Really interesting 168-strong survey, though a shame that only 2 surrogate mothers responded, so with an unintentional focus on those who benefit from #surrogacy it collects key data with balance provided. Our analysis follows. Epic 🧵 1.
2. Same sex respondents (9), 5 admit to using ‘legal loopholes’ to access #commercialsurrogacy in #Ukraine – laws there only permit infertile heterosexual couples to apply for #surrogacy
3. Reason for choosing #surrogacy: #adoption was restricted or not available (this refers to other countries, UK does not discriminate legally against same-sex couples) but #surrogacy can be either expensive or cheap.
4. So if #surrogacy is also restrictive, why is it attractive?
5. Any other reasons? It was said to “offer best guarantees” and “legal certainty”
6. So a genetic connection strengthens legal status which and so does choosing a country where the #surrogatemother doesn’t have rights.
7. Out of 168 respondents, with 43 from commissioning parents (CPs) ONLY 2 said the friendship with the surrogate mother was part of their motivation...presumably the majority (41) weren't interested in friendship? It wasn't a priority? #surrogacy
8. Moving to £ - based on the different locations and surrogacy arrangements the price ranged from a supposed zero to $100k. Who receives this money? The agency. How much does the #surrogatemother get? Don't know.
9. What is this money for, what do you get for it in return? Is it a case of ‘surrogacy work is work’ or is a #surrogacy payment for compensation for damage or loss?
10. By contrast others were concerned about the ‘expenses’ amount being considered ‘altruistic’ but then one respondent wanted something more for their money...more control over her...
11. What kind of control? (As described by legal practitioners/lawyers) Contractual control...
12. ‘Mind’ control…
13. Control over the #surrogatemother ’s behaviour.
14. With these contracts, who has accurate legal and *unbiased* information on #surrogacy ?
15. Those with a vested interested in #surrogacy cannot be relied upon for “the truth”.
16. And it would always be advisable, surely, to conduct all your research and seek legal advice before entering into any arrangement involving other parties. (There was a surprising lack of knowledge noted in this study, from legal rights and processes to travel requirements.)
17. Disclaimer: We are not lawyers. Should proof of knowledge of process and country government laws be a made compulsory requirement and proven prior to engaging in #surrogacy?
18. …Back to telling the truth, we think language is important here, do we consider being single or in a same sex relationship a kind of ‘infertility’? #socialinfertility #fertilityequality #surrogacy
19. Should the law step in to facilitate access to a woman to obtain a baby? (As long as “that person” has a “choice to help”)
20. #Choice and #consent, including trust and friendship are key claims often made #altruisticsurrogacy , the current model applied in the UK…
21. So why then do relationships break down in #uksurrogacy, it is because you cannot legally force friendship?
22. Is the solution to make #uksurrogacy #commercialsurrogacy, w/ clear legal lines of responsibility drawn up in contracts? This was suggested by a lawyer, who used the common references to the law being “outdated”, “not fit for purpose” ...and again that word “compensation”.
23. And enforceable laws and regulation would prevent exploitation…but not relocate it or legitimise it?
24. Additionally (nearly there, thanks for bearing with us!) there were respondents who had concerns about #surrogacy as an intrinsically exploitative practice…
25. With one asking what the meaning of ‘ethical’ can mean in the context of #surrogacy .
26. And framing #surrogacy as ‘slavery’, ‘obstetric violence’ and #VAWG suggesting that abolition @CIAMS_Coalition is never considered (which is certainly true of #lawreform in the UK #surrogacyreform
@CIAMS_Coalition 27. Finally concern for “surrogate born children (and what they) face in obtaining recognition of their legal relationship in their own jurisdiction was highlighted on numerous occasions” it was noted whether this is “with the best interests of the child” #children
@CIAMS_Coalition 28. To conclude: is #surrogacy human trafficking?
@CIAMS_Coalition 29. We thank @CFentonGlynn & @CambridgeLaw
for this work and hope extracts here are useful. We do encourage those reading to also read the *full report* as this is *our analysis*. #surrogacy #uksurrogacy #commercialsurrogacy #altruisticsurrogacy #lawreform

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More from @WombsNotForRent

Apr 22
So interesting to listen to Clémence from @PdfQuebec

Where states are keen to promote #surrogacy it seems they all sing from the same songbook.…
Only consult with interested parties or “stakeholders” ie lawyers, hopeful commissioning parents, fertility clinics.

Exclude feminists and women’s organisations.

Quebec ✅ UK @Law_Commission
Low minimum age of surrogate mothers. ✅

Quebec: 21 UK: 18
Read 10 tweets
Apr 4
Thread: When is a mother a mother?

Many People have heard of Baby Gammy, the Thai boy born to a surrogate mother and rejected by his Australian commissioning parents due to his having Down’s syndrome whilst they kept his twin sister. Gammy’s mother opted to raise him herself.
Not so many people are familiar with Britain’s own Baby Grammy, a twin girl who was cruelly rejected by her commissioning mother who kept the sibling baby boy.

Woman rejected disabled surrogate baby as a ‘dribbling cabbage’.…
In the USA the mother of Seraphina Harrell refused the demands of commissioning parents to abort baby Seraphina due to her serious congenital abnormalities even after being offered $10,000 to do so. The Harrell’s (her surrogate mother & husband) adopted her and cared for her.
Read 22 tweets
Mar 11
We are a grassroots, single-issue, campaign group focussed on #surrogacyreform but with 2m refugees, more fleeing, others trapped, unable or unwilling to leave their homeland #Ukraine it’s impossible to remain focused on #uksurrogacy
With media outlets, politicians and agencies focusing on the commissioning parents, some journalists like @thedalstonyears see #internationalsurrogacy for what it is – the peak of entitlement, never more clear than during times of conflict.…
@thedalstonyears “The Irish Independent, for example, reported on a County Kerry couple who had brought their son back from Ukraine without making any reference to their surrogate, presumably left postpartum in a war zone…
Read 10 tweets
Feb 28
We don't think this is clickbait, but actually an accurate and timley article which looks at the maternity scandal at Shrewsbury and Telford NHS trust, international commercial #surrogacy in #Ukraine and Catherine Bennett also highlights proposed #lawreform #surrogacyreform in UK
"The Law Commission’s confidence in British arrangements appears largely based on one small study of local altruistic surrogacy likely to be unrepresentative of any new, paying version." This possibly refers to Dr Kirsty Horsey's 2015 study...
Horsey, K., ‘Surrogacy in the UK: Myth busting and reform’ Report of the Surrogacy UK Working Group on Surrogacy Law Reform (Surrogacy UK, November 2015) "29. (27.1%) of these received less than £10,000, while 73 (68.2%) received £10-15,000 and five (4.7%) received £15-20,000."
Read 17 tweets

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