare.com/article/rs-354…
344/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 136 hospitalized patients, 11 had a history of smoking (8.1%)

Of 16 of them with severe cases, 1 had a history of smoking (6.3%)

researchsquare.com/article/rs-350…
345/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 544 hospitalized patients, 7.5% were current smokers & 9.4% were former smokers

Of 265 of them with severe cases, 6.8% were current smokers & 12.5% were former smokers

sciencedirect.com/science/articl…
346/

Italy (adult smoking rate was 23.7% in 2016)

Of 26 patients with asthma hospitalized with Covid-19, 14 were current smokers (53.8%)

jacionline.org/article/S0091-…
347/

Italy (adult smoking rate was 23.7% in 2016)

Of 62 hospitalized patients, 35.5% were current smokers

papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cf…
348/

Turkey (adult smoking rate was 27.2% in 2016)

Of 113 patients with hypertension who were hospitalized with Covid-19, 8.0% were smokers

Of 35 of them who died, 11.4% were smokers

tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.10…
349/

Italy (adult smoking rate was 23.7% in 2016)

Of 23 ICU patients who had a tracheostomy, 4 were current smokers (17.4%)

Notes:

91% of patients were male
mean age was 69 (42-84)

researchsquare.com/article/rs-364…
350/

Turkey (adult smoking rate was 27.2% in 2016)

Of 172 people who tested positive, 23.8% had a history of smoking

Note: most had mild or moderate symptoms

sciencedirect.com/science/articl…
351/

Spain (adult smoking rate was 24% in 2019)

Of 31 confirmed & 10 suspected cases in people with rheumatic diseases, 9.8% were current smokers & 24.4% were former smokers

Notes:

61% female
28/41 hospitalized
3 deaths: 1 CS, 1 FS, 1 NS

ard.bmj.com/content/79/7/9…
352/

Earth (adult smoking rate was ~20% in 2015)

Of 518 people with rheumatic diseases diagnosed with Covid-19, 24.9% were ever smokers

Of 227 of them hospitalized, 30% were ever smokers

Notes:

75% female
40 countries: N America: 57%, Eur: 36%

ard.bmj.com/content/79/7/8…
353/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 67 hospitalized patients, 3 were current smokers (4.5%) & 2 were former smokers (3.0%)

bmcmedimaging.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.11…
354/

China (2018 smoking rate was 26.6%)

Of 105 cancer patients hospitalized with Covid-19, 34.3% were smokers

Of 536 hospitalized patients without cancer, 8.6% were smokers

Note: not clear if current or ever. The term "smoking history" was used once

cancerdiscovery.aacrjournals.org/content/10/6/7…
355/

Ontario, Canada (current smoking rate age 12+ was 15.2% in 2017)

Of 127 people who were tested, 9.5% were current smokers (CS) & 21.3% were ex-smokers (XS)

Of 56 who tested positive, 5.4% were CS & 19.6% were XS

2 vapers (1.6%) tested: both positive (3.6%)

Continued
355a/

Notes:

median age 41.0 (32.0-52.5)

58.9% of positives were female

4 patients were hospitalized

In Canada, past 30 day vaping rate ages 25+ was 3% in 2019 (over half of them daily)

cambridge.org/core/journals/…
356/

Italy (adult smoking rate was 23.7% in 2016)

Of 59 patients with moderate symptoms, 18.7% were current smokers

care.diabetesjournals.org/content/43/7/1…
357/

France (adult daily smoking rate was 27% in 2017)

Of 50 positive diagnoses, 10% were active smokers (AS) & 18% were former smokers (FS)

12 no/mild pneumonia: AS 8%, FS 17%

17 moderate: AS 18%, FS 18%

16 severe: AS 6%, FS 25%

erj.ersjournals.com/content/early/…
358/

England, UK (adult smoking rate was 14.4% in 2018)

Of 215 hospitalized patients, 55.8% had a history of smoking

Of 86 of them who died, 63.9% had a history of smoking

researchsquare.com/article/rs-357…
359/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 67 patients who had a diagnosis of cancer & also a diagnosis of Covid-19, 13.4% had a history of smoking

