1/The #AstraZeneca vaccine is a version of an adenovirus (common cold virus) that delivers instructions to our cells to make the Spike protein of the coronavirus. That way our immune system is "trained" so when it encounters #SARSCoV2, it can mount an efficient response🧵
2/#SARSCoV2 is covered w/Spike proteins that help the virus grab human cells. To make the vaccine, researchers first isolated the gene that is responsible for making the Spike protein. They 'snipped' it from the rest of the genetic material of the coronavirus.
3/They then needed a delivery vehicle to get the Spike gene into our cells. So they took an adenovirus that normally infects chimpanzees, and genetically altered it so it can no longer replicate or cause disease. They then added the Spike gene to the adenovirus vector.
4/When the adenovirus and its Spike gene cargo get inside of our cells, our cellular machinery takes the Spike gene, which is in DNA format, and "transcribes" it into Spike RNA, which is then "translated" into Spike proteins.
5/The Spike protein is just a piece of the full coronavirus so it doesn't cause disease either. It just trains our immune system to quickly recognize that part of the virus. That way when we are infected with #SARSCoV2, we can mount an effective immune response against it.

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More from @AliNouriPhD

20 Nov
1. CDC: Postponing travel & staying home is the best way to protect yourself and others, especially if those you're visiting are at increased risk of getting very sick from COVID-19, like older adults & those with medical conditions. But there are plenty of other risks too🧵
2. Other factors that make your visit especially high risk are if cases in your community or the ones you're visiting are high. You can check that in CDC’s COVID Data Tracker here: bit.ly/392Dx0A. Many areas also have travel restrictions: bit.ly/3lQsUS1
3. You can also find out if hospitals in your community or your destination are overwhelmed with COVID-19 patients. That could make it a challenge to get the help you or others may need if you get sick. You can get that info by checking state & local public health dep. websites.
Read 7 tweets
11 Nov
📍CDC Guidance Update: Masks don't just reduce the amount of virus we release🗣️, masks also reduce the amount of virus we inhale😷. Here's a thread on some published🔬studies on the effectiveness of masks in cutting down #SARSCoV2 transmission🧵 Image
1. In a study of 124 Beijing households with confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection, mask use by the index patient and family contacts BEFORE the index patient developed symptoms reduced secondary transmission within the households by 79%.
2. Two hair stylists who were COVID-19 positive spent at least 15 min with 139 clients. 67 clients who agreed to be tested were all negative and none of the other clients are known to be infected. Everyone was wearing masks 😷.
Report: bit.ly/2ZrjGD0 Image
Read 7 tweets
5 Nov
Does #SARSCoV2 increase risk of🧠Parkinson’s Disease (PD)? Recent reports documented PD onset following severe #COVID19 in a 35, 45, & 58 year old. They developed severe motor symptoms; brain imaging revealed reduced function of dopamine system, akin to PD🧵
2. Possible mechanisms include: (a) blood clots and other circulatory problems that occur in some COVID patients could reduce blood flow to brain and to dopamine system or (b) inflammation caused by severe COVID-19 could trigger neuroinflammation and demise of dopamine neurons.
3. Consistent with this, another study looked at brains of COVID19 patients post-mortem and found an inflammatory response response in their brains—the activation of microglia & cytotoxic T cells—which are neuropathological signs that are also associated with Parkison's Disease.
Read 5 tweets
2 Nov
#SARSCoV2 from transmission🗣️to disease🤒:

1. Spike protein on the virus binds the ACE2 receptor on human cells. The Virus RNA is released into the cell, where it is translated into proteins that assemble and make-up new virus particles that are then sent back out of the cell🧵
2. #SARSCoV2 comes out of the respiratory tract🗣️on small aerosols that stay airborne and are then inhaled; on bigger respiratory droplets💧that splash into others' nose/mouth/eyes or they land on surfaces and get picked up by touch; the virus is also excreted through human waste
3. #COVID affects many of the body's systems—upper and lower respiratory tract 🫁; heart🫀, where it can cause arrhythmias & other problems; digestive problems like nausea, pain, vomiting; neurological🧠problems where people suffer cognitive challenges even after recovery & more.
Read 5 tweets
5 Oct
Science magazine: We must shift our thinking and focus on Airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2.

Inhalation is a major route. Viruses in large droplets fall to the ground in seconds within 2 m. Viruses in aerosols remain suspended for hours, like smoke, and are inhaled 1/4
Aerosols are highly concentrated near an infected person, but they can also travel more than 2 m and accumulate in poorly ventilated indoor air, leading to superspreading events. Even without symptoms thousands of virus-laden aerosols are released by breathing and talking 2/4
Thus, it's more likely to inhale aerosols than be sprayed by droplets so we must focus on airborne transmission. In addition to masks, distancing, hygiene, we need guidance to move activities outdoors, improve indoor air w/ventilation & filtration & protect high-risk workers 3/4
Read 4 tweets
29 Sep
NIH STUDY: 3 interventions had the most impact on COVID infections: closing schools, closing bars, wearing masks.

Here's Maryland where trajectory of case rate (green) hospitalizations (blue) and death (black) all change with a few days of lag time after closures🧵 1/n
Researchers also looked at school closure, alone. Here's Georgia where school closure occurred prior to closing bars and appears to cut the rate of infections (green) in half, beginning 8-14 days post-closure. Rates of hospitalizations (blue) & death (black) also went down (2/n)
Mask mandates also led to a drop in the rate of infections (green); drops in the rates of hospitalizations (blue); and deaths (black) "Mandating masks is to drop the slopes about 2 fold". Here's New Jersey (3/n)
Read 5 tweets

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