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Aug 26, 2020 8 tweets 4 min read
R-77 #Adder & PL-12 #Thunderbolt

China’s quest for indigenous active radar MRAAM started in late 80s task given to 607 Institute (LETRI). PL-12 seeker development took help from Russian company AGAT which developed seekers for R-27/77 MRAAMs & data link from Vympel. 1/8 Image
PL-12 development took place parallel to R-77 which had advantage of USSR industrial capacity with far more experience & sophisticated tech. Collapse of USSR plummeted many of these companies into debt & out of volume production leading to all sorts of funds related issues. 2/8 Image
R-77 didn’t finish its full development, testing & serial production due to collapse of USSR/funding issues. Ukraine inherited much of R&D of R-77 (Izdeliye-170) which is what Chinese probably managed to capitalise. Below is R-77 (Izdeliye-190) 3/8 Image
R-77 (80km) went in serial production by start of 2000s with improved seeker exported to many countries including India with export name RVV-AE. PL-12 (70km) went in serial production after 2002 once LETRI institution achieved breakthrough in seeker & all weather launch. 4/8 Image
There are reportedly 15 versions of R-77, 12 belonging to Izdeliye-190 & 3 to newer R-77-1 (Izdeliye-170-1) export name RVV-SD recently ordered by India. R-77-1 (110km) is still in early years not produced in large numbers as Russian AF/Navy still using older R-27 variants. 5/8 ImageImage
PL-12 has four engagement modes with dual mode (active/passive) seeker
1. On short ranges: Fire & forget mode using its own active seeker from launch
2. Launch to preset point with Inertial guidance system followed by active radar in terminal stage. 6/8
3. It can be launched with mix of command guidance (via datalink), its own inertial guidance before entering the active radar at terminal guidance phase
4. It has a ‘home-on-jam’ mode that allows it to passively track & engage an emitting target. (e.g. Anti-radiation LD-10) 7/8 Image
SD-10 is export name of earlier PL-12 with SD-10A being improved version. PL-12 (SD-10A) doesn’t have range of 100kms rather more like 70-80km with improved seeker & guidance via data link. Its performance is comparable to AIM-120B with some putting it early AIM-120C. Thanks 8/8 Image

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More from @aviation07101

May 31, 2021
Early years of FC-1 & J-10A just before serial production. Circa 2005-06
Often repeated question why China didn’t induct FC-1?
Collapse of USSR opened floodgates of Soviet aerospace companies that found themselves in existential crisis especially aero engine companies 1/7 #Thread
In mid 90s Chinese aerospace designers were no longer restricted to old Soviet R-13/29 based engines or Rolls-Royce Spey copies. You can imagine an aircraft like J-10.
Without turbofan engine capable of 85-95kn/20,000lbs thrust, you can’t design 4th gen single engine aircraft 2/7
In early 80s Chengdu J-9 & Shenyang J-13 competed for a F-16/Mirage-2000 style aircraft for PLA & variable geometry Nanchang Q-6 for naval strike (later filled by JH-7). All these projects met dead-end due to unavailability of a powerful turbofan engine as WS-6 project failed 3/7
Read 7 tweets
Apr 5, 2021
Su-30 #Flanker #Thread
Lets do this Su-30 came into existence on requirement of Soviet Air Defence Forces #PVO needing a command aircraft to guide Su-27s via radio-data link to guard vast territory of USSR. #PVO was ranked higher than Soviet Airforce #VVS. 1/

Su-27UB & Su-30SM👇
#PVO chose trainer Su-27UB to be developed as combat capable interceptor/command aircraft in which 2nd officer would keep track of targets & assign roles to other aircraft e.g. Su-27s by distributing targets hence the term “Mini AWAC”. Su-27UB was manufactured by #Irkut Corp 2/
Single seat Su-27 was manufactured at KnAAPO which was given task of developing better air superiority Su-27M (now Su-35) by Soviet airforce. Irkut became home of Su-30 as plant was already producing Su-27UB. Su-27PU was demonstrator with new radar,refuelling,communication sys 3/
Read 12 tweets
Sep 27, 2020
Thread on #PLA Naval Airforce #PLANAF & #PLAAF AEW&C, MPA, special mission aircraft.

KJ-2000 #Mainring AEW&C (4 in service) based on IL-76 airframes with indigenous systems & radome comprising of 3 #AESA radars forming a triangle, nose/wing mounted surveillance/ESM. 1/10
KJ-200 (GX-5) #Moth (11 in service with Navy-Airforce)

Based on Shaanxi Y-8 series airframes with #AESA balanced beam radar similar to Eyrie radar system developed by Saab which Pakistan airforce is using. Newer variants have added sensors mounted on sides/under and on top. 2/10
KJ-500 (GX-10) 16+ in service Navy-Airforce)

KJ-500 has become mainstay airborne early warning aircraft with newer/bigger Y-9 airframe. Fixed radome comprising of 3 #AESA radar triangularly arranged despite entering in service in 2014 over 16 aircraft are in service. 3/10
Read 10 tweets
Sep 24, 2020
My view of late regarding erstwhile state of J & K is to keep whatever both sides have & after slight adjustments on LOC call it int’l border. Aim of both govts should be to bring stability & development in respective parts, enable people to people contact voiceofeast.net/2020/09/20/gil…
Gilgit Baltistan people want to be part of mainland Pakistan with full integration and don’t see themselves as part of Kashmir dispute. In early years just to strengthen Pakistan’s claim policy makers decided to add GB as part of J&K at UN to show whole region is Muslim majority.
If one truly understands J&K issue & how whole partition plan was set out. 🇵🇰 & 🇮🇳 both didn’t have any case to claim the region on the basis of religion or anything other than accession+plebiscite of residents. J&K was not under the sovereignty of British Crown but suzerainty
Read 5 tweets
Sep 22, 2020
What has #China gained so far?

1. Paranoid 🇮🇳 top brass/policy makers who will focus more inland ($$) than maritime i.e. CDS/Map lovers
2. Pulse check on #QUAD & #US reaction
3. Foundation stone of double squeeze #LOC~#LAC
4. Strengthening of newly raised #PLA Western Theatre.
China’s mission is to break both island chains by 2030-35 by massive build up of Naval & Air powers. Already artificial islands are there & no one can do anything other than odd USN vessels with flag conducting freedom of navigation. None of US allies want war nor have stomach Image
All countries in Pacific rely on same geography that they want to turn against China. Its kind of self defeating to cage a dragon while you’re in it. I’m not even bringing economical angle to this and what will happen to beast of capitalism, #Covid has set the tone for 2020s :)
Read 6 tweets
Sep 18, 2020
Russian #BVR doctrine of 2-Salvo launch is very well known inherited from Soviet era. #Flanker will carry active radar & heat/passive guided BVRAAMs. Once target is in #DLZ active radar missile like R-27EA/R-77 will be launched followed by IR homing R-27ET/R-27EP (Passive RF) 1/3 Image
Idea is that active seeker will force target to do evasive manoeuvres & employ ECMs fully exposing heat/electronic signatures making job much easier for few seconds delay launch of IR/Passive RF missiles like R-27ET/R-27EP having same kinetic performance as R-77/R-27EA/ER 2/3 Image
This very doctrine forced China to develop its own active radar BVR missile that could rival AIM-120B/C. Russian failure to complete full development of R-77 due to funds left them well behind hence they kept Soviet era doctrine of 2-Salvo launch with older R-27 Almo family 3/3 ImageImage
Read 4 tweets

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