"In the USA, B. burgdorferi often disseminates in the blood during the first few weeks of infection in a process that requires the binding of Borrelia surface adhesins to host integrins on the vascular endothelium28–30. " 2/
"As shown in mice, the spread of B. burgdorferi through the vasculature or lymphatics is dependent on the inter-actions of spirochaetal surface molecules and endothe-lial cell membrane proteins." 3/
Thread: A major barrier to progress in understanding the neurologic manifestations of #LymeDisease has been a lack of a tractable laboratory animal model to evaluate the mechanisms of central nervous system pathogenesis.
For decades we have seen study after study of Lyme arthritis. As it turns out the most frequently reported Lyme symptoms are neurological symptoms: memory loss and cognitive impairment, sleep impairment, psychiatric manifestations, headaches, neuropathy and more. 2/
This is the first study, to my knowledge, that shows how Borrelia burgdorferi gets into the central nervous system, how the immune system responds, and how the bacteria adapt to the immune system. #Lyme
Meet the researcher Catherine Brissette, Ph.D. globallymealliance.org/meet-researche…
The geothermal features in Yellowstone are amongst my top 10 favorite sites on this planet. Here’s a bit of #microbio history on the PCR test I’d like to share.
Pictured: Grand Prismatic at the Midway Geyser Basin @YellowstoneNPS
“Until the 1980s, our ability to study DNA was limited. Things we take for granted today such as DNA fingerprinting to identify criminals, DNA medical diagnoses, DNA-based studies of nature, and genetic engineering did not exist.”
“But in 1985, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was invented. PCR is an artificial way to do something that living things do every day—replicate DNA. PCR is the rocket ship of replication, because it allows scientists to make billions of copies of a piece of DNA in a few hours.
Thread. @Sermo survey of 6,227 physicians worldwide: 85% of US physicians report #COVID19 testing takes 2-5 days or longer, while nearly half of international physicians report testing is completed within just 24 hours.
Survey @Sermo says, 91% of US physicians and 83% of international physicians say the status of #COVID19 testing is far below what is needed.
Survey @Sermo says "Physicians most request life science firms develop new rapid tests for COVID-19, followed by new drugs that offer immunity to front-line workers and accelerate efforts to test existing drugs to treat #COVID19"
Six common tick species are now involved in the transmission of Rocky Mountain spotted fever and/or other agents of the spotted fever group Rickettsiae in the United States (R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. massiliae, and R. 364D are proven human pathogens)
Gah! 72% of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (brown dog ticks) in California found to carry Rickettsia massiliae. (Beeler et al., 2011) I mean, seriously, what doctors are even aware of this let alone testing for it? ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/P…
Borrelia burgdorferi DO NOT secrete toxins or other virulence factors. Lyme disease is both proinflammatory also immunomodulatory & immunosuppressive. What causes #LymeDisease is the immune response to the bacteria, not the bacteria itself.
The difference in severity and spectrum of #LymeDisease varies among patients. The reasons for this variation include different tropisms among B.b. strains and differences in the host immune responses. 👇
The most commonly prescribed antibiotics for Lyme disease aren't that effective at killing Borrelia. Even combinations of these Abx have a hard time eradicating.
Borrelia burgdorferi, the Causative Agent of Lyme Disease, Forms Drug-Tolerant Persister Cells aac.asm.org/content/59/8/4…
@jbiolchem "One of the many fascinating features of this unique pathogen is an elaborate system for antigenic variation whereby the sequence of the surface-bound lipoprotein VlsE is continually modified through segmental gene conversion events." #LymeDisease
@jbiolchem "This perpetual changing of the guard allows the pathogen to remain one step ahead of the acquired immune response, enabling persistent infection." #LymeDisease
@PLOSPathogens "Thus, the overall signature response to a specific pathogen is dictated by the addition of the signals initially emanating from surface receptors, further modulated by the interaction of intracellular signals generated as a result of the internalization of the pathogen. "
@PLOSPathogens "Our results show that the repertoire of surface proteins involved in this response is complex and composed of several classes of receptors, including C-lectins, scavenger receptors, siglecs and Fc receptors."
Heartbroken to hear former US Senator Kay Hagan, of North Carolina, has died, following a three-year struggle with encephalitis caused by tick-borne Powassan virus. lymedisease.org/tick-borne-pow…
Powassan is a Flavivirus (related to Zika, Dengue, West Nile, and tick-borne encephalitis virus) carried by the same black-legged tick that transmits Lyme disease. Flaviviridae are a deadly family of viruses known to cause brain swelling. /2 lymedisease.org/lyme-sci-powas…
Black-legged ticks are especially dangerous as they are found in 1/2 of all U.S. counties and can transmit more than one pathogen at a time--including Powassan virus. #POWV
New microfluidic assay (mChip-Ld) detects B.b. antigens: VlsE and a proprietary synthetic 33-mer peptide (PepVF) to capture sensitivity in all disease stages, and OspC for early Lyme disease. Provides results in as little as 15 minutes. #LymeDisease
With specificity set at 95%, the sensitivity of mChip-Ld ranged between 80% (95% CI: 56% to 94%) and 85% (95% CI: 74% to 96%) for two panels of early Lyme disease, and was 100% (95% CI: 83% to 100%) for Lyme arthritis.
Jyotsna Shah, PhD, CCLD, MBA @IgenexI | High prevalence of tick-borne co-infections: Why it is important to include testing for Lyme and co-infections in patients w/ Lyme-like symptoms, and why a panel approach is necessary. @liv_lyme#LivLymeSummit
@IgenexI @liv_lyme Shah | 1° finding Babesia as co-infection, TBRF, then Bartonella. However not finding Bartonella in ticks. Lyme disease is most prevalent tick-borne infection. #LivLymeSummit
Shah | Borrelia species all over the world, not just East Coast B31. People travel. “You want a test that detects infection!” Patients don’t care which strain, simply want a diagnosis & proper treatment. #LivLymeSummit
@adribaran @QueensUCanada @QueensUGME@liv_lyme Baranchuk | There are varying degrees of heart block. Some patients may have vague symptoms: fainting, shortness of breath, chest pain. Myopericarditis is global inflammation of the heart, like @drneilspector may require heart transplant. #LivLymeSummit
Lawrence Afrin, MD | Mast cell activation disease foundations and applications in tick-borne disease management. #LivLymeSummit@liv_lyme
@liv_lyme Afrin | mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS) is different than mastocytocis. While some MCAS have a KIT mutation, "It is the activation of the mast cells, not abnormal growth, that is contributing to the excess symptoms in MCAS." #LivLymeSummit