Antibiotics are often given to cows by farmers to promote weight gain, as they rely on gut bacteria to clear carbs before absorption

We know antibiotic use has some association with low microbiome diversity in humans, could this contribute to obesity?
The caveat here is that ruminants rely on bacteria for digestion much more heavily than humans, getting most of their calories from short-chain fatty acids fermented from fiber in their stomachs

However, the link between antibiotic use and obesity does seem to carry over
This study found more than 1 antibiotic treatment in the first year or two of a child's life associated with higher obesity risk
These studies explore potential mechanisms through which this effect may occur
I'm not against antibiotics in principle, but they are certainly over-prescribed in some contexts

This association needs to be explored further, especially to find ways to mitigate risk if antibiotics needs to be deployed for serious or life-threatening infection
Our understanding of viral and bacterial symbiosis within the human body is still in its infancy

Do not underestimate the consequences of poor microbiome health

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More from @ck_eternity_

7 Jun

The last few months I've been researching cholesterol and heart disease extensively, including interviewing various experts in the field, in this thread I'll be summarizing my findings and opinions

Before I begin, I want to make it clear that I'm not here to debate anyone

This is a controversial subject in many ways, but I've approached this with an open mind and will be including studies to support my positions

If you disagree with me, that's fine, to each their own
I also will not be speaking on heart disease medications like statins

I think there are pros and cons of any drug/medication, and at this point I have not researched these drugs in enough depth to put out an opinion on their use

Now without further ado, let's jump right in
Read 42 tweets
6 Jun
Many people are aware that bacteria in the gut produce neurotransmitters like serotonin, which allow them to indirectly influence the nervous system

What's rarely discussed however is the fact that many bacteria also release free glutamate
Notably the bacteria responsible for gingivitis and periodontal disease can increase glutamate activity, they thrive on processed sugar consumption

In some cases this increase in glutamate signalling is indirect as a result of the release of endotoxins like LPS
LPS activates the TLR4 receptor in glial cells

TLR4 receptors mediate pain sensing and neuroinflammation through increased glutamate signalling and cytokine release
Read 4 tweets
4 Jun
There's a big difference between a cold-pressed seed oil and a seed oil that's been in a restaurant fryer for a week

PUFA degradation into toxic aldehydes usually requires 1-2+ hours (depending on temperature), and the fats themselves aren't inherently inflammatory
This means that you shouldn't use these oils for long periods of time, or at least opt for more saturated oils if you do

Studies on oxidation of plant-based oils rank olive oil as having the least potential for oxidation, with coconut, palm, and avocado oil ranking high as well
If you're going to use other seed oils, I'd opt for cold-pressed rather than solvent extracted

Avoid hydrogenated oils/spreads as their processing creates trans fats which are associated with cardiovascular inflammation (if you use any opt for emulsified)
Read 7 tweets
24 May
Soda is designed to make you as addicted as possible
If we compare the composition of a standard bottle of coke since its creation, bottle size, salt content, sugar content, and caffeine content have all increased

You have a combination of multiple factors that promote thirst/dehydration, and sugar
Caffeine is included as the most widely consumed stimulant on earth, playing into the fact that the majority of adults are physically dependent on it

The combination of sugar and carbonation creates an extremely pleasurable mouth feel that further reinforces consumption
Read 5 tweets
24 May
Adult men should ideally donate blood at least 4 times per year

For pre-menopausal adult women twice per year is usually sufficient, though this can be increased to 4 as well post menopause
Donating blood clears excess unbound iron and oxidized hemoglobin, and stimulates the process of hematopoiesis (the creation of new red blood cells)
Pathological Roles of Iron in Cardiovascular Disease
Read 5 tweets
22 May
Androgens create agression by downregulating inhibitory serotonin receptors

Since serotonin is one of the cornerstones of neurogenesis in the brain, this reduces neuroplasticity, and with certain overly potent steroids even becomes neurotoxic
This is balanced out by estrogen, which has a protective effect on the brain and maintains a good level of serotonin signalling

"Roid rage" is actually caused by excess androgen activation overstimulating adrenaline, without enough estrogen and serotonin to keep things balanced
The research we have on testosterone actually suggested it's not really inherently agressive

In some studies men with higher testosterone handle threats more harshly, but they also work well with others, and give out more generous rewards for others' acheivements
Read 8 tweets

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