CK Profile picture
16 Nov, 4 tweets, 1 min read
Niacin deficieny causes tryptophan to be funneled away from serotonin production into endogenous niacin production

Some of the intermediates in the conversion are neurotoxic, especially quinolinic acid which imitates excess glutamate Image
This is often implicated in schizophrenia pathology

These intermediates are created due to lack of niacin stemming from dietary deficiency or higher demand to drive essential reactions like NAD+ creations
Reducing the formation of quinolinic and kynurenic acids is also one of the mechanisms through which niacin supplementation significantly improves some cases of schizophrenia

This seems to be especially useful in cases of overmethylation
For undermethylated individuals niacin may make symptoms worse via methyl depletion from the liver

This "individual specific" effect is one of the primary reasons why blanket nutrition therapies often don't work for mental illness in an study setting as was seen with niacin

• • •

Missing some Tweet in this thread? You can try to force a refresh

Keep Current with CK

CK Profile picture

Stay in touch and get notified when new unrolls are available from this author!

Read all threads

This Thread may be Removed Anytime!


Twitter may remove this content at anytime! Save it as PDF for later use!

Try unrolling a thread yourself!

how to unroll video
  1. Follow @ThreadReaderApp to mention us!

  2. From a Twitter thread mention us with a keyword "unroll"
@threadreaderapp unroll

Practice here first or read more on our help page!

More from @ck_eternity_

16 Nov
Normally in undermethylation we see decreased levels of serotonin and dopamine activity at their receptors, since higher levels of DNA methylation can inhibit the reuptake of these neurotransmitters

This "mimics" the effects of SSRIs and DRIs to some extent

However this can also be paired with more adrenaline and noradrenaline through a separate mechanism, where methyl groups are required to metabolize adrenaline

Because of this when methyl groups are depleted we see lower levels of metanephrine, an adrenaline metabolite
One of the main causes of niacin toxicity is the depletion of methyl groups, since niacin forms methyl-nicotinamide in the liver

This is paired with more adrenaline/noradrenaline, less betaine (a methyl donor in the liver), and high levels of homocysteine…
Read 13 tweets
26 Oct
If we look at the structure of cytochrome C oxidase, the rate limiting protein in energy production in mitochondria, it becomes obvious why light is so important

The heme and copper cores act as chromophores absorbing light and using it to excite electron transfer
If we compare the structure of chlorophyll (left) with hemoglobin (right) there is a distinct similarity

Both contain similar structures that harness light to drive redox reactions, this works via the photoelectric effect where the energy of light is transferred into electrons
Cytochrome C oxidase is the last protein in the electron transport chain, which operates by using a current of electrons to drive ATP production

It's absorption peaks in the 630-670nm range, red light, which is the part of the spectrum that penetrates the farthest into the body
Read 6 tweets
25 Oct
It's important to note that with ideal digestion you only absorb something like 60% of the B12 RDI per servings

So for resolving deficiency, sublingual B12 may be necessary, and for maintenance 2-3 meals containing B12 are necessary to prevent deficiency
With bowel inflammation disorders like IBS, B12 absorption is even more impaired

It's also usually necessary to include a combination of oral methylfolate with sublingual B12 to avoid the methyl trap, especially with high doses
For sublingual B12 either the activated methylcobalamin or a combination of the methylated form with adenosylcobalamin works best

Methyl-B12 drives methylation, while adenosyl-B12 is used primarily in mitochondria
Read 4 tweets
15 Oct
Parvalbumin may be another reason for the added benefits from eating whole seafood rather than fish oil

It is produced endogenously, and plays a role in photoreceptor activity, neurogenesis, muscle contraction, memory formation, stress response, and neuroprotection
It does seem to be at least somewhat orally absorbed since it is one of the mediators of fish allergy (but not shellfish)

As long as you're not allergic to seafood however it may still be absorbed but instead may be redistributed into various tissues
Most parvalbumin is likely broken down into amino acids during digestion, similar to what occurs when you take a collagen supplement, but the benefit may be more in providing higher amounts of the same amino acids used specifically for parvalbumin synthesis
Read 5 tweets
11 Oct
When megadoses of vitamin D supplements are taken orally, the body may actually shunt conversion away from the active form of vitamin D (1,25D), instead increasing production of its analogs in the epi-25D pathway
These analogs are significantly less calcemic, so this shunt may be used to minimize increases in serum calcium seen with excess vitamin D

Unfortunately this pathway has not been studied in humans, but we see this consistently in studies in rodents with supplemental vitamin D
Infants also demonstrate a higher ratio of epi-25D to 1,25D and 25D (aka D3), perhaps to preserve calcium in the skeletal system as much as possible during early development
Read 8 tweets
11 Oct
Bowel flush from high doses of magnesium is caused by excess of it reaching the large intestine/colon

Magnesium is hydroscopic, so it draws water more than other minerals, and past the small intestine there is almost no ability to absorb it so it pulls water into the bowel
The flush reaction is directly proportionate to the unabsorbed magnesium fraction

This also plays a role in why forms that are less soluble in water like magnesium hydroxide, citrate, or oxide, are the most laxative as they are the least well-absorbed
The solution to minimize flush is to opt for more soluble forms like magnesium chloride, and to space out intake as much as possible throughout the day

I like to fill a liter jar with water and add 1-2tsp mag chloride to gradually drink, start small (~0.5 tsp) and taper up
Read 4 tweets

Did Thread Reader help you today?

Support us! We are indie developers!

This site is made by just two indie developers on a laptop doing marketing, support and development! Read more about the story.

Become a Premium Member ($3/month or $30/year) and get exclusive features!

Become Premium

Too expensive? Make a small donation by buying us coffee ($5) or help with server cost ($10)

Donate via Paypal

Thank you for your support!

Follow Us on Twitter!