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16 Sep, 46 tweets, 20 min read
🔥 #BRAMYIR stands for Balanced Ranked Approval Maximum Yield Instant Runoff. It's a powerful and easy to use hybrid voting system which allows votes directly for or directly against any number of competing candidates. For more details, please continue reading… 🐦
#BRAMYIR offers the benefits of #ApprovalVoting, #ScoreVoting, & #RankedChoiceVoting, plus the benefit of a balanced ballot, while encouraging honest voting & discouraging attempts to game the system with dishonest strategic voting such as votes for the mere lesser of two evils.
#BRAMYIR is similar to #StarVoting in that it is calculated using scores rather than ranks and looks at all scores in the first round, but unlike #StarVoting this process is repeated with the remaining candidates for as many rounds as it takes.
Also unlike #StarVoting, the voter has a choice with #BRAMYIR of voting with scores or ranks, or using simple approval voting, and also has the option to vote directly against candidates rather than for candidates, to handle the event of the voter seeing no acceptable candidates.
#BRAMYIR is derived from #BIRNY and internally uses a score voting system. It allows score voting, for which the voter may specify a range of possible scores, but defaults to ranked choice if not otherwise specified such that the number 1 represents a full power vote.
#BRAMYIR is a variant of #BRIRES with a normalization system to preserve the relative strengths within a milti-part vote while maximizing the positive support expressed and maximizing the disapproval vote of any voter whose approved candidates are eliminated in the runoff.
#BRIRES stands for Balanced Rational Instant Runoff Election Systems, and allows the voter to choose ballot style such as #ScoreVoting, #ApprovalVoting, or #RankedChoiceVoting, and also allows voters the option of using a #BalancedBallot to cast a true #NegativeVote.
#BRAMYIR has two different ballots to choose from. In a #PeoplesPrimary only the simple #ApprovalVoting ballot would be used. It's basically the same as a first past the post ballot, except without the restriction to only pick one candidate for each position up for election.
In the general election, one can choose between the simple #AprovalVoting ballot or the more advanced full #BRAMYIR ballot which allows votes for or against candidates and defaults to ranked choice voting style but also allows the option of using vote scores like in #RangeVoting.
For each available elected seat or position being voted on, the full ballot allows the voter to cast a vote of approval or a vote of disapproval and, by default, to rank the importance of that part of their vote, representing first priority as 1, second priority as 2, and so on.
For security it is recommended that the voter mark their ballot as ranked choice when using this method, although if not marked otherwise this is the method that will be assumed by default in processing the ballot. Alternatively, the voter may mark the ballot as score voting.
Although the voter may vote for or against any candidate and may choose to vote for some and against others with regard to the same elected position, it is recommended that the voter cast votes of approval or disapproval regarding candidates for the same position but not both.
It is also recommended that the voter should vote for candidate that they support rather than voting against candidates, except in the case of positions for which there are no candidates available that the voter honestly supports but there are candidates that the voter opposes.
Alternatively the simple #ApprovalVoting ballot may be used in the general election by voters who don't care for the option to vote against a candidate or the option to rank or score different candidates. On such a ballot, each approval mark would count as a value of one.
It should be made known to the voter that there is a choice or either ballot style. If the voter cannot decide which to use, the approval ballot should be given for the sake of simplicity. In a People's Primary only the option to vote against a candidate would not be given.
Whether or not a voter has cast a vote in a political party's primary should not affect that voter's option to vote in the People's Primary since political party primaries and caucuses are private organization events and NOT actual government elections.
Any #PeoplesPrimary votes cast as ranked choice votes would be converted to their multiplicative inverse scores for the sake of counting. Approval votes would all be converted to a value or 1 each. Score votes would be divided by the largest score given, for normalization.
In a #PeoplesPrimary, there is no need for a runoff. The votes would simply be added up with regard to each candidate and the total checked to determine whether or not enough approval has been expressed to place that candidate on the general election ballot.
If a cap were to be placed on the number of candidates that could be on the general election ballot for a given office or position, higher scoring candidates would get priority over lower scoring candidates. For example, the 50 top scoring candidates, in the case of a cap of 50.
All ballots should also have spaces to optionally write in one or more candidates that are not already available on the ballot. This is especially important in the primaries so that voters have the option to stage a write-in campaign for an unregistered candidate.
For the general election things are a bit more complex since the object is to eliminate less wanted candidates & choose only enough wanted candidates to fill the available seats, rather than merely approving candidates to be on the ballot, as that step is done in the primaries.
#BRAMYIR counts votes much like any #BIRNY system, except that the normalization would maximize #PositiveVotes or #NegativeVotes when only one or the other remains, but would split that maximization when both remain, in order to discourage gaming the system.
Each voter would be free to prioritize or rank #PositiveVotes and #NegativeVotes in any order, but could not strengthen their vote for one candidate by voting against all other candidates or strengthen their vote against one candidate by voting for all other candidates. #BRAMYIR
Unlike ordinary ranked-choice voting, #BRAMYIR doesn't look at just the highest top rank of a vote, but rather accounts at each stage of the runoff for each uneliminated candidate indicated by the vote, while preserving the specified order & strength of preference.
As an additional option, any voter could choose to give all or part of their vote to "None" with regard to a particular available seat or position being voted on, effectively casting the indicated portion of their vote as a #NoneOfTheAbove vote in that election contest. #BRAMYIR
When voting as ranked choice on a #BRAMYIR ballot, the voter can choose to give any rank to zero or more candidates, meaning that they can skip any unwanted ranks and can also list candidates as tied for the same rank. Even if that means giving all approved candidates rank 1.
Giving all approved candidates rank 1 is exactly what the simpler #ApprovalVoting style ballot does, so of course the voter can choose to do likewise manually. As another example, a voter might give 3 candidates rank 2, & 5 other candidates each rank 11. It's their choice.
Once all votes have been cast and the deadline for accepting for new votes has passed, processing of votes would begin.
The general election would be processed as a runoff, with records kept of each stage of the runoff process. #BRAMYIR
Votes cast on an #ApprovalVoting ballot would be treated as a score of 1 for each indicated approval. This will be explained in detail here and then an explanation of counting vote scores from full #BRAMYIR ballots will follow.
Since the simple ballot would only allow casting votes of full approval regarding available candidates & not disapproval or partial approval, each approval vote cast on such a ballot would neither have to be converted nor normalized & would always have a value of positive one.
The simple approval ballot would not have to be marked as ranked choice voting or score voting because each vote cast on it would automatically represent a rank one and would also be counted as both a raw score of one and a normalized score of one. #BRAMYIR
Processing the full advanced #BRAMYIR ballots would require a few extra steps which will be as explained here. These are of course not steps that would have to be taken by the voter, but rather steps to count and process the votes once the have been cast.
On the full balanced ballot, unless the voter has indicated use of scores rather than ranks, convert ranks to their multiplicative inverse scores. These raw approval scores and disapproval scores regarding all remaining candidates will be used at each stage of the runoff process.
The runoff process starts with all available candidates in the first round. In each round with more available candidates than open seats for the given position, one candidate is eliminated and the next round begins without that candidate. Each round proceeds as follows.
With regard to each remaining candidate voted for or against and not ret eliminated by the runoff process, divide each raw score by the sum of the largest raw approval score plus the largest raw disapproval score, to produce normalized scores for use in this round of the runoff.
Add the normalized scores to this round's total votes for and against the candidates they represent approval or disapproval of respectively. Do this regarding all non-eliminated candidates which the voter has voted for or against. Complete this process for each voter's ballot.
Record each remaining candidate's total approval score and total disapproval score for this round of the runoff process, and subtract each candidate's total disapproval score from that candidate's total approval score to get and record that candidate's net approval score.
#BRAMYIR is counted as normalized balanced score voting in each round of the runoff process, with each round eliminating the candidate with the lowest total net vote score. When all remaining candidates are tied or no more candidates remain than open seats, that's the last round.
In the unlikely event of an exact tie for lowest total net vote score, with enough candidates not included in that tie to fill the open seats, all of those lowest scoring candidates would be eliminated. Ties should be rare but contingencies for them should be available.
If there is more candidates for a position remaining than open seats for that position, then the runoff continues with the next round, starting by resetting the totals counts to begin with a score of 0 votes for or against any candidate at the beginning of the new round. #BRAMYIR
The remaining candidate or candidates at the end of the last round for each position up for election would be the winner or winners of the available seats in that position.
#BRAMYIR is a branch in the evolution of Balanced Rational Instant Runoff Election Systems (#BRIRES) and internally supports the full set of features from a variety of popular election systems while improving on some of them.
Here's a link to this an unrolled copy of this thread.
Makes it easier to read. #BRAMYIR
To help us make elections even more fair, here is a link to a copy of my thread about my #PeoplesPrimary concept.
which makes it easier to read.
You can open my #PeoplesPrimary thread directly at

