VO2max, or total aerobic power, is tightly correlated to blood volume and total hemoglobin.

journals.lww.com/acsm-essr/full… Image
When untrained men trained for 6 weeks, VO2max and peak cardiac output increased, but the increase was abolished by calibrated phlebotomy to bring their blood volume back to baseline.

Why does this matter? Because continuous aerobic training is not some kind of super-special training modality.

Any exercise that causes sufficient muscular work will increase VO2max.
Both continuous and interval training increased VO2max and blood volume similarly, and these two measures were correlated.

When elite-level cyclists added strength training to their routine, their endurance went up.

Shows that resistance training can improve endurance even among those already highly trained.

High-intensity interval training appears to result in GREATER improvements in VO2max, compared to continuous endurance training.

"skeletal muscle adaptations, cellular stress and the resultant metabolic signals for mitochondrial biogenesis depend largely on exercise intensity"


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More from @Mangan150

20 May
Oxidative stress, or an imbalance between free radicals and endogenous (self-made) antioxidants, increases in aging.

It leads to constant, low-level insulin receptor activation and failure to activate autophagy.
Fortunately, there's a way to fix this: exercise.

One of the most important ways in which exercise improves health is by increasing endogenous antioxidant production.

Exercise is a stress which the body recognizes by increasing its stress defenses.

Older people have an attenuated antioxidant response to an acute bout of exercise, compared to young people.

But regular training can overcome this. sciencedirect.com/science/articl…
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20 May
Hormesis, the process in which stressors such as exercise or sun exposure result in better health, points to a larger principle:

excessive comfort is bad for you.

In the modern era, you need to seek out discomfort.
Insulating ourselves from natural rhythms is one of the main factors behind the diabesity epidemic.

Rhythms like:


We're basically attempting to be comfortable all the time.

Too much comfort = disease.
The problem with the modern world in terms of health is that we humans *like* being lazy, we *like" energy-dense foods with sugar and carbs and fat.

We *like* sitting on our backsides.

We've evolved to like those things.

And the modern world has stepped up to provide them.
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16 May
Zinc supplementation hugely reduces infection rates in the elderly.

But, is this from correcting a poor diet, or offsetting aging, or both?
As we age, our thymus gland, which is critical to immunity, shrinks dramatically.

But in old mice, zinc supplementation can regrow the thymus, with a full recovery of thymus function.

This could be why zinc helps human immunity in the elderly. sciencedirect.com/science/articl…
A number of different experimental treatments that regrow the thymus are all thought to involve zinc.

So it would appear that zinc supplementation as you get older could help maintain immune function and resistance to infections and cancer.

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14 May
Blood clotting and long, healthy life.

A loss-of-function mutation in the gene that encodes for PAI-1 is associated with lower fasting insulin, and...

7 years longer lifespan - huge.

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PAI-1 is plasminogen activator inhibitor, and increased levels mean less fibrinolysis, and a tendency for blood to remain clotted.

Increased PAI-1 is associated with obesity, particularly visceral fat.

Patients with peripheral arterial disease have higher PAI-1, and exercise training significantly reduces it.

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3 May
Do you want to lose 15, 20, or even 30 pounds in the next 90 days?

And keep it off forever?

I’ve got something for you

You see, there’s a lot of advice out there about getting lean

A lot of it "works", per se

The problem is...
Almost every “hack” or strategy you hear about is either

*complicated and time consuming, and so not designed for your real life

*unsustainable, such as leaving you hungry or requiring you to exercise for hours and hours a week
After coaching hundreds of people 1-on-1

I’ve refined my system so it’s at the intersection of


Plus, everything I do is personalized to your schedule, your lifestyle and your taste buds
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1 May
Iron depletion by phlebotomy (bloodletting) improves insulin sensitivity in patients with fatty liver.
Why does that matter? Iron consumption in U.S. diets has increased by ~50% since 1979.

The largest source of iron is grains, because flour is enriched with iron.

Metformin may improve insulin sensitivity in part through reduction in body iron stores. eje.bioscientifica.com/view/journals/…
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