Of 32 of them with severe cases, 15.6% had a history of smoking

acsjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cn…
360/

Earth (adult smoking rate was ~20% in 2015)

Update

Of 1,572 positive diagnoses in people with inflammatory bowel disease in 40+ countries, 4.5% were current smokers (CS)

Of 455 hospitalized patients, CS = 6.4%

Of 85 admitted to ICU, CS = 4.7%

360a/

Of 69 who needed mechanical ventilation, CS = 2.9%

Of 51 who died, CS = 7.8%

Note: smoking among people with IBD may differ from general population

covidibd.org/current-data/

361/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 307 confirmed cases, 8.8% were current smokers (CS)

Of 20 mild cases, CS=5%

Of 249 moderate cases, CS=8.8%

Of 38 severe cases, CS=10.5%

academic.oup.com/nsr/article/do…
362/

Los Angeles, USA (adult smoking rate in LA County was 11% in 2015-17)

Of 27 patients who were on mechanical ventilation (21) or oxygen through nasal cannula (6), zero were current smokers & 3 were former smokers (11%)

Notes:

85% were male

academic.oup.com/cid/article/do…
363/

New York City, USA (adult smoking rate was 13.4% in 2017)

Of 193 patients with severe to critical cases, two were active smokers (1%)

academic.oup.com/qjmed/article/…
364/

Spain (adult smoking rate was 24% in 2019)

Of 160 hospitalized patients ages 35 to 65, 19.3% were current or previous smokers

academic.oup.com/jid/article/do…
365/

France (adult daily smoking rate was 27% in 2017)

Of 54 ICU patients (including 49 who were mechanically ventilated), 5 were tobacco users (9.3%)

Of 20 of them who acquired ventilator-associated pneumonia 1 was a tobacco user (5%)

academic.oup.com/cid/article/do…
366/

Italy (adult smoking rate was 23.7% in 2016)

Of 26 patients with severe asthma who had confirmed or highly suspected Covid-19, 3 were smokers (11.5%) & 4 were ex/former smokers (15.4%)

The 2 who died were never smokers

authorea.com/users/335384/a…
367/

France (adult daily smoking rate was 27% in 2017)

Of 610 cancer patients, 115 were current smokers (18.9%)

Of 9 of them who tested positive, one was a current smoker (11.1%)

Note: thoracic (including lung) & hematological cancer patients excluded

onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ij…
368/

Georgia, USA (adult smoking rate was 16.1% in 2019)

Of 470 patients, 19.4% were past or current smokers (PCS)

Of 211 of them who were hospitalized, PCS=25.6%

cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/6…

There appears to be significant overlap with study in tweet 11

369/

Iran (cigarette smoking was 12% in 2019. Smoking including hookah was ~20% in 2019)

Of 117 patients with COVID-19 and T2 diabetes, 6.0% were smokers

"Individuals who had ceased smoking more than 10 years earlier were considered as non-smokers"

diabetesresearchclinicalpractice.com/article/S0168-…
370/

Ohio, Kentucky & Indiana, USA (adult current smoking rates were 20.5%, 23.4% & 21.1% in 2019)

Of 532 diagnoses, 32% were past or current smokers

Of 164 hospitalized, 46.3% were past or current smokers

Note: Cincinnati metro area

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
371/

Thailand (adult smoking rate was 19.9% in 2016)

Of 157 confirmed cases, 18.5% were ever smokers (ES)

Of 9 asymptomatic, ES=11%
Of 82 mild cases, ES=19.5%
Of 40 moderate, ES=20%
Of 22 severe, ES=13.6%
Of 4 critical, ES=25%

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
372/

Italy (adult smoking rate was 23.7% in 2016)

Of 312 hospitalized patients, 17.3% were current smokers

Of 91 of them who died, 26.4% were current smokers

researchsquare.com/article/rs-379…
373/

New York City, USA (adult smoking rate was 13.4% in 2017)

Of 200 expired patients, 9.5% were known current or former smokers

Note: "Past medical history (including comorbidities...based on documentation in the admission profile..."

