Wellcome Sanger Institute - Wikipedia

The Wellcome Sanger Institute, previously known as The Sanger Centre and Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, is a non-profit British genomics and genetics research institute, primarily funded by the Wellcome Trust. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wellcome_…
It is located on the Wellcome Genome Campus by the village of Hinxton, outside Cambridge. It shares this location with the European Bioinformatics Institute. It was established in 1992 and named after double Nobel Laureate Frederick Sanger. It was conceived as a large scale DNA
sequencing centre to participate in the Human Genome Project, and went on to make the largest single contribution to the gold standard sequence of the human genome.

Frederick Sanger OM CH CBE FRS FAA (/ˈsæŋər/; 13 August 1918 – 19 November 2013) was an English biochemist who
twice won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

Sanger married Margaret Joan Howe (not to be confused with Margaret Sanger) in 1940.

In 1992, the Wellcome Trust and the Medical Research Council founded the Sanger Centre (now the Sanger Institute), named after him. The institute is on
the Wellcome Trust Genome Campus near Hinxton, only a few miles from Sanger's home. He agreed to having the Centre named after him when asked by John Sulston, the founding director, but warned, "It had better be good."

Sir John Edward Sulston CH FRS MAE (27 March 1942 – 6 March
2018) was a British biologist and academic who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on the cell lineage and genome of the worm Caenorhabditis elegans in 2002 with his colleagues Sydney Brenner and Robert Horvitz.

Between 1966 and 1969 he worked as a
postdoctoral researcher at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California. His academic advisor Colin Reese had arranged for him to work with Leslie Orgel, who would turn his scientific career onto a different pathway. Orgel introduced him to Francis Crick and
Sydney Brenner, who worked in Cambridge.

In 1998, the whole genome sequence was published in collaboration with the Genome Institute at Washington University in St. Louis, so that C. elegans became the first animal to have its complete genome sequenced.

As sequencing of the
worm genome proceeded, the Human Genome Project began. At this point he was made director of the newly established Sanger Centre (named after Fred Sanger), located in Cambridgeshire, England.

Sulston was in favour of free public access of scientific information. He wanted genome
information freely available, and he described as "totally immoral and disgusting" the idea of profiteering from such research. He also wanted to change patent law, and argued that restrictions on drugs such as the anti-viral drug Tamiflu by Roche are a hindrance to patients
whose lives are dependent on them.

Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) was discovered by scientists at Gilead Sciences using shikimic acid as a starting point for synthesis; shikimic acid was originally available only as an extract of Chinese star anise; but by 2006, 30% of the supply was
manufactured recombinantly in E. coli. Gilead exclusively licensed their relevant patents to Roche in 1996. The drug's patent has not been protected in Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, and several other countries.

In November 2005, US President George W. Bush requested
that Congress fund US$1 billion for the production and stockpile of oseltamivir, after Congress had already approved $1.8 billion for military use of the drug. Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, who was a past chairman of Gilead Sciences, recused himself from all government
decisions regarding the drug.

In 2009, a new A/H1N1 influenza virus was discovered to be spreading in North America. In June 2009, the WHO declared the A/H1N1 influenza a pandemic. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), the CDC, the WHO, and the ECDC
maintained their recommendation to use oseltamivir.

As of 8 April 2020, no evidence supports effectiveness in treating COVID-19.

In June 1987, Gilead Sciences was originally founded under the name Oligogen by Michael L. Riordan, a medical doctor. Riordan graduated from
Washington University in St. Louis, the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, and the Harvard Business School. Three scientific advisers worked with Riordan to create the company: Peter Dervan of Caltech, Doug Melton of Harvard, and Harold M. Weintraub of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer
Research Center. Riordan served as CEO from the company's founding until 1996.

Menlo Ventures, a venture capital firm where Riordan had previously worked, made the first investment in Gilead of $2 million.

Riordan recruited Donald Rumsfeld to join the board of directors in
1988, followed by Benno C. Schmidt, Sr., Gordon Moore, and George P. Shultz.

Benno Charles Schmidt Sr. (January 10, 1913 – October 21, 1999) was an American lawyer and venture capitalist who was active in New York City civic affairs and played an important role in the
initiation of the War on Cancer.

