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#TodayInHistory The Battle of Vasai concludes with the Maratha victory over the Portuguese in 1739. One of the most decisive victories of the Baji Rao era, one in which his brother Chimaji Appa played the major role along with Malhar Rao Holkar.
Battle of Vasai ensured the Portuguese had to leave the entire Konkan area, and restricted to a tiny enclave in Goa, it was one of the most decisive routes inflicted on them ever. And gave the Marathas full control over the Konkan coast.
While Baji Rao and his military exploits are fairly well known, not much is known about his equally capable brother Chimaji Appa, a great warrior in his own right, who played a major role in his campaigns. The victory at Vasai though would be his crowning glory.
Read 27 tweets
Today is the Jayanti of Chattrapathi Sambhaji, the son of Shivaji, who was tortured to death by Aurangzeb in the most brutal manner, for his refusal to convert to Islam. A hero who has not got his due really.
Quite often, growing up in the shadow of a banyan tree can be quite inhibiting, however much you grow, and you shall always look small against the banyan. In a sense that was what happened to Sambhaji, the son of Sivaji.
Growing up in the shadow of a powerful father, who was a giant of a personality, meant Sambhaji, for all his achievements would never really match up to Sivaji. Add to this own reckless attitude, meant that he was often judged rather harshly by Maratha historians.
Read 36 tweets
Remembering one of my favorite writers R.K.Narayan, on his Punya Thithi today. The man who created the wondrous Malgudi, one of the shining lights of early Indian writing in English along with Raja Rao and Mulk Raj Anand.
If not for anything R.K.Narayan would be remembered just for Malgudi. And his works like Swami And Friends, The English Teacher, The Bachelor of Arts, Financial Expert and Guide. Most of them dealing with ordinary middle class people.
Rasipuram Krishnaswamy Narayan aka R.K.Narayan, born in Chennai,but grew up in Mysore, one of the great writers of Modern India. Studying at Maharaja High School in Mysore, he was a voracious reader, who would often spend hours in the library.
Read 31 tweets
My series on Mewar-Land of the Ranas, concludes with a look at one of it's most remarkable woman Panna Dai. Our history has seen stories of some great mothers who shaped their children's character- Jijabai, Ahalyabai Holkar to name some.
But what do you say of a mother, who sacrificed her own son for the sake of a kingdom, that was Panna Dai, She sacrificed her own son, so that the future king of Mewar would live, had the agony of seeing him killed in front of her eyes.
The history of Mewar is replete with tales of sacrifice, loyalty, bravery and all that comes to the fore in the tale of Panna Dai. She was a nursemaid of Rani Karnavati, the wife of Rana Sanga, and bought up her sons Vikramaditya and Udai Singh
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Jayanti today of my hero, one of the greatest Hindu warriors ever, a man who has been an inspiration to so many warriors and revolutionaries, Maharana Pratap, the lone Rajput ruler who refused to bow to Akbar. #maharanapratapjayanti #MaharanaPratap
What do you make of a man who refused to bow before the mighty Mughal emperor Akbar, when all other Rajput rulers did? When his own brothers sided with Akbar, leaving him virtually alone? #MaharanaPratap
Of a man, who preferred to face hardships in the jungles of Aravalli, than live a life of comfort, by surrendering to Akbar. It is not without reason, that Maharana Pratap is regarded as one of the the greatest heroes of India. #maharanapratapjayanti
Read 46 tweets
Continuing my series on Mewar-Land of the Ranas, I take a look at Rana Sangha, grandson of Rana Kumbha, grandfather of Rana Pratap, one of the great Ranas, a man who defeated the Sultans in various battles before he was done in by treachery.
Kumbha was killed by his own son Udai Singh I, who however proved to be a worthless ruler. Under Udai Singh I, Mewar lost both Abu and Ajmer, and soon there was a clash for the throne between Udai Singh and Raimal, his brother.
Raimal defeated Udai Singh I in a series of battles at Jawar, Darimpur and Pangarh, forcing him to flee. Udai Singh I tried to seek the help of the Delhi Sultanate, but was struck down by lightning and died.
