#Dalmatia through history.
Part II: How Dalmatia became #Croatia

In Part I (👇🏿) you could find out how the term Dalmatia originated and what it represented at the time of its origin (after 9 AD).

Now let's move on further.⬇️
The province of Dalmatia was large. It included the territories of modern states:
- Croatia
- Bosnia and Herzegovina (without Sava valley)
- Montenegro and
- (western) Serbia.

Well, how did we come from THAT Dalmatia to what we know today under the term Dalmatia? ⬇️ Image
The Romans ruled this area continuously for 411 years (until 480).

In those 400 years or so, there have been several territorial reorganizations and changes in borders, we have no room to list them all. But one was crucial... ⬇️ Image
In 395 the Roman Empire was divided into 2 parts.

1⃣ Western Roman Empire with capital in Rome.
2⃣ Eastern Roman Empire with capital in Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey).

The reshaped Dalmatia (up to the Drina River) belonged to the Western Roman Empire. ⬇️ ImageImage
AD 476 the Germans invaded and conquered Rome, formally ending the Western Roman Empire.

This is not the end of the Roman Empire itself; it survived until 1453 with its center in Constantinople.

You all know that, don't you?
I bet less of you know the following fact ⬇️ Image
With fall of Rome, Dalmatia remained the only remaining independent relic of Western Roman Empire.

Its provincial ruler Julius Nepos was recognized by the emperor of Constantinople as the Western Roman emperor, so Western Roman Empire actually collapsed in 480 because... ⬇️ Image
The Germans of king Odoacer conquered Dalmatia in 480, and then (also the Germans) the Ostrogoths of King Theodoric in 490.

It remained under the rule of Germans until 535. ⬇️ ImageImage
It took the Roman Empire some 50-60 years to consolidate.

Emperor Justinian I (527-567) led in 535 the war against the Goths and by the end of his reign Empire managed to return part of the lost possessions in the west, including Dalmatia.⬇️ ImageImageImage
But the Empire could not sustain that range for long.

Pressed in the far east by the Persians, the Romans could no longer control the tectonics caused by the migration of peoples.

Towards the end of 6th century Dalmatia as an administrative-political creation began to collapse. Image
The area of ​​Dalmatia began to be uncontrollably inhabited by Slavs.

The Roman population retreated to the coast.

When the immigration process was completed (beginning of 7th century), most of the province of Dalmatia was lost forever. ⬇️ ImageImage
All that remained under Roman rule were the Adriatic islands of Krk, Rab, Cres and Lošinj, a few old (Zadar, Trogir, Kotor) and several new (Split, Ragusa) towns on the coast.

THAT was Dalmatia.

Because it recognized Constantinople, historians called it Byzantine Dalmatia. ⬇️ Image
Then the Franks appeared on the scene.

They were a German tribe that with a slight continuous growth until the end of 8th century became the most powerful kingdom of (and not only) Western Europe.⬇️ Image
Under King Charlemagne (784-814) they conquered almost entire Apennines with Rome.

The Pope crowned him on Christmas Day of 800 as Western Roman emperor.

The Roman emperors in Constantinople did not recognize this title/coronation. In their eyes he was an usurper. ⬇️ Image
As a Roman emperor, Charlemagne wanted to restore power on the whole territory of Western Roman Empire.

Istria was conquered in 788, ex. Dalmatia and Pannonia in 803.

When they subjected Venice and (Byzantine) Dalmatia to their rule (806), a war broke out between two empires.⬇️ Image
The war ended in 812 with signing truce in Aachen.

The Roman emperor of Constantinople recognized Charlemagne the title of Western Roman emperor, and the Franks renounced their authority over Venice and (Byzantine) Dalmatia.

The harmony of East and West has been re-established. ImageImage
Unfortunately, we cannot determine the extent to which the Franks managed to restore power in the mainland of ex. Dalmatia.

According to the material remains, it was roughly to the rivers Vrbas and Neretva and in the coastal belt to the Bay of Kotor. ⬇️ Image
What we do know is that ex. Dalmatia was not directly attached to the Frankish Empire, but was ruled by federates - vassal princes.

In ex. Dalmatia these federates were Croats.

The first known vassal prince was Borna (818-820) as the prince of Dalmatia and Liburnia.⬇️ Image
After Vladislav (821) and Mislav (839), Trpimir the prince of the Croats (840) appeared in the same area.