researchsquare.com/article/rs-378…
374/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 1,087 hospitalized patients, 85% were former and/or current smokers

Of 97 of them admitted to ICU, 77.3% were former and/or current smokers

Note: 51.7% of patients were female

researchsquare.com/article/rs-369…
375/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 109 hospitalized patients, 9 were current smokers (8.3%)

Of 48 of them whose hospital stay was longer than 10 days, one was a current smoker (2.1%)

Note: no deaths

researchsquare.com/article/rs-349…
376/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 415 patients, 21 had a history of smoking (5.1%)

Of 29 of them with severe cases, 3 had a history of smoking (10.3%)

Note: median age 44 (30-61)

researchsquare.com/article/rs-349…
377/

France (adult daily smoking rate was 27% in 2017)

Of 268 hospitalized patients, 3.4% were current smokers & 16.4% were former smokers

Of 69 admitted to ICU, CS=4.3% & FS=23.2%

Of 47 who died before ICU admission, CS=4.3% & FS=8.5%

academic.oup.com/ehjcvp/article…
378/

New York City, USA (adult smoking rate was 13.4% in 2017)

Of 116 patients who had a lower extremity venous duplex scan & were SARS-CoV-2 positive, 16.4% were current smokers & 17.2% were former smokers

sciencedirect.com/science/articl…
379/

Massachusetts, USA (adult smoking rate was 13.4% in 2019)

Of 39 patients who received inhaled nitric oxide therapy for Covid-19, 12 were active or prior smokers (30.8%)

journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/17…
380/

France (adult daily smoking rate was 27% in 2017)

Of 347 patients with multiple sclerosis & a confirmed or highly suspected diagnosis of COVID-19, 9.5% were smokers

Notes:

71.8% of patients were female
not specified if current or ever

jamanetwork.com/journals/jaman…
381/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 95 hospitalized patients, 6.3% were current smokers

gut.bmj.com/content/69/6/9…
382/

Greece (adult smoking rate was 27.1% in 2017)

Of 93 hospitalized patients, 6.5% were current smokers & 32.3% were former smokers

jamanetwork.com/journals/jaman…
383/

Brazil (adult daily smoking rate was 15.4% in 2015)

Of 8,273 patients diagnosed with Covid-19, 1.7% were smokers

Of 607 of them who died, 7.7% were smokers

Notes:

Over 96% of cases were laboratory confirmed
3.2% of patients were <age 20 (1 died)

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
384/

Brazil (adult daily smoking rate was 15.4% in 2015)

Of 109 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients with cancer who were hospitalized for any reason, 16.5% were current smokers & 20.2% were former smokers

Notes:

60.8% were female
3.9% had lung cancer

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
385/

Finland (adult smoking rate was 19% in 2018)

Of 28 Covid-19 patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory infection, 3.6% was a current smoker (CS) & 32.1% were ex-smokers (XS)

Of 33 influenza pts. hospitalized with SARI, CS=30.3% & XS=24.2%

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
386/

Chicago, USA (adult smoking rate was 16.8% in 2018)

Of 664 patients, 25.8% were past or current tobacco users (PCTU)

Of 348 of them who were hospitalized, PCTU=32.8%

Of 44 who died, PCTU=52.3%

Note: 86.5% of patients were African American

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
387/

Cameroon

Of 51 Covid-19 patients with mild symptoms, 2 were tobacco consumers (3.9%)

Note: Cameroon population tobacco prevalence statistics vary widely depending on source. All of them are much more than 3.9%

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
388/

Mexico (adult smoking rate was 17.6% in 2016)

Updated numbers as of Jun 3

Of 101,238 cases, 8.2% were smokers

Of 80,434 cases age <60, 8.1% were smokers

Of 20,804 cases age ≥60, 8.7% were smokers

academic.oup.com/biomedgerontol…
389/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 342 hospitalized patients, 3.5% were smokers

Note: not specified if current or ever

researchsquare.com/article/rs-375…
390/

Kuwait (adult smoking rate was 22.5% in 2015)

