Prisons have existed for a LONG time, but there is still crime. Why?

Join me tomorrow at 1pm, cst, to discuss

#CRJ105 #Criminology
Good morning, we are going to kick off our conclusion of History of Criminology & introduce the Positivist School. Buckle in my friends, we have a lot of work to do!

#CRJ105 #Criminology
Last week we examined urban legends v. real crimes, then introduced the #ClassicalSchool of Criminology

#CRJ105 #Criminology
The Classical School:

People freely choose their behavior; that motives such as greed, revenge, need, anger, lust, jealousy, thrill-seeking, and vanity are just expressions of free will, personal choice, conclusion, & decision-making that people have made

#CRJ105 #MoraineValley
THINKING CHALLENGE: Have you ever said or done something that you "didn't mean" ... because you were angry?

#CRJ105 #MoraineValley
THINKING CHALLENGE: Have you ever acted completely out of character due to jealousy?

#CRJ105 #MoraineValley
THINKING CHALLENGE: Have you ever taken on a challenge just because some said you couldn't do it ... or because it was a dare?

#CRJ105 #MoraineValley
THINKING CHALLENGE: Have you ever ... wished ill will on someone else, because maybe, just maybe, they broke your heart?

#CRJ105 #MoraineValley
What I am getting at here, are there moments in which our emotions overtake our decision making?

#CRJ105 #MoraineValley
-OR- and hear me out ... are all your emotional responses your choice in how you are perceiving your environment?

#CRJ105 #MoraineValley
The #ClassicalSchool indicates that your emotions are YOUR rational response to what is happening around you. And if that is the case, you can choose how you react

#CRJ105 #MoraineValley
THINKING CHALLENGE - So what you do you think so far?

#CRJ105 #MoraineValley
The Classical School: Choices can be controlled by fear of punishment; because people weigh the potential benefits and consequences of crime

#CRJ105 #MoraineValley
The Classical School: The more certain, swift, and severe the punishment, the greater is its ability to control criminal behavior, especially if the punishment is fair and serves some rational and legitimate purpose

#CRJ105 #MoraineValley
I have to say, this all sounds great! I can think of a lot of punishments I try to avoid. What do YOU do when you see a police cruiser running radar on the side of the road?

#CRJ105 #MoraineValley
So if the #CLassicalSchool is valid, that means everyone having an understanding of punishment, should ... reduce crime!

But that brings us back to our initial question. Most individuals in society are aware of the Criminal Justice system, specifically that prisons exist.

... AND ... crime still exists.

Why? #CRJ105
So we really have to discuss how and if crime is rational, and if it's true of all crime?

#CRJ105 #MoraineValley
Not until Charles Darwin (1809–1882) challenged the doctrine of creation with his theory of the evolution of species did the next generation of criminologists have the tools with which to challenge classicism

#CRJ105 #MoraineValley
The turning point was the publication in 1859 of Darwin’s Origin of Species.

#CRJ105 #MoraineValley
The nineteenth-century forces of #positivism and evolution moved the field of criminology from a philosophical to a scientific perspective

#CRJ105 #MoraineValley
So while Darwin's work did not focus on human behavior, his work set the precedent of using scientific methods to better understand human differences

#CRJ105 #Positivism
In other words ...

... how exciting ...


#CRJ105 #Positivism
The prevailing ideology of the day was that criminals were BORN, not made

#CRJ105 #Positivism
If criminals were born "defective", then social scientists could examine & measure how these individuals were different, whether

~ Biologically
~ Psychologically
~ Socially

#CRJ105 #Positivism
Through the use of scientific methods, understanding biological, psychological, and social differences, then negative differences can be eradicated ... reducing crime!

#CRJ105 #Positivism
The school of human physiognomy is the study of facial features and their relation to human behavior.

#Phrenology posited that bumps on the head were indications of psychological propensities.

#CRJ105 #MoraineValley
Cesare Lombroso (1835–1909) integrated Comte’s positivism, Darwin’s evolutionism, and the many pioneering studies of the relation of crime to the body

#CRJ105 #MoraineValley
“Insane criminals” become criminal as a result of some change in their brains that interferes with their ability to distinguish between right and wrong.

“Criminoloids” make up habitual criminals, criminals by passion, and other diverse types.

#CRJ105 #MoraineValley
And since it's in my head, now it's in yours.

#CRJ105 #MoraineValley
"I got that reference"

#CRJ105 #MoraineValley
Ferri, a student of Lombroso, believed that criminals could not be held morally responsible because they did not choose to commit crimes but, rather, were driven to commit them by conditions in their lives.

#CRJ105 #MoraineValley
Influenced by Lombroso’s theory of atavistic stigmata, in which he found many shortcomings, Garofalo traced the roots of criminal behavior not to physical features but to their psychological equivalents, which he called “moral anomalies.”

#CRJ105 #MoraineValley
Although Lombroso, Ferri, and Garofalo did not always agree on the causes of criminal behavior or on the way society should respond to it, their combined efforts marked a turning point in the development of the scientific study of crime

#CRJ105 #MoraineValley
Classic criminologists thought the problem of crime might be solved through limitations on governmental power, the abolition of brutality, and the creation of a more equitable system of justice.

#CRJ105 #MoraineValley
Positivist criminologists influenced judges to give greater consideration to the offender than to the gravity of the crime when imposing sentences.

#CRJ105 #MoraineValley
THINKING CHALLENGE: What school of thought more closely aligns with your current viewpoints on crime?

#CRJ105 #MoraineValley
THINKING CHALLENGE: What school of thought has the larger fingerprint on the system today?

#CRJ105 #MoraineValley
In the next several weeks, we will dive into Biological & Psychological explanations of crime. What sounds most intriguing to you?

#CRJ105 #MoraineValley
Criminals might not be "born" to be bad, but the criminal disposition may be present at birth.

THINKING CHALLENGE: Which of the following is most associated with criminal behavior?

#CRJ105 #MoraineValley
What did you find most surprizing in our discussion this week?

#CRJ105 #MoraineValley
How would you grade today's discussion?

#CRJ105 #MoraineValley
Next Tuesday, we will look at Biological Traits, which sounds most interesting to you?

#CRJ105 #MoraineValley
In honor of next week's Twinkie, for your extra credit for reading through the entire thread, send me a picture of your favorite junk food with your response.

I'm a sucker for cheese and crackers ... everytime!

#CRJ105 #MoraineValley
Until then, my friends!

As always, send any questions, comments, feedback

#CRJ105 #MoraineValley

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THINKING CHALLENGE: From your common sense, why do people break the law?

Join me at 1pm, cst, today to discuss!
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#HistoryOfCriminology #CRJ105 #Criminology Image
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