Read 32 tweets
Today is the Punya Thithi of Alluri Sitarama Raju, the great revolutionary hero who led an uprising against the British in the tribal regions of Andhra Pradesh, and was shot dead by them on this date in 1924. Another great hero who did not get his due.
One of the more ignored aspects of the Indian freedom struggle has been the various tribal revolts that broke out against the British rule. Tribals were prohibited from cutting trees for firewood, their traditional Podu cultivation was banned, and they were often exploited
Many protests broke out in the tribal areas of Eastern Indian, notably Jharkhand, Chattisgarh, Western Odisha, Bengal, one of the more famous one was that of Birsa Munda in Jharkhand.
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Today is Jayanti of Veer Chhatrasal, the Lion of Bundelkhand, a great warrior on par with Shivaji and Rana Pratap. who not only established an independent state in Bundelkhand, he was also a patron of fine arts, and a good writer himself. Another hero not so well known.
Bundelkhand lying between the Indo-Gangetic plain and the Vindhyas, A region known for it’s harsh climate, aridity and barren spaces, an environment that has produced some of the hardiest warriors and rulers of India.
The Chandela Rajputs who built the stunning temples at Khajuraho, Rudra Pratap Singh, who founded the princely state of Orcha, and is famous for the magnificient buildings and above all the brave Rani Laxmibai of Jhansi all from Bundelkhand.
Read 35 tweets
Today is the Punya Thithi of Baji Rao 1, one of the greatest Hindu warriors ever, the man who expanded the Maratha Empire all the way to Delhi and beyond, rated as one of the finest generals in history, and established the Hindu Pad Padshahi.
One can go on about Baji Rao's battles, his conquests and victories. But if I were to summarize his legacy, just these 2 maps would explain it all. When he took over as Peshwa, just see how the Maratha empire grew in the 20 years
Technically speaking Peshwa was equivalent to the Prime Minister in the Maratha Empire, starting out as subordinates to the Chattrapati, in later years they became the actual ruling power, starting with Balaji Vishwanath, Baji Rao's father.
Read 44 tweets
Remembering Srinivasa Ramanujan the Man who knew Infinity, one of the most brilliant mathematicians of the 20th century, one of the great Indians of the modern era, a genius par excellence, a prodigal talent on his death anniversary today.
The world of mathematics owes a great debt to India , because this is the land from which the basic theories of mathematics have originated. Aryabhatta who contributed the number-place value system and the concept of zero, as well as calculating the area of the triangle.
Bhaskara who came up the concept of the decimal system. Halayudha who provided a clear description of the Pascal’s triangle. And between 1300-1600 AD, we had the Kerala school of Mathematics and Astronomy founded by Madhava of Sangamagrama .
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Today is the Jayanti of Dheeran Chinammalai, who led a resistance to the British in the Kongu region of Tamil Nadu, another forgotten hero, and an iconic hero of the Polygar Wars on par with Pazhassi Raja, Veerapandya Kattabomman, Uyyalavada Narasimha Reddy.
While 1857 is often regarded as the first large scale revolt against British rule, there were many localized revolts that broke out. And one of them was the Polygar Wars down South between March 1799 to July 1805.
This was one of the bloodiest revolts ever faced by the British, fought primarily in Tamil Nadu, the Malabar region. And contrary to what most historians claim, the British did not have an easy run, the Polygar Wars were the most serious challenge to their hegemony.
Read 31 tweets
Today is the Punya Thithi of Mokshagundam Visweswarayya, One of the builders of modern India, an engineering genius, and one of the greatest Indians of modern era. founder of the modern Mysore State, in whose honor Engineers Day is celebrated.
Mokshagundam Visweswarayya, founder of the modern Mysore State. Every where you go in that region, you can find his legacy, be it the mighty Krishna Raja Sagar Dam or institutions like State Bank of Mysore or the Bhadravati Steel Factory.
Vishwesarayya was born in Mudenahalli, now located in Chikballapur district on Sept 15,1861 to Srinivasa Sastry and Venkachamma. His father was a well known Sanskrit scholar, from whom he learnt to respect the culture and traditions of Bharat.