Of 1,123 hospitalized patients, 3.9% were current smokers (CS)

294 Kuwaiti: CS=4.4% (52.4% male)
829 non-Kuwaiti: CS=3.7% (91.6% male)

researchsquare.com/article/rs-377…

Many pts included in study in tweet 23

391/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 1,188 hospitalized patients, 8.1% were current smokers & 16.8% were ever smokers

Note: total number for smoking status (1,188) is greater than total number of patients (1,184)

papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cf…
392/

Mexico (adult smoking rate was 17.6% in 2016)

Of 16,752 patients, 8.9% were smokers

Of 1,569 deaths, 9.62% were smokers

Note: Other data in this thread are more up-to-date than this

researchsquare.com/article/rs-390…
Just noticed something:

In this study, the number of patients with and without smoking histories exceeds the total number of patients.

393/

Milan, Italy (adult smoking rate was 19% in 2017)

Of 234 hospitalized patients, 86.75% were smokers

Notes:

70.1% of patients were female
not specified if current or ever

researchsquare.com/article/rs-384…
394/

Mexico (tobacco use rate age 20+ was 11.4% in 2018)*

Of 740 patients with confirmed cases, 10.8% were current tobacco users

Of 207 of them with severe symptoms, 15.6% were current tobacco users

*see note in next tweet

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
394a/

The authors of the study in the previous tweet cited INSP data which stated:

"In 2012, the percentage of tobacco use among the population aged 20 and over was 19.9%, and in 2018 it fell to 11.4 percent."

ensanut.insp.mx/encuestas/ensa…
395/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 96 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections, 8 were tobacco smokers (8.3%)

idpjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.11…
396/

Earth (adult smoking rate was ~20% in 2015)

Of 758 patients with confirmed or highly-suspected Covid-19, 21.6% were smokers

Notes:

not clear which countries
not specified if current or ever

link.springer.com/article/10.100…
397/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 57 patients, 15.8% had a history of smoking

respiratory-research.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.11…
A second look at the study in tweet 331 showed that I probably misreported its results. Apparently there was some missing data. Most likely it is:

Of 138 patients with severe Covid-19 pneumonia, 40% were ever smokers

398/

Brazil (adult daily smoking rate was 15.4% in 2015)

Of 32 patients with critical or severe cases, 8 had a history of smoking (25%)

Note: not reported in what country patients were afaict

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
399/

Mexico

Other data in this thread are more up-to-date. Adding for the record

sciencedirect.com/science/articl…
400/

Also for the record:

All studies using UK Biobank data were excluded because smoking status data date from 2006 to 2010.
401/

Mexico (adult female smoking rate was 9.3% in 2017)

Of 224 pregnant women with confirmed Covid-19, 3.1% were smokers

Of 7 who died, zero were smokers

Note: women are advised not to smoke during pregnancy

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
402/

New York City, USA (adult smoking rate was 13.4% in 2017)

Of 11,116 suspected cases, 26.8% were past or current smokers (PCS)

Of 6,393 of them who tested positive, PCS=25.7%

Of 484 intubated, PCS=27.7%

Of 618 deaths, PCS=33.7%

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
403/

Iran (adult cigarette smoking rate was 12% in 2019. Adult smoking rate including hookah was ~20% in 2019)

Of 54 Covid-19 outpatients, one was a current smoker (1.9%)

Note: Iran population smoking prevalence statistics are questionable

onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ij…
404/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 65 hospitalized patients ages 18-40 with moderate (53) or severe (12) symptoms, one was a cigarette smoker (1.5%)

The smoker was in the severe group

onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ob…
405/

Victoria, Australia (adult daily smoking rate was 12.8% in 2016)

Of 2,935 people tested for SARS-CoV-2, 259 were smokers (8.8%)

Of 108 of them who tested positive, three were smokers (2.8%)

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
406/

Philadelphia, USA (adult current smoking rate was 18-19% in 2017)

Of 129 patients who had high flow nasal therapy, 37.2% were current smokers

Of 40 of them who were intubated, 55% were current smokers

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…

See note in next tweet
406a/

All 3 studies from Philadelphia so far occurred at the same hospital with the same starting date & had the same lead author.

