This is what we have been waiting for! A study out of NIH shows heterologous COVID-19 booster vaccinations of Moderna, Pfizer, and Johnson & Johnson induce strong humoral immune responses (up to a 76X increase in nAbs) with acceptable reactogenicity profiles. Let’s discuss. 🧵
This particular study involved 458 participants. They were divided into nine groups with roughly around 50 participants in each group. Those who initially got Moderna’s vaccine got either another dose of Moderna, a dose of Pfizer, or a dose of Johnson & Johnson as a booster four
to six months after their primary immunization. Those who got Pfizer’s vaccine got either another dose of Pfizer or a dose of Moderna or a J&J booster. And those who received one dose of J&J initially either got another dose of J&J or a Moderna or Pfizer booster dose.
Still with me? Okay, good. Let’s move on. Researchers then measured antibody levels in all participants two weeks and four weeks after their booster dose. Those who received Moderna’s vaccine for their original dose and Moderna again for their booster appeared to have had the
strongest immune response, followed by those who got Pfizer boosted by Moderna and then Moderna boosted by Pfizer. Important Note: the increase in immune response with the mRNA vaccines was probably too small to really make a difference in protection in most groups. Moving on.
The most significant finding perhaps from this study is that those participants who initially received J&J’s vaccine seem to have gotten the best response if they received Pfizer or Moderna as their booster. This doesn’t come off as super surprising when we consider the robust
immune responses we have seen from mixing studies with AstraZeneca/mRNA. So, to break down the results in an easy to read format:
Reactogenicity was similar to that reported for the primary series. Injection site pain, malaise, headache, and myalgia occurred in more than half the participants but these were well-tolerated and the heterologous boosters were found to be safe. WIN-WIN. 💯
There are a couple caveats to this study I feel it is important to mention. Firstly, researchers tested full doses of all the vaccines- not the half-dose that Moderna is seeking authorization for in its booster. What is important to know is that even a half-dose of Moderna’s
vaccine has been shown to be extremely effective, so far as to increase antibodies against the Delta variant by 42-fold. That’s JUST the half-dose. Secondly, researchers measured antibody levels two and four weeks after the booster. So there's a chance antibody levels from a
J&J booster could continue to rise with more time as we have clearly seen in other studies (see my previous threads or just ask me to repost them). Researchers here are assuming that higher antibody levels translate into more protection.
While this is potentially true, we KNOW other factors play a role, such as responses by other parts of the immune system. Hello? Cell-mediated immunity! Don’t forget those T-cells- they eventually get on their way and help IMMENSELY! So, what you need to know from this here study
data is that homologous and heterologous booster vaccinations were well-tolerated and highly immunogenic in adults who completed a primary COVID-19 vaccine regimen at least 12 weeks earlier. This data will be reviewed by advisers to the FDA between today and tomorrow as part of a
meeting to consider requests from both Moderna and J&J to authorize booster doses of their vaccines. You can find this study here:… AND now VRBPAC’s presentation slides on heterologous boosters here:…

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More from @sailorrooscout

15 Oct
Just HOW effective are the COVID-19 vaccines at protecting you from severe illness and hospitalization even in the face of Delta?

BEFORE Delta variant increase: 95% effective

DURING Delta variant increase: 92% effective


Let’s discuss. 🧵
Real-world data out of King County, WA (which includes Seattle) confirms vaccinated individuals are significantly better protected from illness, hospitalization, AND death due to COVID-19 compared to unvaccinated individuals, even as the Delta variant surges through the state.
Over the PAST 30 days, unvaccinated individuals were:
•9X more likely to test positive for COVID-19 (65% of cases)
•48X more likely to be hospitalized for COVID-19 (77% of hospitalizations)
•69X more likely to die of COVID-19 related illness (74% of deaths) ImageImageImageImage
Read 14 tweets
13 Oct
After 548 days of restrictions to limit the spread of COVID-19, Denmark's high vaccination rate has enabled the country to become one of the first European Union nations to lift ALL domestic health measures. More than 85% of the eligible Danish population is fully vaccinated. 🧵
The return to normality has been gradual, but as of October 8th, the digital pass- proof of having been vaccinated- is no longer required when entering nightclubs, making it the LAST virus safeguard to fall. The Danish government NO LONGER considers COVID-19
a socially critical disease. “Denmark is lifting the restrictions because the vaccine rollout has been very successful," said Jens Lundgren, Professor of Viral Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital. “As a consequence, we have the pandemic under control in this country and can
Read 14 tweets
12 Oct
An analysis of ~250,000 in Canada found two doses of any of the three COVID-19 vaccines (Moderna, Pfizer, AstraZeneca) led to strong protection from infection, hospitalization, AND death -even against Delta- REGARDLESS of the vaccination combination and showed NO signs of waning.
Preliminary data from researchers at the British Columbia Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC) and the Quebec National Institute of Public Health (INSPQ) shows the decision to vaccinate more Canadians sooner by delaying second shots by up to four months saved lives.
The researchers excluded long-term care residents from the data, who are generally at increased risk of hospitalization and death from COVID-19, in order to get a better sense of vaccine effectiveness in the general population. Needless to say the results were exceptional.
Read 14 tweets
10 Oct
Yes, the vaccines ARE effective against the Delta variant. Yes, you will want both doses for maximum protection. Yes, they’re effective against preventing symptomatic infection, severe disease, AND hospitalization. Several studies have proven this now. Stop the misinformation.
Also, yes, this does include Johnson & Johnson. Why are variants unlikely to FULLY evade vaccine-induced immunity?
•Vaccines are polyclonal (Abs)
•CD8+ T-cells covering 52 epitopes across the spike protein
•CD4+ T-cells covering 23 epitopes across the spike protein
Read 5 tweets
8 Oct
“Breakthrough” infections DO NOT mean vaccines don’t work. Remember, they are preventives, NOT cures. One can still contract COVID once vaccinated. As long as that vaccine is preventing you from facing severe disease and worse, it IS working and doing what it was designed to do.
Regarding the concerns about waning immunity. Please remember, this is likely referring to infection. NOT effectiveness against symptomatic infection, NOT effectiveness against severe illness. While neutralizing antibodies decrease over time (as they ARE supposed to) protective
immunity provided by memory B-cells and T-cells is STILL present. Remember: Immunological memory consists of antibodies, memory B-cells, memory CD8+ T-cells, and memory CD4+ T-cells. These responses give us enduring protection even against newly emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.
Read 14 tweets
7 Oct
“The vaccines don’t work- look at Singapore.” Alright, let’s do it.

Cases are at record highs due to Delta, however, OVER 98% of Singapore’s vaccinated cases are MILD or have NO symptoms. In addition, the nation has had VERY FEW deaths despite a surge in cases.

I’m not done.🧵
As of Tuesday, 83% of Singapore’s population is considered to be fully vaccinated. TO NOTE: Singapore recently transitioned away from a Zero COVID approach. The rise in cases upon attempting to reopen was to be expected as part of attempting to “live” with the virus and reopen.
According to their MOH, over the last 28 days, of the 43,610 infected individuals, 98.3% are MILD or have NO symptoms, 1.4% required oxygen supplementation, 0.1% required ICU care, and 0.2% had died.….
Read 13 tweets

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