After Domagoj (864), Zdeslav (878), Branimir (879) and Muncimir (892), Tomislav (914) appeared, to whom the pope in a letter from 925 addresses as the king of the Croats.⬇️ Image
This means that in the hinterland of Byzantine Dalmatia Croatian medieval principality was formed, which by the end of the 9th/beginning of 10th ctry was transformed into a kingdom that the Roman emperor Porphyrogenitus called White Croatia (950 AD), listing its 141 counties.⬇️ Image
In the territory of ex. province of Dalmatia, in addition to Croatia, smaller political formations (so-called Sclavinias) were formed, mostly under the rule of the Roman Empire:
- Pagania (Neretva principality)
- Chelmia
- Travunia
- Diocla,
- Bosnia
- Raška (Serbia) ImageImageImage
Those few towns on the coast and islands that were called Dalmatia from the 7th century were part of the Roman Empire, but occasionally Croatian rulers in the hinterland and occasionally Venice ruled over it IN THE NAME OF THE ROMAN EMPEROR.⬇️
Natural integration process of Dalmatia and geographical, cultural, religious and ethnically identical Croatia after 300 yrs was formally finished in 1075 with coronation of King Zvonimir.
They were politically united into one KINGDOM OF CROATIA AND DALMATIA. ImageImage

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More from @Antimon_Zg

14 Apr
Dalmatia through history.
Part III:

In previous 2 threads you could have read:
1) about the therm Dalmatia and what it meant in the time of creation
2) what was left of her after crash of Roman authority and arrival of Slavs

In this "sequel" we will see how Dalmatia, from the scattered cities and islands, has become what we consider Dalmatia today.

I will also explain where the historical pretensions of the Italians to Dalmatia came from.

Let's go in order.
Everything we do and don't know about Dalmatia in the period of 2 centuries after the arrival of the Slavs, ie the end of organized Roman rule and written news about the events in it can be underlined and summarized by the provisions of the Peace treaty in Aachen, signed in 812. ImageImage
Read 51 tweets
13 Apr
Malo o @Electrolux Hrvatska.

Možda ja krivo razmišljam, ali svejedno sam razočaran pa da se pojadam...

Od kad sredismo svoju gajbu, a ima tome više od desetljeća, skoro svi aparati u kući su Electrolux...
1. Indukcijska ploča Zanussi (isto njihova), zamijenjena nakon 12 godina
novom Electrolux
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I u svakoj kategoriji top uređaj.
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I pazi sad...
Sušilica rublja (ca. 5,5 THRK) rikne joj automatika točno nakon isteka 5 godina garancije.

Popravak 1800 kn.

Razmišljam neisplativo. Pa novi uređaji srednje njihove klase koštaju 3-3,5 THRK i imaju novih 5 godina garancije. Ovdje si opet na vjetrometini.

I odlučim im pisati.
Read 6 tweets
13 Apr
Ajmo Bayern... Image
Ove polušanse moraju se počet i zabijati... Image
Ili ovakve.. Image
Read 4 tweets
13 Apr
On April 13, 1221 pope Honorius III wrote to citizens of #Split inviting them to fight against pirates of #Omiš and that he sends them his legate Akoncius as suport in organisation of fight vs. pirates and heretics.
⬇️ Image
#Omiš then was managad by count Malduk and bis brothers, members of noble family #Kačić, one of 12 legendary Croatian noble families.

Citizens of Omiš had centuries long tradition of piracy and in those times it was not only local problem.
⬇️ ImageImage
Before that they plundered some Crusaders carrying supplies for Middle East and that caused fierce reaction from all sides.

Border of #Omiš county towards #Split and #Klis county was river #Žrnovnica then (m.d. city of Stobreč).
⬇️ Image
Read 5 tweets
12 Apr
On April 12, 1304 we have recorded presence of Mathew (emissary of Serbian king Stephen Uroš II Milutin) in #Dubrovnik passing by on a meeting with ban of #Croatia and #Bosnia and master of #Hum Paul I of family #Šubić for the interests of his realm ("na rabotu kraljevstva mi"). Image
Earlier that same month king Milutin wrote to Dubrovnik asking them to prepare a vessel for his emissary and to transport him to the city of #Skradin, where the seat of ban Paul was.
So, we know for a fact that there was a meeting between Croatian ban Paul and emissary of Serbian king Milutin at that time.

Unfortunately, sources don't discover us their true reason and subject.
Read 6 tweets
15 Dec 20
Dalmatia through history.
Part I: The Name

The name Dalmatia is today well known throughout the Globe. Average European knows for sure it is southern part of Croatia, a little less average don't know that „Croatian part“ but relate it as tourist brand and destination.⬇️ Dalmatia region and its cou...
Throughout the globe the term Dalmatia is recognized by one sort of dogs, a Dalmatian, which originates from it.

Walt Disney made this enormous free advertisement so even an average American at least heard of it.⬇️ ImageImageImageImage
Dalmatia indeed is a most southern and most beautiful region of Croatia with rich historical and cultural heritage.

In this thread you will read few interesting informations from the past of Dalmatia, maybe unknown to you. ⬇️
Read 17 tweets

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