to read about using an approval vote People's Primary in an election's first stage primaries with #BIRNY in the general election second stage. 🔥 #PeoplesCampaign 🐦
In case you would like to go to the top of this thread in Twitter, here's a link to it.
Please share this with other people to help us get more democracy for all. 🔥 #BRAMYIR #NotMeUS 🐦

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🇺🇸 Why the USA needs a People's Primary with Approval Voting.
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The so-called "primaries" and "caucuses" that are held by privately owned political parties are not government elections. In fact, they are not actually elections at all. They're part of a process used to decide who the people CAN & CANNOT vote for in the ACTUAL election.
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#BIRNY stands for Balanced Instant Runoff Normalized Yield. It's easy to use & more powerful than #ApprovalVoting, #ScoreVoting & #RankedChoiceVoting, combined. #Birny also allows voting directly for or directly against any number of competing candidates. Continue reading…
#BIRNY is a variant of #BRIRES with simple normalization preserving the relative strengths of votes for or against candidates as indicated by the voter. A voter may choose their own scale or vote ranked choice style using fractions or using a balanced ranked choice voting ballot.
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Introducing, my concept of a People's Primary.

Many people are tired of the political parties having all of the power in the first stage of our elections, here in the USA. If this concerns you, please promote this with the hashtag #PeoplesPrimary and please Continue Reading…
We call the process of privately owned political parties using caucuses and primaries a "primary election", but it's not really an election at all. Rather, it's a part of the process by which such privately owned organizations decide who the people can vote for in an election.
More accurately, the so-called primaries are a step in the process of privately owned political parties making an official decision about which candidates they will allow the people to have listed on the ballots of the actual election, known in the USA as the general election.
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