Amy Proal, PhD Profile picture
Microbiologist at PolyBio Research Foundation: helping research teams collaborate on infection-associated chronic disease #me #longcovid #lyme #eds @polybioRF
Crystal Profile picture deb wot Profile picture #LongHauler for 24 Years - #MECFS G93.3 Profile picture 🇮🇪🇪🇺🌍 Profile picture ARP Profile picture 23 subscribed
Jan 17 18 tweets 6 min read
Tell @ChrisCuomo that 33 scientists from 14 institutions joined forces to write this paper documenting evidence for #SARS-CoV-2 persistence as a potential driver of #LongCOVID. We call for more clinical trials of drugs capable of clearing persistent virus:
2/ We have formed a global #Consortium to study SARS-CoV-2 persistence: to determine if reservoirs of the #virus in LongCOVID tissue can drive widespread dysfunction including clotting, #microbiome, and neuroimmune abnormalities:
Dec 1, 2023 12 tweets 2 min read
I want to add that I see #SARS-CoV-2 persistence as part of a larger picture in which other latent pathogens and/or #microbiome organisms also harbored by a patient play an important role in the ultimate set up symptoms they develop 2/ Pathogens harbored by a patient at the time of SARS-CoV-2 #infection may serve as a predisposing factor to either persistence of the virus or increased disease in the acute phase
Nov 28, 2023 13 tweets 3 min read
Incredible to see the technology being developed openly here - not just to mitigate #COVID-19 but to create an innovative global infrastructure that positions humanity in excellent shape to combat the next airborne #virus pandemic 2/ To advance this movement in which novel tools to study & contain airborne #pathogens are actively being built, one must reject the narrative that there are only two paths forward 1) To 'care' abt airborne #infection means lockdowns 2) Freedom means ignoring airborne infection
Nov 3, 2023 6 tweets 2 min read
Incredible new paper demonstrating #SARS-CoV-2 persistence + associated immune modulation in macaque monkeys. The team found replication competent SARS-CoV-2 virus in macaque lung alveolar #macrophages beyond 6 months postinfection:… 2/ IFN-γ production was impaired in NK cells from macaques with persisting virus. Moreover, IFN-γ also enhanced the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-E on lung alveolar macrophages, possibly inhibiting NK cell-mediated killing
Oct 14, 2023 4 tweets 1 min read
This new preprint found that exposure + antibody responses to previous Coronaviruses may modulate the NeuroPASC (#LongCovid) immune response in a manner that could make such patients less likely to clear the SARS-CoV-2 virus:…
Image 2/ Specifically, they found that neuroPASC patients exhibited attenuated systemic antibody responses against #SARS-CoV-2, characterized by decreased capacity to activate antibody-dependent complement deposition, NK cell activation + to bind Fcγ receptors
Sep 4, 2023 12 tweets 3 min read
I am excited to share our new position paper on #SARS-CoV-2 reservoir (viral persistence) in Long COVID or post-acute sequelae of COVID (PASC):… 2/ We review evidence showing that some Long COVID patients may not fully clear the SARS-CoV-2 #virus after acute infection. Instead, replicating virus and/or viral RNA - potentially capable of being translated to produce viral proteins - persist in tissue as a "reservoir" Image
Aug 20, 2023 9 tweets 3 min read
In this new paper @DrMaureenHanson argues that persistent enterovirus infection in tissue (enterovirus reservoir) may play a central role in the #ME/CFS disease process. I agree.… 2/ Multiple historic ME/CFS outbreaks could be explained by an enterovirus onset (outbreaks often coincided w/ outbreaks of polio), and enterovirus RNA or protein has been found in ME/CFS brain, muscle, or intestinal tissue:…
Jul 30, 2023 8 tweets 2 min read
This autopsy study found #SARS-CoV-2 RNA in #vagus nerve samples obtained from severe #COVID-19 patients. Direct infection of the vagus nerve was accompanied by inflammatory cell infiltration derived primarily from monocytes:… 2/ Because the vagus nerve is an essential component of the #autonomic nervous system and regulates body functions such as heart rate, digestion, and respiratory rate, direct infection of the nerve by SARS-CoV-2 may contribute to related symptoms
Mar 1, 2023 9 tweets 2 min read
Some highlights from this article: “We absolutely need to, in great detail, try to understand what, if any, role persistence of viral RNA and other viral components might play in long Covid,” Chertow [head of NIH's Emerging Pathogens Section] said. 2/ No one knows whether the coronavirus or its remnants remain in everyone who’s had Covid, or if it’s just a group of patients, said Timothy Henrich, an associate professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco.
Aug 20, 2022 7 tweets 3 min read
This is one of the most concerning examples of #SARS-CoV-2 persistence to date 👉 The team found SARS-CoV-2 RNA + Spike protein in the stool of 11/14 newborn babies born to mothers who had #COVID-19 resolve 10+ weeks before delivery:… 2/ The team concludes that “the findings suggest in utero transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and possible persistent intestinal #viral reservoirs in the newborns”
Jul 14, 2022 4 tweets 2 min read
New @polybioRF podcast 👉 I interviewed Dr. Diane Griffin: A Chair of Molecular Microbiology/Immunology at Johns Hopkins. We discuss RNA virus persistence w/ implications for LongCovid. Listen on Spotify (…) or watch on Youtube () 2/ Diane explains how RNA from viruses such as measles, Ebola, Zika and SARS-CoV-2 can perisist in host cells for years after acute infection despite patients not being overtly infectious. This viral RNA is often transcriptionally active and can modulate the host immune response
Jun 11, 2022 10 tweets 4 min read
This important study found a significantly elevated frequency of #SARS-CoV-2-specific TNF-α-producing CD8+ T cells in patients with pulmonary #LongCovid (PASC). PASC subjects experienced an average symptom duration of over 6 months:… 2/ This is how the authors interpret the finding: "This increased frequency could be detected in response to peptide pools of all the #viral structural proteins in comparison to the resolved #COVID-19 (RC) cohort.