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Today is the Punya Thithi of Bankim Chandra Chatterjee the man who composed Vande Mataram, one of the greatest Indian writers of the modern era, noted for his strong female characters, and inspired the Bengali Renaissance.
,Bankim Chandra was born in a small village near Naihati , in the North Paraganas region, his father Yadav Chandra Chattopadhyaya would later become Dy Collector of Midnapore, while one of his brother Sanjib Chandra was also an equally well known novelist.
Bankim graduated from Kolkata's Presidency College in 1858, along with Jadunath Bose, he was one of the first graduates, later got a Law degree. He joined Govt service and retired in 1891, and his tenure was filled with recurring conflicts with the British,
Read 26 tweets
Today is the Punya Thithi of Balaji Viswanath, father of the legendary Baji Rao, who began the Peshwa era in Maratha history, played a crucial role in the consolidation of Maratha empire. Often called the second founder of the Maratha state.
Balaji Vishwanath was the one who made the Peshwa all powerful, till then more a Prime Minister, he was the one who made it the main power center, As well as ensuring the hold of the Chitpavan Brahmins over the position, primarily from Konkan.
Balaji Vishwanath had to deal with the threat to the Maratha Empire on 2 fronts, one was the deadly internal conflict between Tarabai and Shahu, and another the continous assault by Aurangzeb. It was a crucial period, where the Empire was facing attack on both ends.
Read 29 tweets
Today is the Jayanti of K.S.Thimayya, nicknamed as Timmy, served as Chief of Army Staff from 1957-61 in the years leading up to the war with China. He was also the first to point out the threat from China to Nehru, that was predictably ignored. Legend in military circles.
The only Indian to command an infantry brigade during World War II, and dealt with the repatriation of POWs as head of an UN after the Korean War.Known for his quick wit, fiery temper, a no nonsense attitude, and an independent stance, Thimayya was a legend.
Belonging to the same Kodendera clan of Cariappa, he was born in Madikeri, into a well to do family of coffee planters on March 30, 1906. His mother Sitamma,was well educated and a social worker, while his father Subbayya was another of the well known coffee plantation owners.
Read 31 tweets
Today is the Punya Thithi of Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi, noted journalist, freedom fighter, mentor to revolutionaries like Chandra Shekhar Azad, associate of Bhagat Singh, killed on this date by a mob in Kanpur in 1931, during communal riots.
Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi ironically died just 3 days after the hanging of Bhagat Singh, when a protest rally against the execution in Kanpur, turned into an ugly communal riot, and he was killed while trying to contain the riots.
Vidyarthi was the founder editor of the Hindi language newspaper Pratap in Kanpur, also translated Victor Hugo's novel 93 into Hindi. Was a constant source of encouragement for the revolutionaries, and took the British head on through his writings.
Read 24 tweets
Belated tribute to Ram Manohar Lohia, whose Jayanti it was yesterday. often called the stormy petrel of Indian politics. If there was one word to describe Lohia, maverick would be the right answer. A fascinating, multi layered personality.
There was much to Ram Manohar Lohia, a devout Gandhian, who went underground during the Quit India movement, a maverick socialist who felt that both Marxism and Capitalism were not suited for India, fought in Goa against Portuguese, and Nehru's strongest opponents,
It would not be appropriate to classify Lohia in the Western framework of Left and Right, he would not have fit in either. While a socialist in economic policies, he was also very religious. Was against casteism, stood for women's equality and individualism,
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#LestWeForget On this date in 1931, #BhagatSingh , #Rajguru and #Sukhdev were hanged to death. 3 young men who gave their lives for our freedom. This thread is more on the trial and execution of #BhagatSingh, the circumstances leading up to it.
Bhagat Singh, a man who was an icon of sorts in the revolutionary spectrum of India’s freedom movement. A man who smilingly went to the gallows, whose only purpose in throwing the bomb was to make the deaf hear.
Contrary to popular perception, Bhagat Singh was not really a believer in revolutionary violence. For him violence was more to be used as a last resort, he believed more in mass awakening, educating the people. He felt that mere violence per se wud not serve any purpose.
