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26 Oct, 6 tweets, 2 min read
If we look at the structure of cytochrome C oxidase, the rate limiting protein in energy production in mitochondria, it becomes obvious why light is so important

The heme and copper cores act as chromophores absorbing light and using it to excite electron transfer
If we compare the structure of chlorophyll (left) with hemoglobin (right) there is a distinct similarity

Both contain similar structures that harness light to drive redox reactions, this works via the photoelectric effect where the energy of light is transferred into electrons
Cytochrome C oxidase is the last protein in the electron transport chain, which operates by using a current of electrons to drive ATP production

It's absorption peaks in the 630-670nm range, red light, which is the part of the spectrum that penetrates the farthest into the body
This plays out in real life, with studies on mitochondria both in vitro and in vivo showing increases in ATP in response to red/infrared light
Blue light actually has the opposite effect, suppressing ATP production and increasing free radical generation

In sunlight, red and infrared light counteract this and provide benefit, whereas artificial light contributes to cell stress and aging
Light governs all aspects of biology, either directly or indirectly

This is why optimizing your light environment and circadian rhythm is crucial for maintaining health

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More from @ck_eternity_

25 Oct
It's important to note that with ideal digestion you only absorb something like 60% of the B12 RDI per servings

So for resolving deficiency, sublingual B12 may be necessary, and for maintenance 2-3 meals containing B12 are necessary to prevent deficiency
With bowel inflammation disorders like IBS, B12 absorption is even more impaired

It's also usually necessary to include a combination of oral methylfolate with sublingual B12 to avoid the methyl trap, especially with high doses
For sublingual B12 either the activated methylcobalamin or a combination of the methylated form with adenosylcobalamin works best

Methyl-B12 drives methylation, while adenosyl-B12 is used primarily in mitochondria
Read 4 tweets
15 Oct
Parvalbumin may be another reason for the added benefits from eating whole seafood rather than fish oil

It is produced endogenously, and plays a role in photoreceptor activity, neurogenesis, muscle contraction, memory formation, stress response, and neuroprotection
It does seem to be at least somewhat orally absorbed since it is one of the mediators of fish allergy (but not shellfish)

As long as you're not allergic to seafood however it may still be absorbed but instead may be redistributed into various tissues
Most parvalbumin is likely broken down into amino acids during digestion, similar to what occurs when you take a collagen supplement, but the benefit may be more in providing higher amounts of the same amino acids used specifically for parvalbumin synthesis
Read 5 tweets
11 Oct
When megadoses of vitamin D supplements are taken orally, the body may actually shunt conversion away from the active form of vitamin D (1,25D), instead increasing production of its analogs in the epi-25D pathway
These analogs are significantly less calcemic, so this shunt may be used to minimize increases in serum calcium seen with excess vitamin D

Unfortunately this pathway has not been studied in humans, but we see this consistently in studies in rodents with supplemental vitamin D
Infants also demonstrate a higher ratio of epi-25D to 1,25D and 25D (aka D3), perhaps to preserve calcium in the skeletal system as much as possible during early development
Read 8 tweets
11 Oct
Bowel flush from high doses of magnesium is caused by excess of it reaching the large intestine/colon

Magnesium is hydroscopic, so it draws water more than other minerals, and past the small intestine there is almost no ability to absorb it so it pulls water into the bowel
The flush reaction is directly proportionate to the unabsorbed magnesium fraction

This also plays a role in why forms that are less soluble in water like magnesium hydroxide, citrate, or oxide, are the most laxative as they are the least well-absorbed
The solution to minimize flush is to opt for more soluble forms like magnesium chloride, and to space out intake as much as possible throughout the day

I like to fill a liter jar with water and add 1-2tsp mag chloride to gradually drink, start small (~0.5 tsp) and taper up
Read 4 tweets
11 Oct
The idea that free radicals = bad and antioxidants = good is a major oversimplification

When we talk about redox state it's not just about maintaining as little oxidation as possible, but rather keeping an appropriate balance in place between reduction and oxidation

Chemistry 101:

Put simply, oxidation refers to any chemical reaction involving the loss of an electron, when something is oxidized it just means that one of its electrons is transferred to another molecule
Reduction is the inverse of this, a molecule or atom gaining an electron from another molecule or atom

As you can see, it's impossible for reduction to occur without oxidation, and vice versa, hence the shorthand "redox" refers to this category of reactions
Read 16 tweets
9 Oct
The idea of a "debate" around CICO is pretty ridiculous, in the sense that the role that thermodynamics plays in metabolism is well-established and agreed on by everyone

What we're actually seeing is a shift in emphasis away from calories in and more towards calories out
What I mean by this is that more and more nutritionists seems to be recognizing the error in the initial premise of the amount of calories eaten being the only significant factor in weight gain/loss

This is obvious in cases like hypothyroidism, etc, where metabolism is impaired
This isn't a new idea or mutually exclusive with CICO, just a shift in emphasis from one side of the equation to the other

I think most everyone would agree that the amount of food you eat matters, but also that lack of exercise, hormone imbalance, etc, can impair weight loss
Read 8 tweets

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