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On Heroism

In greek, it is linked to many words & concepts. If we had to pick one:

Ἀνδρῶν γὰρ ἐπιφανῶν πᾶσα γῆ τάφος
[For] glorious men, all land [is a] grave.

Heroism, in theory, readiness to die & ignore material possessions [Graeco-Christian conjunction → Saint]
The Hollywood depiction of heroes ("This is Sparta!" kind of cr*p) resembles a primitive barbarian glorification of warlords, typical in myths of other cultures.

Homer introduced something radical new: a sensitive hero, w/ fears, debates, pays for his hubris (sins).

Not this:
So, in Iliad, one could argue that the alpha-male is Agamemnon, not Achilles. Agamemnon exercises the power to enforce his will over Achilles who is, effectively, humiliated inside the greek camp, even if Achilles was physically & objectively a better fighter.
The 1st divine appearance in Illiad is Athena whispering to the semi-god Achilles to NOT draw his sword against Agamemnon, and NOT take personal revenge, to submit himself patiently to the humiliation. He should obey to the divine, to receive the "gifts". Similar phrasing in NT.
Many still don't get this: the belief that heroes are masters of their fate (by gaining power or gold) was considered naive primitive materialism of barbarians.

Note: materialist dogma Juche in N. Korea postulates that "man is the master of his destiny".

Connect the dots.
The second aspect of greek heroism: survival & #SITG is NOT about the "survival of the hero" but the "survival of the system" under circumstances that a single hero couldn't fully control. The synonym of coward was ριψασπις (who tossed away his shield in the battle).
And the question is why tossing away one's shield was humiliating in the battle? Why not dropping the sword? Or the helmet? The shield protected collectively the phalanx. By tossing the shield you risk the lives of your fellow soldiers. You risk the system.
Also, the most famous quotes on heroism are typically in plural, not in singular. About heroic men not "man". Again, part of collectivist (systemic) nature of heroism that is sceptical against single glorified warlords or authorities. Hollywood-style cowboys ended-up ostracised.
Interesting point: the term "collective conscience", was coined by the fr sociologist E. Durkheim, to explain the moral attitudes which operate as a unifying force within ancient societies. He named it "mechanic solidarity" (where collective conscience was extensive and strong).
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