Read 44 tweets
Today is the Jayanti of Master Da Surya Sen, one of the greatest revolutionary leaders, mastermind behind the Chittagong Raid, an inspiration to many other revolutionaries, tortured and executed by British in the most brutal manner.
Masterda Surya Sen, shook the British like none else before. He was the one who led one of the largest ever raids on the British at Chittagong, attacking their armory, cantonment, the exclusive Europeans only club there and the telegraph office there.
Master Da Surya Sen who shook the British so much in Bengal, was born in a small village called Noapara, near Chittagong( now in Bangladesh) in 1894. His father, Ramniranjan Sen was a teacher himself.
Read 39 tweets
Today is the Jayanti of Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon, close associate of Netaji, one of the 3 INA Men in that famous Red Fort Trial, led the INA campaign in South East Asia, and was with INA since it's formation.
Lal Qile se aaee awaaz,
Sehgal Dhillon Shahnawaz
Teenon ki ho Umar Daraaz
The words echoed outside the Red Fort , as the 3 men Capt Shah Nawaz Khan, Col Prem Sehgal and Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon were being tried on charges of waging war against the king.
Captain Shah Nawaz Khan– A captain in the Indian Army, captured by the Japanese after the fall of Singapore during World War II in 1942. He was profoundly influenced by Netaji Subash Chandra Bose, to join the Indian National Army, wud later join Congress after 1947, be an MP.
Read 38 tweets
Today is the Punya Thithi of Nana Fadnavis, the Maratha Chanakya. t. As Prime Minister of the Maratha confederacy, he bought it back to the days of glory after the humiliating rout at Panipat. One of the most famous residents of Wai.
Nana Phadnavis,the secretary to Sadashiv Rao Bhau, one of the few who survived the carnage at Panipat. A man who defeated the British twice with his intelligence and diplomacy, prompting them to call him the Maratha Machiavelli.
This remarkable genius was born as Balaji Janardhan Bhanu in Satara district, Nana was his nickname. His grandfather Balaji Bhanu had migrated from the seaside town of Shrivardhan, in the Konkan region, and was a close friend of the first Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath Bhat.
Read 44 tweets
#LestWeForget Today is the Punyathithi of Chattrapathi Sambhaji, the son of Shivaji, the date on which he was murdered by Aurangzeb after being tortured in the most brutal manner, for his refusal to convert to Islam. A hero who has not got his due really.
Quite often, growing up in the shadow of a banyan tree can be quite inhibiting, however much you grow, and you shall always look small against the banyan. In a sense that was what happened to Sambhaji, the son of Sivaji.
Growing up in the shadow of a powerful father, who was a giant of a personality, meant Sambhaji, for all his achievements would never really match up to Sivaji. Add to this own reckless attitude, meant that he was often judged rather harshly by Maratha historians.
Read 36 tweets
Today is the birth anniversary of J.N.Tata, one of the founders of Modern India. Tata Steel, IISC, Jamshedpur some of his major contributions to India.Born in the town of Navsari in Gujarat, on this date in 1839, Jamsetji's father was a small time business man himself.
Jamsetiji's father relocated to Bombay, to pursue business opportunities there, and did well, starting off as a small time trader.A graduate of Elphinstone College, Jamsetji was quite a bright student, and joined his father's trading firm in 1858.
The year 1858 when J.N.Tata stepped into business was significant, the Brits had crushed the 1857 revolt, and were in full control.J.N.Tata was sent by his father to Hong Kong to expand the business interests there, and he was there for 4 years.
Read 21 tweets
Remembering the great scientist C.V.Raman on #NationalScienceDay2019 . It is the date to celebrate his discovery of the now famous Raman Effect in spectroscopy for which he became the first Asian to win the Nobel in Physics, one of the major breakthroughs ever.
When C V Raman was being given the Nobel Prize, he looked around and realized that he was the only dark skinned person in a sea of white faces. and that he was sitting under the Union Jack. The fact that India did not even have her own flag, made him break down.
C.V. Raman was the first to recognize and demonstrate that the energy of photon can undergo partial transformation within matter. I still recall vividly the deep impression that this discovery made on all of us- Albert Einstein
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