Carbohydrates aren't converted into fat unless they're consumed far above maintenance calories

That said, loading up glycogen stores can make it less likely that dietary fat will be used for energy as glycogen is the priority energy source
To put it simply: carbs and fat can both contribute to a caloric surplus which can result in weight gain either way, but of the two it is the dietary fat that's stored as it requires the least conversion
Processed carbs do still have several characteristics that make them more likely to cause caloric surplus in many cases

They are often found in overly palatable foods that are designed to be addictive, though in some cases (ie donuts) they are also combined with fat
In one of his lectures, Robert Lustig references an interesting study where children are either given soda or water before a meal

The study found that those that pre-loaded with soda consumed more calories from the meal, despite the added calories from the sugar in their drinks
In population data we see similar trends, with soda and fast-food consumption associated with more obesity, but not the consumption of other carbs like fruit, honey, or starches

I think it's clear that the issue is processed foods conducive to excess caloric intake, not carbs

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More from @ck_eternity_

28 Apr
There's an interesting divergence between what allows humans to function better in the short term vs. the long term

We see decreased longevity with increase calorie consumption and more animal products, but better exercise performance and nutrient status at the same time
From an evolutionary fitness perspective optimal health only needs to extend up to or slightly beyond reproductive age, so even an ancestral diet isn't guaranteed to provide benefit far beyond that point

That said, there do seem to be some principles that overlap
For example, nutrient deficiency has been robustly linked to a variety of short and long term health issues and symptoms

I think it's best to target the basics like this first, then progress toward the goal of longevity/disease prevention from there
Read 4 tweets
28 Apr
Methyl-B12, betaine, and SAMe all increase methylation by providing methyl groups for reactions, with methyl-B12 being the least potent, and SAMe being the most

Niacin decreases methylation by depleting methyl groups from the liver during metabolism, and increases acetylation
Folate is especially interesting as it dynamically regulates methylation, acting as a cofactor for methylation reactions in normal concentrations, while decreasing methylation downstream of its activity at the folate receptor when taken at higher doses
B6 is required to clear methyl waste, aka homocysteine, allowing it to be metabolized into useful cysteine, sulfate, and taurine

B2 is a cofactor for the metabolism synthetic folic/folinic acid from plant foods and supplements
Read 5 tweets
25 Apr
With the sheer amount of research like this that exists, dismissing the potential role of poor nutrition/nutrient deficiency in mental health issues seems insane to me
I've seen many that don't like this idea because they believe it places blame on the individual suffering

Really the opposite is true, the vast majority of people have at least some nutrient deficiency, our food is frequently low quality, and we aren't taught nutrition in school
Frankly I see this connection as one of the most hopeful findings for mental health in the last few decades, if anything it suggests that we have a remarkable amount of control over our own well-being
Read 4 tweets
19 Apr
Thinking about the report I found at one point of a tribe in south america that would crush up and snort the tips of their poison darts when their preferred psychoactives weren't available (ayahuasca, etc)
I managed to find the compounds they were ingesting in this case, it turns out the frog secretion commonly used in many poison darts binds to the opioid receptors creating a potent but atypical sedative/analgesic effect, likely potent enough to kill an animal but not a human
It's also possible that the tribe did this semi-frequently and had developed a tolerance to the effects, similar to that seen with the practice of rubbing kambo into skin, another frog secretion which contains similar compounds
Read 6 tweets
15 Apr
Postpartum depression seems to stem largely from copper overload disrupting neurotransmitter balance, driven by increased estrogen

Progesterone dropping can contribute as well, as it reduces levels of allopregnanolone, a neurosteroid that potentiates GABA signalling
Allopregnanolone injections are approved for treatment of postpartum with good results, though they can be overly expensive and cause sedative side effects

De-coppering therapies also show good results in some studies, specifically increasing metallothionein expression with zinc
Other nutrients that may increase metallothionein include NAC, manganese, B6, and vitamins C + E, increasing glutathione may also be useful

If free copper is present it's important to be careful not to clear it too quickly, as dumping excess copper can caused many side effects
Read 5 tweets
14 Apr
If I could only recommend someone one supplement, it would be magnesium

If I could only recommend two, the second would be thiamine
For magnesium the magnesium chloride and magnesium glycinate forms work best, magnesium taurate is good as well

For thiamine I'd start with thiamine hydrochloride, then upgrade to benfotiamine if you react well to it
The only other nutrient the majority of the population would likely benefit from would be vitamin K2, specifically in the MK-7 form
Read 4 tweets

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