In 1946 Benno became a partner in the business that Jock Whitney had proposed, venture capital firm J.H. Whitney & Company.

Whitney had been investing since the 1930s, founding Pioneer Pictures in 1933 and acquiring a 15% interest in Technicolor
Corporation with his cousin Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney. What is considered today to be true private equity investments began to emerge after World War II, marked by the founding of the first two venture capital firms in 1946: American Research and Development Corporation
and J.H. Whitney & Company.

American Research and Development Corporation (ARDC) was a venture capital and private equity firm founded in 1946 by Georges Doriot, Ralph Flanders, Merrill Griswold, and Karl Compton.

ARDC is credited with the first major venture capital success
story when its 1957 investment of $70,000 in equity ("70% of the company") and approximately $2 million in loans in Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) became valued at many times the amount invested after the company's success after its initial public offering in 1966.
Gordon Earle Moore (born January 3, 1929) is an American businessman, engineer, and the co-founder and chairman emeritus of Intel Corporation. Moore joined MIT and Caltech alumnus William Shockley at the Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory division of Beckman Instruments, but left
with the "traitorous eight," when Sherman Fairchild agreed to back them and created the influential Fairchild Semiconductor corporation.

In 2002, Moore and Conservation International senior vice president Claude Gascon received the Order of the Golden Ark from Prince Bernhard of
Lippe-Biesterfeld for their outstanding contributions to nature conservation.

From 1974 to 1982, George Pratt Schultz was an executive of the Bechtel Group, an engineering and services company. In the 2010s, Shultz was a prominent figure in the scandal of the biotech firm
Theranos, continuing to support it as a board member in the face of mounting evidence of fraud.
Schultz served as an informal advisor for Bush's presidential campaign during the 2000 election[45] and a senior member of the "Vulcans", a group of policy mentors for Bush that also
included Rice, Dick Cheney, and Paul Wolfowitz.

In later life, Shultz continued to be a strong advocate for nuclear arms control.

In January 2008, Shultz co-authored (with William Perry, Henry Kissinger, and Sam Nunn) an op-ed in The Wall Street Journal that called on
governments to embrace the vision of a world free of nuclear weapons. The four created the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) to advance this agenda, focused on both preventing nuclear terrorist attacks and a nuclear war between world powers.

Advisors to the NTI Board include:
•Warren Buffett, CEO of Berkshire Hathaway Inc.
•Dr. David A. Hamburg, President Emeritus of Carnegie Corporation of New York
•Siegfried S. Hecker, Director Emeritus of the Los Alamos National Laboratory
•Frederick Iseman, Chairman and Managing Partner of Caxton-
Iseman Capital Inc.

Margaret Ann "Peggy" Hamburg (born July 12, 1955, Chicago, Illinois)
became the founding Vice President for Biological Programs and later the Senior Scientist for the Nuclear Threat Initiative, a foundation dedicated to reducing the threat to public safety
from nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons.

Two months prior to the Covid-19 pandemic, Hamburg was member to a meeting titled "Universal Flu Vaccine" (dated October 29, 2019) with other government officials including Anthony Fauci, speaking about the need to "blow up the
system" in-order to bypass regulatory control on mRNA vaccines. Also discussed in the meeting, held at the Milken Institute School of Public Health, was the need to create an "aura of excitement" and "make influenza sexy" in order to revive government funding and have
hyper-production of the mRNA vaccines which she and others in the meeting believed were superior to "traditional egg-based vaccines".

Hamburg is married to Peter Fitzhugh Brown, a computer scientist and artificial intelligence expert. Brown is the chief executive officer of
Renaissance Technologies.

In November 2017, Robert Mercer announced he would step down from Renaissance Technologies and sell his stake in Breitbart News to his daughters. He was the majority owner of SCL Group a self-described "global elections management agency" before it was
dissolved in 2018.

Emerdata was noted as appearing to offer similar services as SCL Group and Cambridge Analytica.
Emerdata's board of directors included Frontier Services Group officer Johnson Chun Shun Ko, a Hong Kong businessman linked to Erik Prince (founder of Blackwater),
Cambridge Analytica investor Rebekah Mercer, and Cambridge Analytica CEO Alexander Nix.

