After many months of planning and hard work by so many (incl. @hmkyale @Dianaberrent @wade_schulz @CharleszYaleMed @Aaronmring @DaisySMassey @JeffGehlhausen), today, we are launching our research study to understand how vaccination may help improve #longcovid. 🧵 (1/n)

Pls RT🙏🏼
This study will examine how vaccines might improve the symptoms of #LongCovid. We are recruiting people with long covid (PCR+, Ab+, T-test+, or COVID diagnosed by medical doctor) who live in Connecticut, >18 years old, and have not received vaccines yet but are planning to. (2/n)
To participate in this study, you will be asked to complete 4 online surveys and provide blood and saliva 3 times at sites in New Haven Connecticut. If you are interested in participating, please email (3/n)
The premise of this work is discussed here. We believe #longCovid can be caused by either persistent viral reservoir or autoimmunity. Vax-induced antibodies can eliminate the viral reservoir, and/or vax can reprogram autoreactive lymphocytes. (4/n)…
This whole thing got started because of patient-led groups like @Survivor_Corps reporting on symptom improvement in a subset of long haulers, and informative #scicomm by @DanielGriffinMD on #TWiV (5/n)

The person who really made this happen is @hmkyale. His patient-centered vision and ability to pull all the key people into this collaboration is inspiring. @DaisySMassey did the bulk of heavy lifting. @wade_schulz and @Yale_LabMed worked their magic in logistics. (6/n)
We will monitor immune profiles (cell types, phenotypes, cytokines, antibodies, T cells by @AdaptiveBiotech & autoantibodies by REAP @Aaronmring) before and after the vax and correlating the immune changes to symptom changes. We will measure mucosal immunity via saliva. (7/n)
The awesome members of my lab are eager and ready to get started, including @JeffGehlhausen @Carolinacas @sneakyvirus1 @peowenlu @tianyangmao @JulioJ_C @S_Tabachnikova @MelissaLV14 💪🏼 (8/n)
This study is happening in parallel with another #Longcovid immune profiling study that began this week with the @PutrinoLab at @IcahnMountSinai who has been a leading voice, dedicated to the treatment and rehabilitation of #longhaulers from the beginning. (9/n)
Ultimately, our hope is to learn about the underlying disease pathogenesis, sex differences in immunity and vaccine responses. Our dream is to come up with rational treatment approaches for #longCOVID and other post-acute viral syndromes #MECFS. Please spread the word 🙏🏼 (End)

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More from @VirusesImmunity

10 Apr
New study by @MHitchingsEpi et al shows that an inactivated vaccine CoronaVac is effective against COVID-19 in a setting of epidemic P.1 variant transmission in Brazil 🇧🇷. A thread. (1/n)…
The authors conducted a matched test-negative case-control study to estimate the effectiveness of an
inactivated vaccine, CoronaVac, in healthcare workers in Manaus, where P.1 accounted for ~75% of the circulating virus.(2/n)
Vaccination with at least one dose was associated with an adjusted vaccine effectiveness of 49.6% (95% CI, 11.3 - 71.4) against symptomatic SARSCoV-2 infection >14 days after receiving the first dose. (3/n)
Read 8 tweets
9 Apr
An important thread from @PutrinoLab about why we should not be excluding PCR/Ab negative #LongCovid from analysis. So proud of @PutrinoLab for refusing to succumb to reviewers’ demand -which would have resulted in exclusion of data from underrepresented minorities. (1/)
I wish to highlight the importance of their study in this short thread and why I think it should be published ASAP. 84 people with long covid were examined for various symptoms in a retrospective cross-sectional observational study.(2/)…
First, look at the demographic data of those with #LongCovid. Compared to acute severe COVID (in older adults, male>female), long haulers appear more skewed towards women of younger age. (3/)
Read 7 tweets
26 Mar
How does COVID reinfection happen?

Our deep dive into the immune profiles during the 1st and 2nd infections. A case study.

Work led by @sneakyvirus1 @AndersonBrito_ Paul Turbin @peowenlu @BenIsraelow and Marwan Azar (1/)…
To address this question, we first looked at other confirmed cases of COVID reinfection. The number of such cases is limited due to the requirement for viral genome sequences in both infections. (2/)
We noted that very little information is available regarding the immune responses that developed during the first infection that can explain why someone would get reinfected. (3/)
Read 14 tweets
14 Mar
Are vaccines harmful or helpful for #longcovid?

@gushamilton and team asked through observational study of COVID patients post discharge - 82% with long lasting symptoms (>8 months). Symptoms compared 1 month post vaccination to the unvaccinated.🧵 (1/)…
When compared to matched unvaccinated participants (n=22), those who had receive a vaccine (n=44) had no worsening of symptoms. This is reassuring for people with long covid thinking about getting a vaccine. (2/)
In fact, a small overall improvement in Long Covid symptoms, with a decrease in worsening symptoms (5.6% vaccinated vs 14.2% unvaccinated) and increase in symptom resolution (23.2% vaccinated vs 15.4% unvaccinated)(p=0.035) was reported. This is encouraging 👍🏼 (3/)
Read 6 tweets
28 Feb
This video shows that vaccines have helped some people with #longCOVID with their symptoms. While the numbers are still small in some groups, there are encouraging signs (also via @DanielGriffinMD).
I present my hypothesis on how vaccines might improve #LongCovid 🧵 (1/)
Back when I first learned about #longcovid in June 2020, I proposed 3 possible mechanisms.
1) Persisten viral reservoir
2) Viral fragments/remnants (RNA, protein) 'viral ghost’ driving inflammation
3) Autoimmune response induced by the infection (2/)…
Since then, many studies have provided support for all of these. Viral reservoirs are found in tissues, viral RNA is found in non-respiratory tissues ⬆️ inflammation (@virusninja) 👇🏽, and diverse autoantibodies found in COVID patients (@Aaronmring). (3/)…
Read 10 tweets
7 Feb
How well do various vaccines reduce severe COVID disease & death? Awesome @YaleMed students, @dariusdariusdar, @ChaneyKalinich, @Larson_HaleighT & Caroline Valdez put together summary tables from vaccine trials. Remarkable ability of vaccines to ⬇️ severe/lethal COVID! 🧵(1/n)
The phase 3 Pfizer BioNTech two-shot mRNA vaccine trial data. All the tables here and below indicate the # COVID-related death in the vaccinated as the right-most column (which is ZERO). (2/n)…
The phase 3 Moderna two-shot mRNA vaccine COVE trial. (3/n)…
Read 9 tweets

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