The others:

1.

2.
407/

Iran (adult cigarette smoking rate was 12% in 2019. Adult smoking rate including hookah was ~20% in 2019)

Of 66 EMTs with confirmed cases, 97% were smokers

Of 148 healthy EMTs, 86.5% were smokers

Notes:

all male
not stated if current or ever

researchsquare.com/article/rs-392…
408/

Milan, Italy (adult smoking rate was 19% in 2017)

Of 199 people admitted to a hospital emergency department with symptoms, 12 were active smokers (6%)

Of 124 of them who tested positive, 4 were active smokers (3.2%)

researchsquare.com/article/rs-385…
409/

New York City, USA (adult smoking rate was 13.4% in 2017)

Of 145 hospitalized patients, 11.0% were smokers

Note: not specified if current or ever

ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/P…
410/

New York City, USA (adult smoking rate was 13.4% in 2017)

Of 6,493 patients, 20.6% had a history of cigarette use

Of 3,708 of them who were hospitalized, 24.5% had a history of cigarette use

link.springer.com/article/10.100…
411/

Spain (adult smoking rate was 24% in 2019)

Of 91 hospitalized patients, 7 were smokers (7.7%)

Note: not specified if current or ever

link.springer.com/article/10.100…
412/

UK (adult smoking rate was 14.7% in 2018)
Italy (adult smoking rate was 23.7% in 2016)

Of 1,538 hospitalized patients in UK & Italy, 7.9% were current smokers (CS) & 39.2% were ex-smokers (XS)

Of 416 of them who died, CS=6.3% & XS=44.5%

Continued
412a/

Patients:

UK: 90.2% (Wales, Scotland, England)
Italy: 9.8%

thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/…
413/

Louisiana, USA (adult current smoking rate was 20.5% in 2019)

125 patients - smoking data not reported

"...no differences in...smoking history, mean total comorbidities, or prevalence of any comorbidity between the alive and expired cohorts"

ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/P…
414/

Spain (adult smoking rate was 24% in 2019)

Of 196 hospitalized patients, 11.2% were current smokers & 20.4% were ex-smokers

Of 45 of them who died, 6.7% were current smokers & 28.9% were ex-smokers

journals.plos.org/plosone/articl…
415/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 99 hospitalized patients, 13.1% were current smokers

academic.oup.com/jid/article/do…
416/

Europe

"We found a negative association between smoking prevalence and COVID-19 occurrence at the population level in 38 European countries."

academic.oup.com/ntr/article/do…
417/

New York City, USA (adult smoking rate was 13.4% in 2017)

Of 286* hospitalized patients, 11.2% were smokers

Notes:

not specified if current or ever

*reported percentages of smokers don't work out to whole numbers - 286 is an estimate

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
418/

Israel (adult smoking rate was 19.1% in 2018)

Of 6,538* tested, 19.4% were current smokers

Of 679 who tested positive, 18.7% were current smokers

Note: reported percentage of smokers in people who tested negative didn't work out to a whole number

medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
419/

Spain (adult smoking rate was 24% in 2019)

Of 25 patients hospitalized with suspected Covid-19, two were current smokers (8%) & zero were former smokers

Notes:

only 4 cases were confirmed
all survived

preprints.org/manuscript/202…
420/

USA (adult current smoking rate was 13.7% in 2018)

Of 2,033 critically ill patients, 20.7% were current or former smokers

onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bj…
421/

China (adult smoking rate was 26.6% in 2018)

Of 43 patients with rheumatic diseases, 11.6% had a history of smoking

Of 27 of them with Covid-19, 11.1% had a history of smoking

Notes:

all data self-reported
76.7% of patients were female

thelancet.com/journals/lanrh…
422/

Italy (adult smoking rate was 23.7% in 2016)

Of 151 home-quarantined SARS-CoV-2 positive individuals, 7.9% said they were current smokers & 17.2% said they were former smokers

Note: 62.9% were female

journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/01…
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