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Major events that led to 1962 Indo-China war(1/n)

1. In 1947, #India and Pakistan are formed. In 1949, Communist China win Civil war. Communists form People's Republic of China(PRC) - #China and Nationalists form Republic of China(ROC) - Taiwan.
2. Following this in 1950, Chacha rejects a permanent seat offered to India in the UN Security Council by US. It was assumed that India replacing China in UNSC would offend both PRC and USSR. India favours China. China becomes permanent UNSC member.
3. 1n 1950, China shows interest in acquiring Tibet(Led by Spiritual/Political leader, The Dalai Lama 14th). Chacha refused to think of the idea of using military force to deter the Chinese. No support given to Tibet. India sides with China.
PAUSE - Time to brush up some Geography which plays a crucial part!

MacMahon Line - Line b/w British Raj & Tibet
NEFA- North East Frontier Agency, Arunachal Pradesh(India), South Tibet(Claimed by China)
Tawang - City closest to Bhutan, China, India borders
LAC - Line of Actual Control
Aksai Chin - High altitude land, Buffer state b/w India and Tibet
Lhasa - Capital of Tibet
G219 Highway - Highway linking Xinjiang province and Tibet through Aksai Chin

4. By 1951, Tibet is annexed to PRC. Tibet which once used to serve as Buffer state between India and China was no more an Independent state but part of People's Republic of China(PRC). China now directly shares 3000km+ border with India.
5. Gradually, China sets up numerous posts in Aksai Chin, which belonged to Princely state of J&K. India under Chacha rather concentrates its army to encounter Pakistani troops from Ladakh. Has no idea on Aksai Chin.
6. In 1950, China wins a battle in Chambo, 3rd largest city of Tibet. In 1951, Lhasa, capital of Tibet, recognizes Chinese sovereignty over Tibet. This would practically help China extend its borders into Indian territory.
7. In Sept 1951, 49 nations sign the treaty of San Francisco to establish peace between Japan and Allied powers after WW-II. But, China is not invited(ambiguity between Republic of China and PRC) and hence India declines to participate. India wants to side with China.
8. On various occasions in 1951-54, China expresses there border issues between India and China. Chinese stated that Aksai Chin was a disputed territory because they said the British had unilaterally mapped it as India.
9. The British negotiated the McMahon boundary line at Arunachal Pradesh, with Tibet in 1914, which too China was to reject when they forcibly annexed Tibet. When the McMahon Line was agreed upon, China was never there, either in 1914 or before or after.
10. In Apr 1954, India and China sign Panchsheel treaty which sets 'Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence':- Mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty;non-aggression;non-interference;equality;peaceful co-existence.
..India clearly acknowledges Chinese Sovereignty in Tibet. India's "Non-importance" on military trainings or weapon upgrades continues. Feels China will never mess with India which is trying to 'Befriend' them.
11. Chacha's policy on Tibet was to build strong Indo-China ties and compromise on Tibet. It was around this time he promoted "Hindi-Chini bhai-bhai".Several leaders including Sardar Patel object India's Tibet policy. But ignored!
12. For several years in early 1950s, China plans to construct a highway linking Xinjiang and Tibet cutting through Aksai Chin. By 1956, the construction is complete. Chacha does not have slightest clue of it. He felt Aksai Chin is a lifeless land which will not benefit India.
13. In July 1954, the new maps in India arrive. New boundaries are drawn. In some places, this line is a few kilometres north of the McMahon Line.
14. In 1956, Chinese maps show 1,20,000 square KM of Indian territory as Chinese. China responds there were errors in the maps and they were of little meaning. India believes it was just a small error from their side.
15. In 1956, Dalai Lama visits India to celebrate the Buddha's Birthday, Dalai Lama asks Chacha, if he would allow him political asylum in India. Chacha discourages this as a provocation against peace treaty agreed upon with China in 1954. No support given to Tibet yet again.
16. In 1958, the Indian public was outraged when it learned that China had built a road linking Xinjiang and Tibet through Indian territory in Aksai Chin. Parallely, 1959 sees Tibet uprise crushed by Chinese military.
17. In March 1959, fearing for his life, the Dalai Lama flees Tibet with the help of CIA, into India, reaching Assam. He sets up the Government of Tibet in Exile in Dharamshala, India.
18. At this point, much misunderstanding between India & China led to diplomatic spats over Tibet. China treated 'India's concerns with Tibet' as territorial/economic expansionist.
19. The Tibet disagreements grew in China. Top PRC leader Mao Zedong, was humiliated by the reception the Dalai Lama in India. China blames India for Tibet rebellion.
20. On 6 May 1959, Mao published "The Revolution in Tibet and Chacha's Philosophy". Showing China's perception of India as a threat to its rule of Tibet, which became an underlying reason for triggering the Sino-Indian War.
21. In August 1959, the Chinese army took an Indian patrol prisoner at Longju, which falls north of the McMahon Line, claimed by India to lie directly on the McMahon Line. Why is India still not negotiating border issues with China? No one knows!
22. In October 1959, India realises that it was not ready for war after a clash between the two armies at Kongka Pass, in which 9 Indian policemen were killed; the country assumed responsibility for the border and pulled back patrols from disputed areas. Demoralizing the nation.
23. India does not show interest about this boundary dispute in Parliament till August 1959. It assumed that India had not received any letters from China! Infact, India and China had exchanged letters about the Arunachal Pradesh border in 1954. Raises lot of questions.
24. In 1960, China asks India to drop its claim to Aksai Chin and China would withdraw its claims from NEFA. Because Aksai Chin provides China, greater control over Tibet. India rejects the proposal.
25. Forward policy: A blunder?
The policy focuses on securing control of COK posts by invasion. Establishing a series of posts all along its Northern and Eastern borders, to prevent Chinese further invasions with a belief that China would not attack a 'peace seeking India'
..Posts built are not capable of giving fight and logistically unsustainable. And, India neglected the improvement of infrastructure in the border areas. Supply of food, medical emergencies, movement of army itself were impossible. 30% of the air dropped supply reached the Army.
26. Though, the Army was ill prepared to fight a war with China, India still went with the disastrous Forward Policy. By now the China had made up their mind that since India was not negotiating the border issue, 'They would teach India a big lesson'.
27. India also decides not to use the Air force and completely relies on Indian Army on tough terrains. Chacha is reluctant to talk to military leadership. A total disconnect b/w political and military leadership. Krishna menon also dismisses plans set by Lt Gen SSP Thorat.
28. Plight of Indian Army:
Indian Army of 280000 was short by 60000 files, 700 anti-tank guns, 5000 radio field sets, thousands of miles of field cable, 36000 wireless batteries, 10000 1-ton trucks and 10000 3-ton trucks!
Most of the Indian troops were using .303 rifles which had seen action even before WW-I (not II). China were equipped with machine guns/heavy mortars/automatic rifles. Chacha prohibited import of arms fearing his Non-alignment image. He often quoted Gandhi’s ahimsa!
29. The avg altitude in Aksai Chin was 14000 ft & patrols had to reach 16000 ft. Temperatures were sub zero and the Indian troops winter clothing was inadequate. Mules were not of much use at that altitude for movement of supplies.
..The Indian troops had to trek whereas the Chinese troops moved around in trucks. The Chinese had all-weather roads on its side and their troops were acclimatized at that altitude. The Indian geography had mountains, 300 ft deep valleys which made Indian army impossible to fight
30. To add insult to injury, Defense Minister, Krishna Menon did not implement Gen Thimayya’s recommendations and Gen Kaul was made Chief of General Staff, though Kaul did not have any combat experience but because he was close to Chacha?
The WAR:

