OberOst was a crazy place. ImageImageImage
I thought this was interesting. The genesis of Lithuanian Forrest Brothers and partisan warfare in the WW1 PoW-refugee situation. The attacks on rural German patrols don’t create dedicated anti-partisan units, but I would wager there were many notes taken during this period. ImageImage
The Germans gave up on annexing Lithuania as a practical diplomatic move. The principle of self determination could create a officially independent Lithuanian state, under a locally created administrative body. Such a state could also prevent a larger Poland. ImageImage
Unfortunately for the Taryba’s legitimacy, while it had forced the Germans to recognize its authority in an independent Lithuanian, the election of “Mindaugas II” to the kingship was not a popular move.

Lol at Erzberger supporting it to spite Ludendorff. Image
The Postwar German outlook was shocking to the Lithuanians. Image
The Lithuanian government had to fight for the loyalty of the minority populations. The Poles had already become hostile, the Belarusians had a independent state too. However they were able to recruit/conscript on the Zionist side of the Zionist-Bundist split. Image
The Lith Army at this stage was still too small to defend against the Red Guard. After the November Revolution in Germany, the 10th and 8th Armies of OberOst were demoralized and unorganized, even the Poles attacked them in Vilnius, though this only handed the city to the Reds. ImageImage
The Germans, however, were not going to give up. They demobilized the most unreliable units, and sent in the Saxon volunteers with the Entente’s blessing. Germany also started sending weapons and money. Image
There is a marked difference between the Lithuanian assessment of the Baltic Freikorps and the Latvians/Estonians. Balkelis has written the most positive non German assessment I’ve read thus far. Admitting the critical military role of the German units at this juncture. Image
There were three Leftist governments in Lithuania from the German Regular Army retreat to the Freikorps and Lithuanian Nationalist counterattack. Two of them were hostile to the third Bolshevik Lithuanian Soviet Republic. The Vilna Soviet & Žemaitija Committee had 2be suppressed ImageImage
The Lithuanian Soviet Republic was announced in Moscow before Lithuania, because it was entirely the creation of the Nationalities Commissar. Stalin didn’t care that the Luxembourgists were opposed to nationstates. National “determination” was internationally legitimizing 2 USSR ImageImage

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More from @Irkutyanin1

11 Oct
If you can endure the grave insults to Lithuania, I have to agree on what I’ve heard so far, I should have looked at this after reading God’s Playground and the Isles, since Davies’ ideas of state and national perishability are further fleshed out in VK’s intro. ImageImage
Davies is very pessimistic on the mid term future of the UK in “The Isles” seeing much of what created the Union as eroded. But you can see where he is coming from with his extensive quoting of Hugh Trevor-Roper

The Intro and Visgothic France have both been good. Image
But I think his history of the Strathclyde or Dumbarton Rock kingdom is the best prose history that’s been written of the area in English. If it is not, it is still very worth the read/listen. And makes me wish his Isles had been a multivolume done in this style. ImageImageImageImage
Read 5 tweets
7 Sep
This is an excellent guide and overview to how the British Foreign Office saw the World War and Ottoman question, and a great study to see the course of development of policy in real time as opposed to reading intentions backwards.
The ministry drove pulled defeat from the jaws of postwar global US-UK confrontation. Policies towards all War belligerents and allies changed on the closest expediency in the Loyd George government, which continued to play and counterplay itself.
The Late War and Peace chapters have some must read material on the maze of policies and counter polices Lloyd George’s Cabinet thought up or attempted to realize in order for Britain to not lose the war to any of its allies or belligerents.
Read 5 tweets
7 Jun
Hand drawn maps by a grad student from the 1950’s 👍
It’s funny that almost none of those names in these maps exist anymore.
Tilsit-Sovetsk in modern day Kaliningrad Oblast. This was where Tsar Alexander signed a peace with Napoleon after the fighting in Poland in 1807.
Read 5 tweets
20 Dec 20
For Kolchak, there was immense pressure on him from the beginning to justify and obtain recognition of his government. He was fighting the Americans and London on this though he had partisans with him. In addition, his domestic legitimacy was tied to the Siberian war effort.
He assumed, that if he could reach the Volga, he could link up with dissatisfied elements of Samara, Tambov, and Kazan governates just like the Czechoslovaks did. He also thought that the Northern axis of Allied forces would divert still more forces away from Siberia or push.
Ironside’s men did not go down the Dvina far enough to affect a rail link with Kolchak that was planned before hand, and the Red Armies, more professional than early 1918 with mass officer reconscription, wasn’t going to make the same mistakes of 1918 especially now.
Read 6 tweets
20 Dec 20
One thing I tried to get across talking about Woodrow Wilson was that, in spite of everything else you may personally hate about him, and there is a lot, his image of the all powerful executive and the reconciliation history he presents in History of American People was
the closest to an ideology and historiography of American Caesarism forging post Civil War regional and ethnic groups into consolidation into all-American nation. Both FDR and Huey Long ultimately worked within the domestic framework of ending legislative and court government.
Unfortunately, it was the Wilson’s Internationalists with a Messianic vision who won. They would use this vision of world governing progressive institutions to expand control and subvert nations it had decided to more extensively satellite. This was their take away from 1919
Read 13 tweets

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