Feb 21, 2022 10 tweets 5 min read
This is the most straightforward explanation for chronic symptoms in at least a subset of #LongCovid patients. Partly b/c if the #virus is still present its activity can directly contribute to other phenomena also being documented in LongCovid 2/ Persistence of #SARS-CoV-2 in tissue could lead to shedding of spike protein into blood, which can catalyze the ongoing formation of microclots and hyperactivated platelets
Feb 10, 2022 7 tweets 4 min read
New @polybioRF podcast. I interviewed Dr. Tobias Lanz: MD + researcher in the lab of Prof. William Robinson at the Department of Rheumatology/Immunology at Stanford School of Medicine. Listen on Spotify (…) or watch on Youtube () 2/ In the interview Tobias discusses this breakthrough study he led at Stanford. It showed that a cross-reactive antibody can contribute to #MS neuroinflammation thanks to molecular mimcry b/t an EBV viral protein (EBNA1) + a human CNS protein (GlialCAM):…
Jan 8, 2022 4 tweets 3 min read
New @polybioRF podcast: I interviewed Dr. Alessio Fasano: Chief of the Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition at MassGeneral Hospital for Children. Watch on Youtube () or listen on an App like Spotify (…) 2/ Alessio discusses this study: His team showed that in children with MIS-C, #SARS-CoV-2 gut reservoir led to release of zonulin (a biomaker of intestinal permeability) + subsequent trafficking of spike protein to into blood, leading to hyperinflammation: Image
Dec 28, 2021 11 tweets 19 min read
@kimisgubbed @VirusesImmunity @KaminskiMed @Be_Kinderr @jenbrea @ahandvanish Hey! Well hypoxic tissue cld lead to lower O2 extraction, & infected tissue is often hypoxic. Most intracellular pathogens hijack metabolism of cells they infect & “push” host mitochondrial metabolism to anerobic glycolysis (O2 not being used for OXPHOS):… @kimisgubbed @VirusesImmunity @KaminskiMed @Be_Kinderr @jenbrea @ahandvanish 2/ In fact many intracellular #pathogens either directly or indirectly enhance hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1) stability. HIF-1 is a key glycolytic regulator/transcription factor whose stability reduces reliance on OXPHOS by initiating glycolytic #metabolism
Dec 23, 2021 7 tweets 4 min read
People are asking me: what if we did a similar autopsy study to look for #viruses in ME/CFS? Well, several teams that performed single autopsy studies on #ME/CFS patients found evidence of persistent enterovirus infection in subject brain/body tissue 2/ Enteroviruses are (like SARS-CoV-2) single-stranded RNA viruses. They include the coxsackieviruses, poliovirus, echoviruses + rhinoviruses. These viruses cause about 10–15 million #infections each year in the USA alone
Dec 22, 2021 10 tweets 5 min read
New preprint: The team did autopsies on 44 patients w/ #COVID-19 to map + quantify SARS-CoV-2 distribution, replication and cell-type specificity across the human body (including brain) from acute infection through over 7 months following symptom onset:… 2/ They found that #SARS-CoV-2 was widely distributed, even among patients who died with asymptomatic to mild COVID-19. They also detected persistent SARS-CoV-2 RNA in multiple anatomic sites, including regions throughout the #brain, for up to 230 days following symptom onset
Dec 19, 2021 6 tweets 4 min read
New @polybioRF podcast! I interviewed Dr. Resia Pretorius: Department Head/Research Professor at Stellenbosch University in South Africa. Listen on an App like Spotify () or watch on Youtube () 2/ In the interview Resia talks about how her research team has identified microclots resistant to fibrinolysis + hyperactivated platelets in the blood of #LongCovid patients. We also discuss how we are planning to extend the research to #ME/CFS
Dec 7, 2021 6 tweets 5 min read
I want to put this study on everyone's radar b/c I think it's a genuinely cool opportunity for people/patients to get high-quality data on their #SARS-C0V-2 #immune status over time👇 (I have no financial ties to the company). 2/ To be more clear about what the study involves, the @serimmune team will assess each subjects’ individual immune response to SARS-CoV-2 from both natural #infection and #vaccination for up to 5 years.
Nov 18, 2021 4 tweets 3 min read
For this new @polybioRF podcast I interviewed Dr. Liisa Selin, professor of pathology at the University of Massachusetts Medical School. Listen on an App like Spotify (…) or watch on youtube () 2/ Liisa talks about her work as a #viral immunologist, and how her team recently got an NIH grant to study the role of viral infection and T-cell exhaustion in #ME/CFS. She discusses existing data on the topic and how the research may also inform the #LongCovid disease process