32. Fast forward to Sep 1962, A forward post was setup at Dhola. From the nearest road at Tawang in Arunachal Pradesh, this Dhola post was a 6 days uphill trek, if there were no landslides.
..And the nearest airbase in Tezpur was a few days away from Tawang. Whereas for the Chinese it was 3 hours from their nearest road (which was constructed to carry 7 ton trucks).
33. It is said that PM, Defense Minister, Gen Kaul- The trio were not even present in Sep during the crisis, a month before the war(WHY?). Kaul reaches Dhola post mid-Oct to take charge. At Dhola post, Indian troops were outnumbered 20:1. The actual war starts on 20 October 1962.
34. China over runs NEFA and Tawang in just 4 days. Tawang(ref. Tweet 4 and 5) is strategically important as it is close to borders of 3 countries. China already has an upper hand. India was only fighting an already lost battle.
35. 21 Nov 1962, Un-surprisingly, China announces ceasefire and starts to withdraw back north of the McMahon line. But does not withdraw from Aksai Chin.
36. Due to India's bad planning, leadership, disconnect b/w political-military leadership, lack of interest to upgrade weapons, build infrastructure for Army, believing in non-alliance, she loses ~1800 valiant soldiers in fight. Strong alliances are hence the need of the hour
37. This also shows how prepared China was for the War with massive troop buildups along LAC and NEFA and how it had stocked up weapons, supplies and built all-weather highway for its Army troops along with modernisation of their weapons won the battle along LAC.
China who acted friendly to India, internally had a different plan. Even now China claims Aksai chin and claims Arunachal Pradesh as 'South tibet'.
Key Takeaways:
a. Modernise Military Weapons.
b. Upgrade Border Infrastructure.
c. Build Strong Alliances.
d. Strong focus on political-Military leadership connect.
e. Co-ordination b/w Army, Navy, Airforce. (Identification of CDS - Finally formed in 2019)
Disclaimer: Apologies for maps used at few places. Was helpless to use maps showing our territory as POK and COK as I couldn't find proper maps for few of the places on the internet. That's how the Indian maps are published abroad. Hard to digest.
Sources: Series of events from wiki.
But beware of Wiki. It tries to manipulate the events to change Chacha's image. Don't go by that history.
Major events from the book 'Himalayan Blunder' written by Commander JP Dalvi who himself fought in the battle and later captured by PRC.
I am not an expert on history or politics. I'm just a common man who is trying to spread the right info to the people who care. Please revert for any wrong information. Our history is so maligned by the 'intellectuals' I find it very tough to find right info online.
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