CITIC is Frontier Services Group (FSG) largest shareholder. In 2019, FSG signed contracts to support China's One Belt and One Road initiative, including building a series of bases in China's
Xinjiang, where the internment camps of ethnic Uyghurs attracted widespread allegations of human rights abuse. Chinese Communist Party officials in Xinjiang reported that FSG's work would enhance the paramilitary Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps. FSG's CEO, Dongyi Hua,
was the key driver in investing the re-education camps.

The Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps was founded by Wang Zhen in 1954 on orders from Mao Zedong.

In September 1989, the Wall Street Journal's John Fialka disclosed that Kissinger took a direct economic interest
in US-China relations in March 1989 with the establishment of China Ventures, Inc., a Delaware limited partnership, of which he was chairman of the board and chief executive officer. A US$75 million investment in a joint venture with the Communist Party government's primary
commercial vehicle at the time, China International Trust & Investment Corporation (CITIC), was its purpose. Board members were major clients of Kissinger Associates. Kissinger was criticised for not disclosing his role in the venture when called upon by ABC's Peter Jennings to
comment the morning after the June 4, 1989, Tiananmen Square massacre. Kissinger's position was generally supportive of Deng Xiaoping's decision to use the military against the demonstrating students and he opposed economic sanctions.
On 9 January 2017 the consortium of CITIC Limited, private equity funds of CITIC Capital and Carlyle, bought 80% stake of the franchise rights of McDonald's in Hong Kong and mainland China.

State-owned conglomerate China CITIC Group has confirmed it is in talks to acquire assets
from CEFC China Energy, a formerly acquisitive private oil company recently brought to heel by Beijing.

CEFC was once seen as a new spearhead of China's strategy of acquiring overseas energy assets and looked to play a significant role in President Xi Jinping's Belt and Road
Initiative. The Shanghai-based company, founded by Ye Jianming in 2002, won concessions in countries including Kazakhstan, Qatar, Russia and Chad. Its dealmaking reached a pinnacle last September with an agreement to take a 14% stake in Russian state-owned oil company Rosneft for
$9.1 billion. The deal has yet to complete.

In the winter of 2015, Chairman Ye and CEFC Executive Director Jianjun Zang, a.k.a. “Director Zang,” flew to Washington, DC. A meeting with Ye was scheduled in Hunter’s diary for December 7, 2015, in a week that was a swirl of
back-to-back Christmas parties hosted by Joe and Jill at the vice president’s residence at the Naval Observatory.
One of his former associates, who spoke on condition of anonymity, believes that Hunter brought Chairman Ye to meet Joe at one of those parties. There is no
indication of any such meeting on the laptop, but Hunter had a pattern of introducing business associates to Joe when they came to DC.

Ye Jianming, chairman of Chinese energy conglomerate CEFC, gave Hunter Biden a 3.16-carat diamond estimated to be worth $80,000.
In February 2017, the Ukrainian oil and gas corporation Burisma announced the addition of Cofer Black to the company's board of directors, leading the company's security and strategic development efforts.

From 2005 to 2008 Black was Vice Chairman of Blackwater USA (later renamed
Blackwater Worldwide, then Xe, and finally Academi), a US-based private security firm which was "the biggest of the State Department's three private security contractors".

Black later served as Chairman of Total Intelligence Solutions (Total Intel), a private intelligence
gathering group. This company was created in February 2007 by the Prince Group, the holding company that owns Blackwater. Total Intel was formed by the merger of The Black Group LLC (also led by Black), Terrorism Research Center, Inc., and Technical Defense.

In June 1999
Director of Central Intelligence George Tenet named Black director of the CIA's Counterterrorist Center (CTC).

Tenet also put "Richard," one of his own assistants, in charge of the CTC's bin Laden tracking unit. Black still headed the CTC at the time of the attacks of 9/11/2001.
After 9/11 Tenet immediately increased the size and capability of the CIA's special operations component housed in the Special Operations Group of the Special Activities Division.

Elements of the Special Activities Division were seen in the CIA's Phoenix Program during Vietnam.

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