This important work on the ethnogenesis of the Mongols has been finally published. A few comments follow:…
First around 3300 BCE and before. The red is the Afanasievo: the 1st Indo-European invasion of the East. What is striking (to me at least) is that
some of the Bactria Margiana (BMAC) ancestry is seen in the East (brow) the black and green are ancient north east Asian and ancient northern Eurasian. Next, around 2000 BCE+-200 yrs the second IE invasion of the east took place now likely by an Indo-Iranian group. This brought
the Sintashta ancestry (orange) into Mongolia. Another new ancestry appears in the form of the Baikal bronze age people in cyan. Even in the bronze age we see some admixture with the BMAC & Indo-Iranians. In the early Fe age by 1000 BCE we see that the BMAC is strongly resurgent
in the central Asian Eastern Saka communities. THis next brings us to the first Hun Khaganate, the Xiongnu. Here we see the imprint of the 3rd IE invasion of the Iranian Sarmatians (dark orange) & the emergence of the new dominant ancestry from the Chandman of NE Mongolia (pink)&
some east Asian Han-like Ancestry. This establishes beyond doubt the role of Iranian influx into Mongolia in the emergence of the 1st Hun Khaganate. Next we've the Blue TurK Uighur period during which that Chandman ancestry which started declining in late Hun period now vanishes
Here we see the 4th IE invasion of the East in the form of the Iranian Alani (blue). Finally we come to the Khitan and Chingizid Mongols where the East Asian Han like component becomes widespread & the Alan ancestry persists. This establishes beyond doubt the links the Mongolic
some Turkic people had with the steppe Iranians and earlier probably even with Sintashta Indo-Aryans. The admixture with BMAC seen here but not among Indians suggests that the invasion of India was swift& that group did not linger on with BMAC but cut through them to reach India
This explains somethings we have been talking about for years. The influences on the Mongol religion from the Indo-Iranian tradition are accompanied by genetic influences. However, what is interesting is that the Sarmatian&BMAC ancestry are purged by the time of Chingizid Mongols
This suggest that indeed the Mongol sweep happened from the East from a group which lacked that ancestry entirely & that Khitan and Mongol were indeed ethnically close.
1 further point of interest: Mongols lacked lactose tolerance via lactase persistence. This data shows that they have been like that since the earliest records of them consuming airag in early Iron age. It is suspected they do it aided by actinobacterium called Bifidobacterium

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